2
votes
0answers
22 views

How to identify context independent (self-consistent) sentences?

There are questions that are self consistent in the sense that they can be understood without a context. In other words, the sentence itself provide a clear information. An example of such a sentence ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Why were words for the four cardinal directions in Romance languages borrowed from Old English?

Why were words for the four cardinal directions (east, west, north, south) in Romance languages borrowed from Old English? They could have used their own words derived from Latin because these words ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

What is the problem 'if our requirement says that the only thing that isn’t a phrase in an NP is the N itself' ?

Source: pp 208 Bottom - 209 Top. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. In the last chapter, for lack of a better place to put them, we put determiners like the, a, ...
0
votes
2answers
34 views

Are native speakers familiar with such things from young age?

Are native speakers (of any given language, say English) with average IQs at a relatively young age (say, under 10 years old) without exposure to dictionaries, encyclopedias, formal education and ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

What are some good books/MOOCs in field of computational semantic analysis?

I have recently started learning Natural Language Processing and while reading research papers I came across terms like "Latent Dirichlet Allocation", "Latent Semantic Analysis", "Gaussian ...
5
votes
0answers
25 views

Is there a name for this idea relating to word abstractness/complexity based on dictionary definition self-reference?

First, let me give the caveat that I have never taken a linguistics class, nor read a linguistics book. I am coming from a degree in math. Please give your answers at a level I can understand. There'...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Semantic predicate-argument relations reflected in syntax

I am a computational linguist and work on event extraction. One of the subtasks is very similar to finding predicate-argument relations, e.g. the agent and patient of a predicate. I want to build a ...
2
votes
3answers
52 views

How to distinguish a polysynthetic language from other languages? When is something a word?

For example, the probably most quoted sentence in a polysynthetic langauge: Yupik tuntussuqatarniksaitengqiggtuq: tuntu-ssur-qatar-ni-ksaite-ngqiggte-uq REINDEER-HUNT-future-SAY-negation-AGAIN-...
-1
votes
2answers
64 views

Why is the word “Puyallup” difficult for most English speakers to pronounce?

Why linguistically the word of the city of Puyallup is difficult for non Seattleites to pronounce? It only contains sounds found in English.
0
votes
0answers
14 views

As of July 2016, is there any new, improved linguistics research on « à » vs « de »?

Because later works probably ameliorate and supersede earlier works, I cite only articles published after 2005 that I have encountered through Google. Because the papers below have extensive ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Name of phenomenon of wrong segmentation

I think it would be best to illustrate by examples instead of by words: an + other → another → a + nother → a whole nother myn + Edward → my Ned les enfants /le.zɑ̃.fɑ̃/ (French) → les *zenfants → ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

What do we have to measure the difficulty of a given Arabic text?

I'm a programmer, and I'm trying to find out the difficulty level of Quran verses to be used in an educational application, so that a simpler verse can be taught sooner. For English language, there ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

As of July 2016, is there any new improved research on predicting French grammatical gender?

Please advise me if there are better research methods; I only searched for Related Articles on Google Scholar to the only 2 recent papers that I know: Cited Articles of French gender assignment ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

How did the word “combine” come to refer to any number of items?

This is the etymology of the word "combine": link As you can see it all boils down to just two word-forming elements: "com-" and "bis-". So the word "combine" carries in itself information about only ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

How do I distinguish between traits and states using NLP?

In an English sentence: Harry was displeased. – displeased is a state Harry was benevolent. – benevolent is a trait Given an adjective, how can I distinguish between a trait and a state? ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

Is there any comprehensive list of all the possible syntactic combinations of English sentences?

In constituent analysis, we break down sentences into their main parts of speech (Det., N, Adj, V, etc.). English sentences have recursive syntactic patterns. For example, a simple sentence in English ...
4
votes
1answer
127 views

What are languages spoken in only one country called?

English and Spanish (castellano) are the official languages in several countries. Mexico, Spain, Argentina, Costa Rica speak spanish (albeit with some differences, people from these countries can ...
2
votes
0answers
42 views

History of Danish “nd” and “ld”

Danish orthography often has "nd" and "ld" instead of "nn" and "ll", often in cases where it is not etymologically justified. Does anybody know more about this, like when this kind of spelling started ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Which nodes are meant by 'the specifier of a null active V' and 'this VP'?

Source: p 305. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. To put some teeth to this claim then, we might propose that external arguments in actives are in fact generated in [...
6
votes
0answers
52 views

When did the concept of constituent movement arise?

As far back as the mid 1700s, William Ward considered the following phrase in An Essay on Grammar applied to the English Language. the flowers which a lady sitting on the seat in a garden views with ...
4
votes
0answers
43 views

quantifiers adjoining a verb phrase?

I am working through Heim and Kratzer textbook 'Semantics in generative grammar' and there is a question in it that keeps puzzling me (pp.220); they give an example of a sentence which is supposed ...
2
votes
1answer
258 views

The soft Spanish “t” (other languages are available)

Recently I have noticed that some languages have a sound which is somewhere between the "traditional" d and t. An example of this is the name "Roberto", pronounced by a Spanish or Italian speaking ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

collection of derivative nouns

I am a researcher in Computational Linguistics. Recently, my research interests led me towards the analysis derivative nouns, specifically nouns derived from other nouns. For example, India to Indian, ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Is there a name for verbs that describe regular activities?

Basically I mean, for activities one consistently performs, is there a special name or category for those verbs? Examples: He runs I play table tennis She surfs They study linguistics See how each ...
-1
votes
1answer
54 views

What are “hard” and “soft” consonants?

Many writing systems make a distinction between "hard" and "soft" phonemes represented by the same grapheme or an accented version thereof. What writing systems make this distinction and what are the ...
3
votes
2answers
53 views

What is the etymology of “adventus?”

What is the complete root etymology of the Latin word "adventus?"
2
votes
2answers
85 views

Are there languages with simple morphology and free word order?

It seems to me that the most languages have either complicated morphology or very strict word order. Are there languages with simple morphology and free word order (for instance, indicating ...
0
votes
0answers
37 views

how the word “car” is related with the word “driver”

how the word "car" is related with the word "driver?" I was looking through the list of relationship terms like hyponym, hypernym, part-of, consist-of. But this is a relationship that one is operating ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Best phonetic/ phonology resource for learning accents?

I'm a non-native English speaker at a California university absolutely fascinated by the variety of English accents I encounter in my day-to-day life. I have a co-worker with a Singaporean accent, for ...
2
votes
1answer
60 views

Why is the word “God” plural in some languages?

In Hebrew religious texts there are several different ways to refer to God (capital G). Some of these words, such as Elohim or Adonai are plural forms although it is clear that Judaism is monotheistic....
0
votes
0answers
30 views

word relatedness, defining character of a word

How can NLP tell the word "stool" is closely related to the word "dirty?" When the word relationship is based on a corpus, most likely the word "stool" is related to some medical terms such as "bloody"...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

/s/ or /z/ in ending of [long vowel] + “se” or “s” [on hold]

Are there any rules regarding the pronunciation of "se" or "s" in the ending [long vowel] + "se" or "s"? /z/: tease, browse /s/: lease, house English pronunciation pod in the reference just lists ...
2
votes
0answers
43 views

An analogy to understand phonetics and phonology

Is it accurate to make this statement? An analogy of the difference between phonetics and phonology can be made with music. Phonetics would be the study of the vocals and sounds made by instruments ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

how to translate preposition +which relative clauses in tamil [on hold]

Hello everybody I try to undestand how to build an indirect relative clause in tamil language. I give an example here . i saw the knife _ with which the king killed the tiger_ in tamil thanks
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Matching Textgrid transcript to sound in Praat

I'm measuring the vowels in a whole boatload of recordings of the same item (e.g. 100 recordings of different people saying "my dog") in Praat. I am not very experienced in Praat, but figured out how ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

In which order should I teach grapho-phonemics relationships in English? [on hold]

In which order should I teach grapho-phonemics relationships in English to 5-6 years old children ? Is there any research available on this topic ? Should I teach close phonemes together or with some ...
0
votes
1answer
101 views

What do ESL speakers think of English spelling reform? [on hold]

English is unique in that out of the ten most widely spoken languages it has no governing academy and its writing system is the most irregular. What are the thoughts of ESL speakers on spelling ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

The usage frequency of individual English words

I'm very new to NLP and I'm sure this question is a rookie one. In NLP for English language, how do we tell if a word is commonly used, from one that is not commonly used? What is the simplest measure?...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

What is the proper term for a set of words and expressions? [on hold]

You have a list of expressions, some of which are a single word and some of which multi-word expressions. How do you call such a collection? actually mathematically speaking I mean the case of a set, ...
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Is case of PRO always the same as its controller?

I have a question about empty category PRO. I'd like to know if PRO is always bearing the same case as its controller, or not? Are there any lingusitics laws that clames such a thing? Many Thanks ...
1
vote
2answers
37 views

How are the meanings of words determined?

I know that the meaning of words is determined by those who use them, but is there a specific number of people who have to agree on the definition of a word in order for it to appear in the dictionary?...
1
vote
0answers
51 views

Do languages still invent absolutely new single words, or is coining done around pre existing words?

By absolutely new single word I mean a word that didn't exist in the language and was made up using the correct phonology of the language (I am using the qualifier "correct" because I am assuming that ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

How a portmanteau of God's name would be formed

This is follow up on a question I posed in Mi Yodeya. I was investigating the source of the belief that God's name is "a combination of the words 'Will be, is, was' (יהיה Yihiyeh, Hoveh הווה, haya ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

What is this 'OBL'?

I'm reading Goldberg's Constructions and find her employing the symbol 'OBL' to represent a category of syntactic constituent. SUBJ OBL OBJ I take it that 'OBL' is read 'oblique' in some sense;...
1
vote
2answers
68 views

Do English and French share the same international phonetic symbol?

[e] and [ε] are pronounced almost the same in English. But there is obvious difference between them in french , french [e] sounds like ‘ay’ in english ‘bay’, really close to the first English letter “...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

How is category theory applied in linguistics?

I am learning monoidal category applied in quantum information and quantum field theory, and several references say that monoidal category is somehow related to linguistics via Hopf algebra of quantum ...
4
votes
1answer
97 views

Besides logics, what mathematical tools are used in the study of linguistics?

I learned of connections between linguistics and category theory when I'm learning the application of category theory in quantum field theory. Being aware that axiomatic set theory (logics) is ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

How did Old Norse 'við' acquire its instrumental meaning? [on hold]

I only present this question originally of Dr Romano that also interests me: The more interesting question is how in ON [Old Norse] við acquired its instrumental meaning: "He crossed the lake við ...
3
votes
3answers
110 views

Has English caused any Languages to undergo Sound Change or Grammar Change?

French historically has caused the presence of several unique sounds in English that would not have been present otherwise. For example the "dʒ" sound in "garage". Similarly, I believe I've read ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Name of the act of borrowing linguistic concepts from different languages

What is the term for concepts that got translated from one language or another? I've heard this term in a conversation about Czech Anglicisms such like: "Mějte hezký den." - the literal version of ...

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