0
votes
0answers
14 views

How did the PIE root 'dek-' evolve into the Greek 'dokein' to appear, seem, think' ?

dek- To take, accept. ... [2.] b. dogma, dogmatic; chionodoxa, Docetism, doxology, heterodox, orthodox, paradox, from Greek dokein, to appear, seem, think (< "to cause to accept or be ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

How did the PIE root *per- (forward, through) evolve into 'para-', to mean 'contrary to'?

[Etymonline :] ... before vowels, par-, word-forming element meaning "alongside, beyond; altered; contrary; irregular, abnormal," from Greek para- from para (prep.) "beside, near, issuing from, ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

What does the prefix 'ab-' mean in the Latin verb 'abundare' ?

abound (v.) early 14c., from Old French abonder "to abound, be abundant, come together in great numbers" (12c.), from Latin abundare "overflow, run over," from Latin ab- "off" (see ab-) + ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

PIE root ked- : 'To go, yield'

ked- = To go, yield. How does 'to go' relate to 'to yield'? Both verbs appear to differ in meaning. Moreover, what precisely does 'to go' mean here? Is this the right diction? I'm confused, ...
0
votes
2answers
26 views

The PIE root *per- “forward, through” : How did it evolve to mean 'private' ?

[Etymonline :] ... privus "one's own, individual," from PIE *prei-wo-, from PIE *prai-, *prei-, from root *per- (1) "forward, through" (see per). ... [AHI :] per1 ... ... from Latin prīvus, ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

How did the Latin ''putare' evolve into all these diferent meanings?

2. [Etymonline:] ... putare   [=]   "reckon, clear up, trim, prune, settle" (see pave) 3. [Notre Dame:] 4. think, believe, suppose, hold; 5. reckon, estimate, value; 6. clear up, ...
4
votes
0answers
52 views

Are there any words that have merged in pronunciation and spelling and then separated again?

Are there any words that started off different, merged in pronunciation and spelling at some point and then separated again? E.g. Two hypothetical words in Old English OX and OY are neither ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Irregular Fortition(경음화, 된소리 되기) in Modern Korean

I'm asking this question as a non-linguist native Korean speaker. I will use the word "fortition" as a translation of 경음화 or 된소리 되기. The Standard Korean (표준어) does define some complicated rules for ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

What is the protocol to determine sample size in phonetic research?

I am doing a simple graduate-student research project with a colleague in the CompSci Department. We want to develop a program that automatically distinguishes a man's voice from a woman's. We ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Parsing: what types of text are the easiest to parse for human?

In natural language generators it is common to try to create clear text. What are the prerequisits for text to being "clear"? What patterns should be used to make human not struggle on reading? Some ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Etymology of some personal pronouns in PIE

In PIE we have the following traditionally reconstructed personal pronouns: u̯oe̯ "you two" and u̯ei "we" (inclusive). Brengtson claims that the original forms should be tu̯oe̯ and tu̯ei ...
-1
votes
0answers
14 views

Tree diagram for a sentence [on hold]

I am looking for the tree diagram of the sentence: I need your answer by tomorrow. We are suposed to draw all nudes and add e.g. DP-D´-D the I am not sure how to do it so I kindly ask for your ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Pros and cons of the different annotation schemes that encode semantic information [on hold]

Over the years, a number of annotation schemes that encode semantic information have been developed and used to produce data sets for training machine learning algorithms. What are the pros and cons ...
0
votes
0answers
68 views

Is Austronesian the closest relative to PIE?

Austronesian is usually regarded as a separate family, not related to any other. It is never groupped into Eurasiatic or Nostratic. Yet it seems to me that it may be related to PIE. I wonder whether ...
-1
votes
0answers
12 views

Correct term of saying graphological deviation in stylistics analysis? [on hold]

I've been reading a book about stylistic linguistics, and come across the term graphological deviation - which I understand clearly, mind you. However, "graphological" is built from the word ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

what does English “sound like” to people who can't speak it? [on hold]

Italian sounds rhythmic and emphatic, German sounds harsh, so what, subjectively, does English sound like to non-speakers? The nearest I have to answering this question is a Maigret novel where he ...
0
votes
3answers
61 views

Is semantics language-independent? [on hold]

If a word meant for a real world object , and the meaning defines that object then is that meaning a language-dependent one ? If so how can we represent it and processes it ?
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Origins of Turkic language family? Alternatives to Altaic?

I was just reading about various Altaic language grouping hypotheses on wikipedia. According the article, evidence for an Altaic language family that would include Turkic, Uralic, Mongolian, Tungusic, ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Are there instances in which an entire sentence constitutes a focus--new information?

Are there instances in which an entire sentence constitutes a focus--new information? Consider the following scenario: Three people are talking together about a mutual friend who is in the ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

handling ambiguity in parses

Given a sentence from http://home.uchicago.edu/~bartels/papers/Bartels-Johnson-2015-Cognition.pdf: We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two ...
-1
votes
0answers
15 views

Referential and representation theories [closed]

What are the similarities and differences between referential and representation theories? Please answer the question and give some sources of info! Thanks!
0
votes
0answers
20 views

How to identify mentions in a text?

I am looking for rule-based methods or any other methods to identify all mentions in a text. I have found several libraries that give coreferences but no exact options for only mentions. What I want ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

What electronic resources are available that categorize nouns by countability?

Most electronic dictionaries I've found only categorize words into noun / verb / adjective / adverb / etc. (such as WordNet). They don't further refine parts of speech into subcategories like ...
0
votes
2answers
61 views

Is there a comprehensive list of all (or many) phonological rules (specifically allophonic) of the English language available anywhere online?

It would be very helpful to have for a programming project I'm working on involving grapheme-to-phoneme translation. I've been able to find many rules for phonemes but not too many for allophones.
0
votes
2answers
56 views

Any solid textbook recommendations to begin studying linguistics?

I need an introductory book that covers the cutting-edge research of the linguistics and most of its big branches. It must be written in a textbook format. The answerer must be well-versed in ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Has the way cursive capital “B”s been written changed since the 1950s?

Hopefully the Linguistics Stack Exchange is the best place to ask my question. The opening credits of a cartoon called Gerald Mc Boing Boing uses cursive. To me, it looks like lowercase "b"s are used ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

What is the go-to reference for a distinction between language attitudes and language use?

The areas of study for language attitudes/language regard/language ideology have developed with a somewhat intuitive contrast to studies of language use. Is there a good reference that explains where ...
1
vote
3answers
52 views

Limitations on constructed languages for native speakers to be

Let's say I constructed a language L and taught it to a thousand people. In a few years, their level of proficiency is perfect. I ask them to only speak L from now on and send them to an island where ...
5
votes
4answers
122 views

Does majority of linguists accept universal grammar?

I was trying to educate myself on "big picture" in theoretical linguistics, and started with often mentioned universal grammar, but found online resources very confusing. According to Wikipedia, ...
4
votes
2answers
48 views

Extracting Rare Words From A Corpus

This question might be too general, or opinion-based, but I was looking for advice on how to extract rare words from a very large corpus. The rare words wouldn't necessarily be consistent from ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

How do concepts folk linguistics and language ideology relate to each other?

I'm looking to understand the relationships between two areas of study, folk linguistics (as in Niedzielski & Preston, 2003) and language ideology (as in e.g. Woolard & Schieffelin, 1994 or ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

How do you learn how to pronounce names?

I want to learn to pronounce names without looking like an idiot. This includes having the ability to look at a name and discern its nationality, or looking at the pronunciation of a word (like as ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Attached articles, are they clitics or endings?

If we take a clitic as a part of word that is attached after the ending and attached to the word depending on the word order (examples include -'s in English and -que in Latin), what would be definite ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

What language/script is this graffiti? [on hold]

What language/script is this graffiti written in? Graffiti
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Which English phonemes are the easiest to distinguish from each other?

I work as a literacy tutor in a preschool and part of my job is to help students develop phonological awareness by teaching them how to identify rhymes and alliteration. To make it as easy as possible ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Why are two 'com-' prefixes in 'concomitant'?

[ Etymonline for 'concomitant (adj.)' ] ... from com- "with, together" (see com-) + comitari "join as a companion," from comes (genitive comitis) "companion" (see count (n.)). [ Etymonline for ...
-1
votes
1answer
55 views

representing a sentence in integers ( hopefully retaining semantic value )

I've been trying to convert natural language strings into integers for use in a long short-term neural-network. I tried converting to binary, using a bag-of-words, and an associative-array with each ...
2
votes
2answers
399 views

Why is the number 7 often used in Twitter usernames of Arabic speakers? [duplicate]

I noticed this trend in some data I'm working with and am searching for an explanation.
-1
votes
0answers
36 views

How to search for words or word roots and definitions phonetically when the language is unknown?

I am searching for a particular word (in this case nahz or naaz) that may be of an ancient root or dialect of a Semitic language. Is there any methodology that helps to isolate the definition(s) or ...
0
votes
2answers
49 views

What are the differences between phonology, phonetics, and prosody?

I already read this but it omits prosody. The inclusion of prosody confuses me and beclouds the other two terms (again). Please explain as though I were 10 years old. [Source:] Phonetics is the ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Ek gaan or Ek sal [closed]

I know 'Ek sal' means I will. Does Ek gaan mean I will too? Ek gaan dit beslis nie so aanvaar nie en ek is besig om regshulp in te win.
3
votes
2answers
72 views

Evolution of Definite Articles in Indo-European Languages [duplicate]

I am a complete layman in linguistics, so the question I have probably has no scholarly merit whatsoever. My question concerns the definite articles in Indo-European languages. Almost all ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

Is Chechen language close to Chinese?

If the both originate from Proto-Sino-Caucasian, then Chechen language should be close to Chinese. Is there any indication for this?
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Special Characters and Uppercase Frequency?

Is there any way to have a good heuristic study on the frequency of special characters and uppercase ? Would studying a freely available corpus (around 15m words) generates a good estimation? Edit: ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Biggest freely available English corpus?

Any help on finding the biggest freely available English corpus that can be used on research? So far I have found OANC with 15 M words.
2
votes
1answer
76 views

The phonetic interaction between the F and the T in “often”

In the word often, the labiodental non-sibilant fricative f precedes the alveolar stop t, which is then followed by en. The Oxford Dictionaries Online offers two accepted pronunciations: /ˈɒf(ə)n/ ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

How different are Yapese and Palauan?

I have been told by both Yapese and Palauans that their languages are "not related at all". Looking it up, I see that they belong to different sub-groups of Malayo-Polynesian (Yapese to Oceanic and ...
0
votes
1answer
12 views

What are the most distinctive differences in the glottal wave between modal vs breathy phonation?

I understan that with modal phonation the glottal wave has a triangular shape, whereas with breathy voice, the source wave is closer to a sine wave. This means that the higher harmonics are more ...
0
votes
0answers
37 views

Is diphthongising [ʌ] as [ʌɪ] novel or an accent feature?

I have noticed some speakers diphthongising [ʌ] as [ʌɪ]. For example, in Bea Miller’s Young Blood, she pronounces “young blood” as [jʌɪŋ blʌɪd] and “us” as [ʌɪs]. Has this been documented elsewhere? ...
1
vote
2answers
66 views

Recent book on PIE and older proto-languages?

Please recommend a recent book that summarizes and critiques the current state of knowledge and speculation on PIE and older proto-languages. (book, please, I will have no electronic contact with the ...

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