0
votes
0answers
9 views

Dhātu of dhiṣṇaye?

I encountered the word dhiṣṇaye|धिष्णये from Nārada Purāṇa. From the sentence I figured out that it should mean « posited in ». Still, I would like to know of the dhātu for this word.
0
votes
1answer
14 views

Can “to” ever be a Prep or a Particle before “be”

Can “to” ever be a Prep or a Particle before “be”? If so can anyone think of an example?
2
votes
0answers
19 views

I am building a chatbot and I need corpora

I am building a chatbot and I need corpora to train them. I need corpora that is used as general chatting. I would be happy if anyone would help me with it.
4
votes
1answer
41 views

What part of speech is “quiet” in “And quiet flows the Don”?

The Mikhail Sholokov novel "Тихий Дон" (Quiet Don) is translated "And quiet flows the Don". In this title, is the word "quiet" an adjective or adverb? If it's an adverb modifying the verb "flows", ...
-1
votes
0answers
15 views

extract entities ( name , address , organization) from not so natural text, like comments in bank remittance section? [on hold]

I am trying to extract entities ( name , address , organization) from not so natural text, like comments in bank remittance section Obviously not getting good results , used NLTK , OpenNLP and ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

Movement and Spell-Out of Heads

Generally, DPs need to move to certain positions or configurations in order to check for case features (among other things) and allow spell-out. For example, raising predicates raise the subject of an ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

How to Explain Some Structures Defying Parameter?

So, a language has a parameter on X-bar scheme for constructing syntactic structure, like English has a SPEC head COMP and Japanese/Turkish/Korean has SPEC COMP head. However, I run across some ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Can anyone list languages without counterfactual conditionals offhand?

Basically, I'm looking for languages other than Chinese that don't have a compact construction approximately equivalent to the English second conditional.
-1
votes
0answers
34 views

Did 'the' in 'the which' mean anything? [on hold]

Did 'the' mean anything in the which, compared with the relative pronoun which? OED's entries for the which only redirect to definitions of 'which'. I am unsure because cognates of the which remain ...
2
votes
0answers
28 views

What is some standard analysis for “Look me in the eye”

I am looking for hints where to find a ("standard") analysis of something like this english dative construction: Look me in the eye Clearly, the "the" in this phrase is semantically scoped BY the ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Which book is rigorous in explaining the evolution of language?

I wanted to have an experience on how language evolved, from a rigorous point of view. I searched for books; there are many books, most of them in popular domain, which I don't aim at, as the density ...
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

What is the underlying representation of these morphemes? [on hold]

I'm stuck at the fourth exercise of David Odden's Introducing Phonology. It's about underlying representations. I have such a difficult task with finding underlying representations and the only ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

What is the process to form nouns from Phoenician verbs?

What is the process to form nouns from Phoenician verbs? I would like to find a nominal form of the Phoenician verb "𐤍𐤑𐤓" (nun-tsade-resh, spelled left-to-right) ("NṠR"/"naṡar") (corresponding to ...
0
votes
2answers
55 views

I need help identifying this language

I noticed the swastika-like images along the sides and at first thought it was either Nordic or Hindi. Any assistance would be greatly appreciated.
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Is there any rule in recursion?

recursion is the ability to place one component inside another component, so is it only for the same kind such as NP with NP, PP with PP, and etc?
2
votes
1answer
44 views

How are dead languages reconstructed?

I'm really interested in Biblical studies, so I've often wondered this about the languages in the Bible. Namely, Greek (Koine), Hebrew, and Aramaic. I've tried looking into it, but I've never really ...
-1
votes
0answers
14 views

How can I make a syntax tree for sentences? [on hold]

if you can please i need a syntax tree for this sentence" This smart student of linguistics with long hair is so very fond of syntax in someway."
1
vote
0answers
18 views

Diagramming noun adjuncts (attributive nouns) in the x-bar scheme [on hold]

How do you diagram the two nouns with the x-bar scheme for the following phrases: A) The play by Bill Roberts B) A chicken soup bowl according to distributional criteria they are adjectives, but ...
-1
votes
0answers
22 views

are “I wonder if it will rain?” and “I wonder if rain will occur?” grammatical utterances in English? [on hold]

I had quoted these sentences as examples for complimentizer constraint for NP movement in a test.my professor had said that these are ungrammatical to begin with.
-4
votes
0answers
31 views

How did last names come to be? [on hold]

Many people in the world today have a last name that links them to a family. I am wondering when/how this came to be.
1
vote
1answer
61 views

How and when do French children learn to select between masculine and feminine forms of words when referring to themselves?

I am interested in what knowledge we have regarding the process by which a young child acquiring French as a first language learns to choose correctly between the masculine and feminine forms of ...
-1
votes
0answers
12 views

Proforms and Transformations [on hold]

Are the Proforms generated in the deep structure or do they need a certain transformation ? a pronoun for example
0
votes
2answers
28 views

“I should have bought a present. Susie did”: is this an example of anaphora?

I am attending a class on English Linguistics and right now we are discussing the cohesion device of reference, which means that one item in text points to another element for its interpretation. ...
-1
votes
0answers
26 views

Characteristics of English Language Grammar [on hold]

I'm a student of M.ed 1st year and I want to know the most influential characteristics of English grammar. Could I get the right answer to my question?
0
votes
0answers
14 views

What underlying semantic notions connect 'comeback' to 'joining' or 'restarting'?

[ repartee (n.) : ] 1640s, "quick remark," from French repartie "an answering blow or thrust" (originally a fencing term), noun use of fem. past participle of Old French repartir [See ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

What can be said about the evolution of syllable stress in related languages?

Remembering a Czech song I once learnt I remembered a short Czech crash course I had and the teacher who said: In Czech, stress is always on the first syllable. This got me thinking and I ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Syntax trees: Why CP and VP sometimes have only 1 node and sometimes 2 under them?

I'm reading Carnie's English Syntax and I'm having some doubts regarding the syntactic trees of some examples. For what I've understood about my doubt, it has to be with the definitions of ...
8
votes
1answer
538 views

Do the words “angst” and “anxiety” share a common root?

The English word angst, taken from German Angst, seems to ultimately originate from Proto-Germanic *angustiz. This word has descendants in many Germanic languages, including, but not limited to, ...
1
vote
2answers
64 views

Do Germanic words have Romance qualities and vice-versa?

I know English was heavily influenced by French. But were there any other instances during which a Germanic language obtained Romance qualities or a Romance language with Germanic qualities?
1
vote
0answers
9 views

Is there any alternative sentence/questions generator tools available for input pharse/keyword

For example: "Please turn on kitchen lights". it should generate all possible and alternative sentence such as, 1. turn on lights. 2. switch off lights. 3. switch on kitchen lights. 4. please turn off ...
-3
votes
1answer
31 views

What underlying semantic notions connect 'less' to 'not'? [on hold]

What underlying notions explain this same semantic shift from 'less' to 'not' (ie: negation)? It appears in all 4 languages below, as evidenced by the Spanish and Portuguese synonymy. I know that in ...
-1
votes
0answers
26 views

About gerundive nominalizations and possessor NPs. (3 questions)

Mary brought a letter to me. Mary's bringing a letter to me. 1.In the second sentence, bringing is a gerund. Is the sentence syntactically correct? 2.Is the possessor NP Mary's the subject of ...
4
votes
1answer
50 views

Parts-of-speech tagging and finding relevant phrases in documents

I've got a corpus of half a million text documents. I'd like to identify phrases in each document that are the most descriptive with which to build tag clouds. Let's say that I identify the most ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Why “Monotonicity” Hypothesis? (Koontz-Garboden)

Should't it be "monodirectionality hypothesis"? In my understanding, this is about the one-way that material/structure can be added to a sentence-while-generated, but never deleted. (Harley 2013 ...
2
votes
2answers
55 views

Where can I find old dictionaries?

I'm often curious about how the meanings of English words have evolved over time. I have a copy the 1913 Webster's, and it's very useful. But ideally I would like to have a copy for each decade, or ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

How can a remark not refer to the speaker's attitude?

Source: p 34, Understanding Semantics (2 ed, 2013) by Sebastian Löbner   Interjections and exclamations can be used as complete utterances. Other expressives such as hopefully, (un)fortunately ...
-2
votes
0answers
45 views

How does ‘Ouch!’ lack a Proposition?

Source: p 34, Understanding Semantics (2 ed, 2013) by Sebastian Löbner.   At least some feelings, sensations, attitudes and evaluations can thus be expressed in two ways: subjectively and ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

How do Phatic Phrases contain only Social Meaning and lack Descriptive Meaning?

Source: p 31, Understanding Semantics (2 ed, 2013) by Sebastian Löbner. Preface: I know little German. Sorry if I have cited too much; please feel free to refine my post. [...]  bitte ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

What is a “nucleus” in syntax?

What exactly does the term nucleus refer to in syntax? (I'm not asking about the term in relation to phonetics or phonology). For example when syntacticians write about left dislocations and so forth ...
-1
votes
1answer
47 views

Is the Indian female name “Sati” the same as the self-immolating Hindu goddess?

I heard about an Indian woman (possibly Hindu) with a given name of Sati the other day. Checking the internet, this site confirmed that Sati is an Indian female name. Is the name "Sati" related to ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Voiced obstruents (and sonority in general)

I (think that I) understand that sonorants are sonorous because airflow is continuous, non-turbulent, and so resonate at such a frequency that the vocal tract acoustic filter amplifies them. And I ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

On the Predicate Internal Subject Hypothesis and DP Predicates

One standard assumption is that the subject of a clause originates from the specifier of its predicate, following the predicate internal subject hypothesis. For example, the subject of a simple ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Brythonic w-y? Place name etymology

I'm very interested in the old Brythonic languages and their survival in northern England into the second millenium AD. Up until the last century you still saw a few word snippets in common use, for ...
3
votes
1answer
102 views

How do illiterate French people learn which pronunciation to use in different sentences?

Are there any studies on language acquisition for illiterate French people? Are they aware of the spelling of French words on a subconscious level to be able to pronounce them correctly in different ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

What is the inflexive Indo-European language that has least fusions?

I'm looking forward to learn a new language. In the two languages I know, I see problems where one word can mean multiple meanings and can be of multiple types and it gives me a hard time ...
0
votes
2answers
55 views

Could anyone tell me if these syntax trees are correct? [closed]

I'm a beginner with linguistics and I'm wondering if some of the syntax trees I've made are correct. Also, how would one make trees for posessive noun phrases such as: Larry’s exciting trip to ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

How to build a neural network dependency parser with a dynamic oracle?

I'm curruntly trying to improve the results of my dependency parser (arc-standard) when I found this article: that uses a dynamic oracle. https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/Q/Q13/Q13-1033.pdf The ...
1
vote
0answers
51 views

Finnish data, Consonant Gradatition

I am working on the blow Finnish data. As far as I understand there are 3 alternatives: 1) K -> 0 ( in "fault" group) 2) kk-> k (in "firplace" and "dot" group) 3) k-> k ( in "sledgehammer") The ...
-1
votes
0answers
27 views

Exhaustive list of NLP tasks [on hold]

Is there any reference document(s) that give an exhaustive list of NLP tasks? All lists I have found are either incomplete or coarse-grained. (example 1, example 2) Ideally, I would prefer a ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

What is the origin of declension/conjugation classes?

Languages with declension and conjugation usually have multiple declension and conjugation classes. If one were to invent a language with declension or conjugation, one would probably introduce only ...

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