All Questions

0
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0answers
13 views

Can words have multiple, different origins

In the yoga context, it is common for gurus to give multiple origins of a specific word in order to 'dig' a deep meaning. For example, let us take the word मान्त्र. Here is a first explanation ...
-1
votes
0answers
7 views

Thematic roles - are they same in paraphrases?

Is the subject in these two sentences have the same thematic role - natural force ? The wind closed the door. The wind caused that door closed. Is true that in general sentences which have ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

What's the difference between separated languages and a separated dialects?

In the context of international languages, i've seen multiple instances of languages that are mutually intelligible but are considered different languages: Serbian and Croatian Luxembourgish and ...
-3
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0answers
13 views

Where can i find a very, very quick introduction about the very, very fundamental concepts, ideas and alike in linguistics? [on hold]

sure, there are books, many of them, but too many have too many words - just for the sole purpose of filling a page, not fulfilling an aesthetically approach towards minimalistic teaching. where can ...
-1
votes
0answers
15 views

What is the relation between syntactic elements and morphological elements? [on hold]

A student of Japanese told me: "my prof told me: "according to this book, case marking particles and adpositions are not identical, one is a morphological, one a syntactic unit" ". what was i told?
0
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0answers
18 views

What stages of emergence of linguistic features are proposed among the world of scholars?

In biology, there is a simple two stages distinction of the emergence of life: Abiogenesis, the emergence of a (very simple) life form from non-living matter. Evolution, the further emergence of ...
0
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0answers
17 views

Windows software to create concordances from .pdf and .txt files?

I am new to Stack Exchange, so if this question fits better on another board, please let me know. I am looking for Windows-compatible software that will create a concordance from .pdf and .txt files. ...
-1
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0answers
8 views

How can learner autonomy be best integrated in the ELT curriculum?

Are there any controversial key issues receiving attention by experst in this field?
0
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0answers
17 views

What is the purpose of pertainyms?

I came across this term accidentally by reading a question on this forum. When i tried to search for it via google i only got very short definition from various dictionaries. Could you explain in ...
-2
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0answers
22 views

What are the criteria for a word being a part of speech?

While i browsed randomly the Q&As here, i realized more or less the relationship between part of speech and part of sentence. Correct me if i am wrong: An Element belongs to a part of speech ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

What part of speech is “probably”, and how can it be substituted?

In the sentence: Daenerys should probably keep that green dragon-egg. What is the syntactic category of "probably" here? Is it an adverb? If so, what substitution test should I use to verify ...
-1
votes
1answer
35 views

What linguistic key terms are necessary to be understood in order to understand the idea behind discours analysis?

I was asked to get an understanding for what discours analysis is. As for now, this terms has no meaning to me at all, i ve tried to read about the concept in different off-and online encyclopdias, ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Do affixes and clitics belong to an own part of speech, part of sentence or another category ?

Birds, flowers, children belong to the part of speech of nouns, to fish, to pick, to play to verbs, swift, smelly, nice to adjectives those are the easy ones, what about clitics and affixes and such ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

What are considered to be driving forces behind grammaticalization?

It is my understanding that grammaticalization is a fancy way of saying that words that contain a lexical meaning can change over time into words that gradually lose their lexical function, but then ...
-1
votes
0answers
18 views

What is the relationship between part of speech and part of sentence?

While browsing in the Q&A of this forum i came across the terms part of speech and part of sentence, and i am not sure if they are two different sharply distinguished concepts or in another ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

Please help me identify this language (w/ image)

I have a scan of a genealogical document (ca. 1895) from a Catholic church in Brodowe Łąki, Poland. I believe that the document pertains to the baptism of my great-grandmother, but I can't quite be ...
-1
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0answers
38 views

How would you explain what a prepositionalphrase is to a person with a low iq? [on hold]

I read the article on wikipedia, but it is very complicated for me. could anyone explain this using a very easy way.
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Is pronoun a subset of nouns when referring to parts of speech?

To be frank, I am very unsure about this, but having two sets and not knowing how they relate, there are four possibilities so far: nouns and pronouns are own sets without any connection between ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

Is there a language without words which correspond to the concepts 'I', 'They', 'We'

I was wondering if a language exists without the ability to express the notions of 'I', 'We', 'they' etc. Would it be possible to communicate without these concepts being expressible as a ...
1
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0answers
20 views

Lexical density

I'm trying to work out the lexical density of a spoken text. My problem is with contractions that include a primary auxiliary verb as a main lexical verb. E.g. She's intelligent. From what I ...
0
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0answers
20 views

I want to make a simple project in Acoustic phonetics any suggestions?

I want to make a simple project in Acoustic phonetics any suggestions ?
0
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0answers
24 views

What kinds of nested sentences exist in languages?

I am not sure if my examples are technically really considered nested sentences, but i try anyway, if i got it right a nested sentence is one or more separated sentences fused into one: David hates ...
-1
votes
1answer
30 views

What are the subsets of adverbs?

Adverb is a part of speech, so there is a clear distinction between other part of speeches. But what about the inner structure of this category? So far, i happened to know that one subset of adverbs ...
1
vote
2answers
91 views

Does sample text exist that includes most sounds represented by the International Phonetic Alphabet?

My understanding of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is that it aims to provide a set of letter-based values that represent and map to fundamental sounds present in human languages. My ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

What are the different approaches of the levels of language analysis as introduced in structural linguistics?

The levels are as far as i ve been told: discours,syntax,morphology and phonology. What is the unique approach towards language of each of them? Are there further levels?
5
votes
1answer
56 views

How should grammatical errors be treated in parsing and tokenisation?

I'm writing a tokenizer/parser thing to parse & diagram a bunch of sentences gathered from ordinary language use. Most of it parses just fine by following rules, but from time to time there are ...
0
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0answers
16 views

Mandarin learning software [on hold]

What is the best software tool out there to learn mandarin, especially writing mandarin and proper grammar. I am looking want modern diction. I want something that would make my conversations ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

How many levels to approach language exist in linguistics?

I know only a few,like semantic level to approach its very meaning, the morphology level to understand how single words are build, syntax level to understand the inner structure of sentences. I ...
-1
votes
0answers
27 views

What parts of speech existed in “Old Chinese”?

I used "old" here simply generic for Classical Chinese, Old Chinese and Protochinese.
-1
votes
1answer
34 views

What features distinguish the true diphthongs of English?

How are the true diphthongs of English distinguished from each other and other vowels with traditional distinctive features theory?
1
vote
1answer
69 views

How to translate a scientific term to Vietnamese?

What is the guide, in general, for translating scientific terms from English to other language? I know, of course, that we need a person who have good competence on the field containing that word. ...
-3
votes
1answer
55 views

What languages are these?

Sorry if this question is rather dumb and ignorant for this community, but nevertheless - I have this image and am having hard time recognizing most of the names of the languages, particularly the ...
-1
votes
1answer
63 views

Is this tree diagram correct? [on hold]

the sentence is: Lucy reported that scientists wonder if the medicine will work /Users/tcalnitsky/Desktop/assignment2.jpg
0
votes
0answers
28 views

German sentence corpus with cloze norms

I wish to conduct research on German based on cloze probabilities. Cloze probabilities are not trivial to collect, so I am asking if there exist any publicly available corpora of German sentences with ...
-1
votes
1answer
23 views

acoustic features for english phonems

in this following paper , if we go to page no- 126 we will find a table with all acoustic features of all german Phonemes. ...
0
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0answers
20 views

Having trouble drawing detailed tree diagram [closed]

How would i draw a tree diagram for the following sentence:Lucy reported that scientists wonder if the medicine will work.
-4
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0answers
22 views

Help me with origins

What are the origins of borrowed English words: Scream Beauty School scream (v.) late 12c., scræmen, of uncertain origin, similar to words in Scandinavian, Dutch, German, and Flemish (such as Old ...
3
votes
1answer
68 views

why can't quotative “be like” be fronted?

Consider the following data (spoken American English): John said "I'll come." John was like "I'll come." What John said was: "I'll come." ?What John was like was: "I'll come." Does anyone have an ...
3
votes
3answers
75 views

What's the difference between [ɚ], [ɹ̩], and [əɹ]?

I've seen the "-er" sound in English (like in butter) transcribed in all three of the above ways, but I've heard there are subtle differences between them. What are these differences, if there are ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

HELP with syntax trees! [closed]

I need help writing syntax trees for three sentences as soon as possible! 1) The man in the forest has kicked the bucket. 2) the man who saw sean saw me. 3) I kicked the man who saw sean.
-1
votes
0answers
27 views

IPA Close Transcription of B.E. Rhotic Vowels

In dialects of British English, there are non-rhoticized where American English has rhoticized vowels. For example, "Tarzan" might be realized as [ˈtʰɑɹˌzæ̃n] (TAR-zahn) in American English, but as ...
-2
votes
2answers
57 views

How to find origin of a borrowed word?

For example what is the origin of name Catherine? Etymology Dictionary says that: it's from French Catherine, from Medieval Latin Katerina, from Latin Ecaterina, from Greek Aikaterine. The -h- was ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

What are examples of Haudricourt's tonogenesis in Chinese?

As far as I know, tonogenesis occurs when consonants merge. The merging of initial consonants results in register tones and the merging of final consonants results in contour tones. What are concrete ...
2
votes
2answers
47 views

Is there a good introduction to subjectivity in language?

Since the topic of "subjectivity in language" is all new to me, I am looking for an introduction to the topic that 1) gives an overview of the phenomena usually associated with the topic ...
2
votes
2answers
210 views

What is it called in linguistics when you change a word from one part of speech to another?

So, what is it called when, for instance, the following happens: mad(noun) > madly (adv) > madlyness (noun)
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Reed Leaf Unilateral Transcription in Hieroglyphic Egyptian. Why isn't there one? Or is there?

So I've begun teaching myself Hieroglyphic Egyptian with James Allen's introduction. He presents a table of transcriptions in European format (he has one with computer, budge, British, and ...
0
votes
2answers
65 views

Does an -es suffix for plurality have Proto-Indo-European roots?

I'm researching proto-Indo-European, and have seen a few remarks which imply that an -es suffix for plural was a likely component of the language (including here on L.SE; Wiktionary). Is this a ...
2
votes
0answers
26 views

Is there a special term describing mental translation between L1 and L2?

Is there a special term to describe the mental translation of a word? E.g. when one sees a recently learned term, they may think of the L1 meaning rather than directly think of the concept.
0
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0answers
16 views

Is there a diagram showing the components of form-meaning-use? [closed]

One can use the form-meaning-use paradigm when considering what aspects a language learner must know when learning a word or phrase. Is there any diagram or expanded paradigm which shows all of the ...
5
votes
1answer
55 views

Is there an online tool to convert IPA symbols into audio sound?

As many amateurs and beginners know, IPA is difficult to memorize and internalize at first. Does software exist where one can paste in IPA text and hear synthesized speech (ideally in the form of a ...

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