1
vote
0answers
12 views

comparative study of spoken language complexity or irregularity

Could you recommend a publicly accessible study/article that quantitatively compares languages by their complexity or irregularity? I am interested in spoken languages only. Not writing/spelling. ...
3
votes
0answers
46 views

What do you call a verb that requires another verb?

I know that verbs are sometimes called "transitive" and I think that means the can take a direct object. I'm learning Mandarin and there seems to be some verbs that can only take other verbs. For ...
5
votes
1answer
280 views

What do you call a failed attempt to use the “standard” speech?

Some speakers who use a non-standard accent or dialect of a language, occasionally desire to "adjust" their speech to the standard. I'm interested in knowing if there is a word for when this fails ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

Could we rank languages, saying one is superior to the other?

Now and then I am faced with claims that language A is better than B, because of some grammar rules or words or ... But is there really a standard or a method to analyse a language from different ...
0
votes
2answers
32 views

“Ought” omission of “to”

Does anybody know anything about the distribution of the modal "ought" without "to" (in other words, "ought" taking the base infinitive). Eg: They ought to go home. vs. They ought go home. Is "...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

How practical is the Windows Arabic code page (1256)

How practical is the Windows Arabic code page (1256)? From what I understand the standard procedure in Arabic countries is to use specialized compositing software to write text that allows the user ...
-1
votes
0answers
24 views

Constructing phrase structure trees

I am having trouble constructing a phrase structure tree for each of the expressions: For Bob liked the gray cat some fluffy gray dog the man with sally sent the man an email thought Sally hated ...
3
votes
0answers
28 views

Automatic Summarization Evaluation - BLEU vs. ROUGE

With the results of two different summary systems (sys1 and sys2) and the same reference summaries, I evaluated them with both BLEU and ROUGE. The problem is: All ROUGE scores of sys1 was higher than ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Vowel Shift and Affixes

It is well known that morphology influences phonology to a certain extent. This can be seen with how vowels that should shift do not shift when the words are affixed by certain morphemes. Some affixes ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

How fast do people lose their accents and regain them?

If a child was born in for example India and moved to America around age 5, but still spoke their native language at home what age would they lose their accent? And then maybe when they are 12 they ...
4
votes
3answers
121 views

Are there languages with no first person?

Fiction is rife with characters who always speak in third person. Often, such characters are portrayed as having a native language or culture that lacks the concept of a first person, and hence they ...
-1
votes
1answer
48 views

Help with translation and line-wrapping in Arabic [on hold]

I hope I am asking my question in the right place, but I can't find anyone around me fluent in Arabic to help me with a present for my best friend - dog tag with the sentence below, written on it. ...
-1
votes
0answers
38 views

Tree diagram for 2 english questions [on hold]

I am having trouble drawing a syntax tree for 2 questions and I would appreciate it if someone could help me. The sentences are: Which subject have you talked about? About which subject have you ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

Estimating the size of training data for grammer extraction

I have a dependency treebank including 100 sentences, which I divide into a training set and a test set. I extract some rules ((DS,PS) pairs) to convert the treebank to phrase structures. When I ...
-3
votes
1answer
54 views

What motivated the term 'Recursion'?

'Recursion' is defined on pp 90 and 107 in Syntax, A Generative Introduction (2012 3 ed) by Andrew Carnie. Does the meaning of its Latin etymon ('running back, return'), influence the meaning of '...
1
vote
2answers
83 views

always | never | “all the time” - what kind of words are these?

always never "all the time" They aren't 'expletives', but they express a non-expiry. What word would describe this type of word? Context : he never brings me flowers; he's always late; you criticise ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Term for modifying a word to create its opposite connotation

I'm interested in knowing if there is a specific term for the phenomenon (in English) where a word with a positive connotation can be modified to create a word or phrase with a negative connotation (...
-1
votes
1answer
57 views

The sound “ka” or “cha” or “kha” means what ? e.g Khaalesi,Khan,Chan,Kaan

Especially in east geography (middle east, middle asia, asia) the words starting with Kha, ka, cha means like a leader or a king or a lord. Khaalesi (game of thrones character who living in east of ...
-3
votes
0answers
23 views

Help translate Weekly Idol caption [closed]

Hello! I tried to translate this caption in english... I tried google translate but the grammar seems off... so I tried translating word per word, tried my own grammar and I came up with this: "Won't ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Slightly Incomplete Sequential Acquisition, possible to fix? [migrated]

I have had my first exposure to English at about six years of age(and have used it ever since), and I generally consider myself a native speaker since I use it a lot(even if this is probably ...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

Similar words in different languages with different meanings [duplicate]

What do you call a pair of words which specifically are either written our sounded out either the same or very similarly across two different languages and have different meanings (perhaps even ...
3
votes
2answers
84 views

What would you call a case specifying something is far away from a noun?

There's the adessive case, which can be used to specify something is near a noun, but is there an opposite? Is there a case specifying a far distance from a noun? I'm including this case in my conlang ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

Having trouble with assigning stress degrees to a long compound

I need to give the stress degrees for each component in "compressed air powered fence post driver". If I want to argue that "compressed air powered fence post driver" is a compound, what are the ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

Distinguishing subjects in apposition

Consider the English sentence (from the Washinton Post): "Trump is wrong that Muslims don’t do our part." In the embedded clause, is the subject 'Muslims', or the implied 'we' in 'our'? In the ...
1
vote
1answer
81 views

the difference between upward and downward entailment

How does one show the difference of an upward entailment between that of a downward entailment? I have tried doing examples where the negative polarity item is moved from the verb phrase to the noun ...
-1
votes
1answer
50 views

what language Chinese or Japanese? [closed]

Can't describe, label on a box, don't even know which way is up. Need language of this label, so I can get it translated, and translate image/language inside box, to figure out if contents are worth ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

Turkish: the -DIk participles and an information loss

There is something I can't get about the -DIk participles. When we use it to form a relative clause and make one sentence out of two sentences, the object may be originally in any case: Accusative: ...
3
votes
0answers
91 views

Giving grammar without useless symbols / ε-productions

I hope some people here are firm with computational linguistics, since I couldn't find any question here about this topic yet. Question 1 As the title says, I'm trying to give an equivalent ...
3
votes
1answer
35 views

Sound files for Lithuanian pitch accent distinctions?

I'm looking for sound files that illustrate the distinction between the two pitch contours of long vowels and diphthongs in Lithuanian, e.g. kóšė (falling pitch) vs. kõšė (rising pitch). Does anyone ...
3
votes
2answers
285 views

Why are “economics” and “economist” stressed on different syllables while both of them have the same number of syllables?

According to rule No. 4 in this link, the suffix "-ist" does not affect the stress of a word. Hence the stress assignment rule σ → [+stress] / ___ ((˘) σ) ]word should apply to both words. What makes ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Donkey and Monkey: why has the pronunciation of donkey changed? (Distinctive features?)

It is said that donkey may have been from "dun" /ˈdʌn/ (http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/donkey ) If that were true, I was wondering why donkey's pronunciation has changed from ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Who is corpus annotator

I'm a beginner of nlp. I'm wondering who is annotator of corpus usually ? Who does actually do works of annotating ? Researchers?
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Expressions derived from Italian mafia

I apologize in advance for the explicit words, the question is anyway purely linguistical. Feel free to censore the words if appropriate. I have heard that the American slang expression "Do not break ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

Is the word the name of a person or an adjective? [on hold]

I don't know hebrew and I was reading a transliteration of the following phrase, "חכו ממתקים וכלו מחמדים זה דודי וזה רעי בנות ירושלם׃" Is the word "מחמדים" referring to a person name or an adjective ...
-1
votes
1answer
108 views

Assimilation Help

The practice question is below. I am having trouble understanding what assimilation means in this context. Also, I don't understand why unbelievable is pronounced umbelievable when spoken fast via ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Looking for time adverbs & frequency adverbs lists in english

I'm a linguistic student and I'm looking for a reliable source (Scientific paper, dictionary or even reliable internet website) which lists time adverbs & frequency adverbs in English. Anyone can ...
1
vote
2answers
54 views

Sibling in other European languages

The English word sibling comes from sib + ling. According to the OED the etymology of sib is: Etymology: Old English sib(b , = Old Frisian (and Frisian) sib , Middle Dutch sib(be , zibbe , Old ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

British Sign Language symbol identification [closed]

At the start of this video for learning British Sign Language, there is a sign which I don't recognise. With the index finger of the non-dominant hand, the signer is pulling their eyebrow down ...
5
votes
0answers
67 views

What are the practical implications of Ludwig Wittgenstein's theoriesin the field of linguistics?

I was wondering how has the field of linguistics was changed (altered? untouched?) by Ludwig Wittgenstein's theories in Tractacus and the Philosophical Investigations. All Wittgenstein's work deals ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

Is there a language in which the present tense expresses only present time reference?

Is there a language in which the present tense exactly expresses present time reference? English may use present tense to express past events(known as historical present) and future events(especially ...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

Where can I find auditory records of Chinese Mandarin within 1930-1970?

I am doing research on pure Chinese and I need a auditory recording made between 1930-1970. I searched for subject of anthropology in Hong Kong local library and found nothing material in auditory ...
1
vote
1answer
67 views

Experiment of creating an artificial language by cycles of memorizing errors

Once I saw an experiment on a documentary which a simple artificial language (just a set of ten words or something like that) was artificially created by a recurring process of memorizing errors of ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Derivation of “glitzy” — does it have Yiddish roots?

In Leo Rosten's book, The Joys of Yiddish, he defines the Yiddish word for people from the Hungarian/Polish region of Galicia, as "Galitzianers"(McGraw Hill, 1968), pp. 122-23. In singular masculine ...
0
votes
1answer
79 views

Any languages without the following list of consonants?

I was wondering if there are any living languages without any of the following: /ɬ/ or /ɮ/, postaveolars and palatals—with the exception of /j/? Again, a list of the excluded consonants are- ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Is https://www.babelfish.com/success/ a rule-based engine?

Can anybody tell me if "Babelfish translator" (https://www.babelfish.com/success/) is rule-based? I'd like to stress that "Babelfish translator" and "Yahoo!Babelfish" are not the same thing. In fact:...
1
vote
2answers
32 views

Spoken Language Dataset of L2 Acquisition

Is there a publicly available dataset of spoken language for L2 acquisition? I would prefer children learning an L2, but any age range is fine. It would be great, but not necessary, to have speaking ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

Why is “then” deictic?

Then is mentioned as deictic in many papers but I couldn't find a sufficient explanation for that. Every example I could think of involves then acting as anaphora, but how decctic? If I say: I am ...
-2
votes
0answers
42 views

What would a Hebrew or Aramaic version of “Patricia” be? [on hold]

I know that people have translated the meaning of the name Patricia ("Noble") into Hebrew Nediva, which is not what I'm asking for. Rather than a translation (or even a transliteration, of exactly the ...
0
votes
3answers
72 views

Are there languages which require aspiration for some stops?

I'm developing a phonology for a conlang. Many languages distinguish aspirated and unaspirated stops as different phonemes e.g. /p/ vs /ph/. Are there any languages, however, which lack an unaspirated ...
4
votes
1answer
87 views

What is the name for the phenomenon or process by which the brain knows what “it” in a sentence refers to?

What is the name for the phenomenon or process by which the brain knows what "it" in a sentence refers to ? For example : I left my book on the table but when I came back, IT wasn't there.

15 30 50 per page