0
votes
0answers
5 views

External sandhi rule for final visarga followed by r?

The picture at the bottom is taken from Introduction To Sanskrit by Egenes Thomas, in which we see that, if a vowel different from a or aa precedes the visarga, and if the initial lettre of the ...
1
vote
0answers
6 views

Old Norse: Noun declension gen. sg. -s or -ar?

I am using A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic and An Introduction to Old Norse (by E. V. Gordon) as my resoources. In An Introduction, it is said that: Some nouns declined otherwise as ...
2
votes
0answers
13 views

Is the English perfect really monosemous?

The perfect in English has many faces: (1) I have done my homework. (2) I had already done my homework by then. (3) If I had done my homework yesterday, I would come with you. (4) ...
3
votes
0answers
14 views

Do all cultures have “taboo language”?

In english, taboo language may be realized as swear words--though I could see some languages not having "swear words" in the english sense, while maintaining "vulgar expressions". All cultures have ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

PIE root streig- : How to reconcile 'To stroke, rub, press'?

Source: streig- = To stroke, rub, press. European root I heed the Etymological Fallacy, but what are some right ways of interpreting these three opposing definitions, so that this PIE root ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

PIE root *trep-: 'trepidation' vs 'trope'

[Etymonline for trepidation (n.) :] ... from PIE * trep- (1) "to shake, tremble" ... , related to * trem- (see tremble (v.)). [Etymonline for trope (n.) :] ... from PIE * trep- (2) ...
4
votes
0answers
29 views

What's the evidence for and against isochrony?

The question What evidence is currently known that favors or disfavors the hypothesis that languages have a regular beat of some kind—that is, an “isochrony”? I've run across some claims that there ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Markedness model of code switching [on hold]

Would you please give me examples about 3 maxims of markedness theory and its each definition for every type?
3
votes
0answers
33 views

Where does the word “kitsch” come from?

While a lot of sources on wiktionary for instance agree that "kitsch" comes from dialectal german word "kitschen", the meaning of this word is different between wikitionary pages (in the french ...
0
votes
2answers
32 views

Name of theory stating “worldview affects language structure”

I'm writing a paper on the Ju'Hoansi of South Africa for my anthropology class and I'm trying show how their egalitarian worldview might affect their language structure such as their lack of ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

'dispose' vs 'dispose of' & « disposer » vs « disposer de »

[Source:] [D1.] dispose (v.) - (a) to arrange in order; (b) to lean toward or incline (typically used as a past participle). ... [D2.] dispose of (phrasal v.) - (a) to throw away or discard; (b) ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

How can two phrases refer to the same object, but have different meanings?

Source: Lecture 1-5 (transcription), ... How to Reason and Argue, by Prof W Sinnott-Armstrong The following is from a question that pops up during the video at 3 min 14 seconds. [Question:] When ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

When and why did 'another' start being used as one word?

I assume the word came from a meshing together of 'other' with its indefinite article'. When (and why) did English speakers begin to use this version, instead of 'an other'? And why is it still ...
2
votes
1answer
20 views

Within various languages, how often are colours used to signify a condition or a feeling?

I've seen in the English language that colors are used to signify what a person feels or a condition that person exists in (i.e. 'blue' referring to sadness and 'red' referring to anger.) I also know ...
0
votes
2answers
38 views

Negation word and stress in English

in the phrase "It's funny", the stress is usually on the first syllable of the adjective: [ ɪts ˈfʌ ni ] But what happens when the negation "not" appears? [ ɪts nɑt ˈfʌ ni ] I'm quite sure the ...
-1
votes
0answers
31 views

What are the types of the phoneme distribution? How to define them? [on hold]

I was given a task to define the types of the phoneme distribution in teese words: tea [tiː] – stay [steɪ] – try [traɪ] – twice [twaɪs] – little [ˈlɪtl] But I have no idea how to do that? Could ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Is there any verb net project in Japanese?

I'm looking for a verb network or verb dictionary project in Japanese which shows verbs with its own dependencies (like [iku DP DP] [kaeru DP] etc.). Is there any?
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Etymology of English suffix -logy

I excerpt OED, which I read because I want to understand this etymology. -logy, comb. form ... These Greek words for the most part are parasynthetic derivatives; in some instances the ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

How to trace Proto-language roots towards English and French?

TL;DR: What resources tie Proto-language roots (eg Proto-Indo-European), to English and French, especially if spelling has changed? I always heed linguistic pitfalls, but I always try to find some ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

What are the blanket or general terms representing these linguistic pitfalls?

Are there collective, sweeping official terms that comprise linguistic traps such as these? Etymological fallacy Folk etymology False friend False cognate False etymology
0
votes
3answers
47 views

Spelling Similarities in English and Spanish but not in Italian and Spanish

The spelling of the word 'admit' has a ⟨d⟩ in both English and the Spanish equivalent, admitir, but not in Italian ammettere. Why is the ⟨d⟩ absent in the Italian equivalent?
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Why is English word accent traditionally defined as dynamic?

Coud anyone explain why is English word accent traditionally defined as dynamic? Due to some of it's features,history?
0
votes
1answer
24 views

How to transcribe allophones of /ɒ/ in Boston English

In contemporary Boston speech and probably also in Maine it seems to me that the realization of /ɒ/ is widely much less constricted, and in some realizations allophonically more fronted than RP /ɒ/. ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

What languages have been documented using Minimalism?

I'm interested in having a few references to (more of less) full grammars of natural languages that would be written under Minimalist approach. Are there any around? I guess, accounts of some major ...
-1
votes
0answers
22 views

What type of parallelism is this and what is the correct term for “graphology”?

Reading Anthem for Doomed Youth by Wilfred Owen: What passing-bells for these who die as cattle?   Only the monstrous anger of the guns. Only the stuttering rifles' rapid rattle ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Could a language be revived from a dictionary and lots of natural text?

Let's say aliens (someone completely new to the language) want to talk with users of it. They've obtained a complete dictionary, and a large selection of natural text (for this hypothetical situation, ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

PIE root *(s)plei-: “to split, splice”?

I was reading Etymonline's entry for splice {verb}: 1520s, originally a sailors' word, from Middle Dutch splissen "to splice" (Dutch splitsen), from Proto-Germanic spli-, from PIE root *(s)plei- ...
3
votes
1answer
57 views

Indistinguishability of [f] and [s] on phone - citation?

I have long felt that [f] and [s] are hard to tell apart on the phone, especially when spelling out words letter by letter. As a non linguist (but audio engineer) it seems to me that the frequencies ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Consonants in the same tongue position

the phrase: "Sit down" phonetically looks like [sɪt daʊn]. The "t" and "d" are in the same tongue position. Can we drop the "t" in the first word in this situation in fast/casual speech? like this: ...
3
votes
0answers
28 views

Inside-outside algorithm (PCFG learning) and binarization

I am implementing the Inside-outside algorithm to estimate the parameters of a PCFG based on the train corpus. One observation (on existing implementations) is that, the grammar is converted into ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Derivation tree for 'The boy believed that he had time'

For the sentence 'The boy believed that he had time' I'm not sure how to break down the VP 'believed that he had time' S --> NP VP NP -- > Det N --> The boy VP --> ? Is 'that' a conjunction ...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

Can a word have zero characters in it? [closed]

Is it possible for a word, especially a person's name, to have zero characters in it? No letters, no numbers, no punctuation, just totally empty? I'm aware of some people not having a surname, or not ...
5
votes
1answer
596 views

Why was the name תאומא transliterated as Θωμᾶς (Thomas) rather than Τωμᾶς (Tomas)?

Thomas derives from Aramaic תאומא (cognate with the Hebrew תאום). My understanding was that Aramaic, like Tiberian Hebrew, had the fricative [θ] as a conditioned allophone for the plosive [t], and ...
3
votes
2answers
57 views

How to identify corresponding sentences in source and translation texts?

I'm interested in creating files where a source text and translation are interleaved with each other, so that each sentence (or small group of sentences) is immediately followed by its translation. ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Finding semantic similarity between abstracts of academic papers

I am completely new to this area so please bear with me. I am looking for an automated way to compare the abstracts of academic papers and compute a measure of semantic similarity. What I would like ...
-1
votes
0answers
34 views

What else about Proto-Indo-European can improve my English and French? [closed]

Thanks to Etymonline.com, I only recently discovered the value and utility of recognising Proto-Indo-European (aka PIE) roots in connecting words and so strengthening vocabulary. While bewaring of ...
-1
votes
0answers
26 views

Could “scratch” be derived from the same PIE source as “card” and “chart”?

I found the following entries on Wiktionary (emphasis mine): carte French noun card chart; map menu card English From Middle English carde (“playing card”), from Old French carte, from Latin ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

How distinct do two language varieties need to be in order to consider their alternating usage to be an act of code-switching?

I was recently thinking about code-switching (i.e. switching between languages within a sentence, social exchange, phrase, etc.) Would switching between dialects or accents of the same language under ...
1
vote
4answers
114 views

Does learning ancestral languages enrich a subsequent language?

[Grammarphobia.com:] The study, published in 1973, offered this breakdown of sources [of English vocabulary]: Latin: 28.34%;  French: 28.3%;   Old and Middle English, Old Norse, and Dutch: 25%; ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

Does English have a common parlance demarcation between inclusive disjunction and exclusive disjunction?

Distinguishing between inclusive or and exclusive or in logic is useful. Is there already an ascribed way of using each of these operators in everyday speech in English?
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Reason for using 4- and 5-grams for co-occurrence analysis

I am trying to replicate the results of a paper which didn't share its data methods that clearly. It makes use of the Web 1T 5-gram Version 1 data set collected from Google to expand 72 words into 964 ...
-1
votes
2answers
40 views

Why do DR MRS VANDERTRAMP require 'be' for the present perfect?

I already know (and so ask NOT about) that symbolised by the mnemonic DR MRS VANDERTRAMP, these especial 16 verbs require « être » (= to be) as the auxiliary verb, to form the passé composé (= present ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Latin's excrescent e- in English and French

I was reading Etymonline's entry on 'estate' which broaches the excrescent e- as follows. Please advise if I'm wrong, but I'll just refer to it as epenthesis in case the following involves the ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

stress of function words in English

Generally speaking, what are conditions under which function words in English are to be stressed. I am working on weak/strong/contracted forms in English and the textbook states that WFs are to be ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Opinions on Principles and Parameters Theory [closed]

I'm curious about your opinions on Principles and Parameters Theory. Do you consider it possible or rather you think that it is impossible that our grammar was structured that way. I appreciate any ...
1
vote
3answers
62 views

Do mixed languages have families?

It seems to me that when linguists talk about mixed languages, they talk about the parent languages that resulted in the creole or pidgin tongue, rather than what language family it belongs to. I've ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

What human speech sounds could the canine vocal tract produce?

If dogs had brains with the same capacity for language as humans, but retained their canine vocal tracts, what human speech sounds could they produce? And what speech sounds could they produce that ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Predicate vs. Predicator

BACKGROUND According to Oxford Dictionaries Online: Predicator means "(In systemic grammar) a verb phrase considered as a constituent of clause structure, along with subject, object, and ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

The words men, ben and pen in Kazakh

I came across this problem where the difference between men, ben and pen in the Kazakh language was asked. I understand it has something to do with Vowel harmony, but I did not quite understand it. ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Glide between the words “be” and “okay”

the phrase "It's gonna be okay" phonetically looks like: [ɪts gʌnə bɪ oʊkeɪ] There should be a glide (y) or (w) between the words "be" and "okay": ɪts gʌnə bɪ(y)oʊkeɪ, or ɪts gʌnə bɪ(w)oʊkeɪ I'm ...

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