0
votes
0answers
31 views

Who are some linguists who have an “essentialist” view?

I have to write an essay which looks at the way the study of gendered differences in language changes over time but I'm struggling to find any linguists who write with the view that language is ...
4
votes
5answers
452 views

Could the English language be learned purely by observing written texts?

I just asked this question on English Language Learners and there they suggested that it might better fit here. This is a high level and difficult question, however I think it is an interesting ...
-1
votes
1answer
27 views

How to incorporate sentences into a new work without infringing the copyright of anyone? [on hold]

If you are developing a dictionary, or flash cards, or any other linguistics product that would need lots of real-life examples, and publish them (not just draw conclusions based on them), how can you ...
-1
votes
0answers
18 views

SYNTAX TREES HELPPP! [on hold]

So these are the sentences … The happy dolphin that loves the sad dolphin is hunting for four fish. The dog played in the park with his owner. The cat and the squirrel salsa dance on the moon. ...
3
votes
0answers
72 views

Why did English change so rapidly between the late 1600s and the early 1700s?

I am currently reading the King James Version of the Bible and am slowly getting used to the text-—English is my second language. I then wondered with what ease would I be able to understand the ...
1
vote
2answers
80 views

What are the disadvantages of Abugida writing systems?

Indian here, but it only suddenly struck me now that the abugida systems seem to have no disadvantages at all (except one). I'm only considering what seem like standard measures of "good" : (small) ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Frequency information of words within a given category

I am looking for some database or method with which I can get frequency information of words of a defined category. Example: amount of English animal names, fruits etc. that are known to a normal ...
1
vote
3answers
140 views

“Episode 78” machine mistranslation etymology

This post on Rocket News 24 described a Google Translate bug, in which さよなら大好きな人 was translated into "Episode 78". This bug is still live as of the time of writing, and you can replicate it ...
-1
votes
0answers
22 views

How do I write about the concept of “Discovery” in a media (text / book..etc) [on hold]

Let's say for my English class the focus is on the concept of "Discovery" How, then, would I be able to create body essay paragraphs, relating the media to 'discovery' ? The discovery can be ...
0
votes
0answers
41 views

How did the “erogation” word ended up at the display of the coffee machines? [migrated]

I've searched for "erogation" and according to many dictionaries, it comes from the latin for "the art of giving out or bestowing", but currently seems to be heavily linked to the coffee business. I'd ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Is there any corpus for technical English? (E.g., computers, IT, modern technology)

Alternatively, do any larger corpora have categories that pertain to technology, computer science, etc.? Or collections of English documentation and/or manuals related to modern devices, interfaces, ...
-1
votes
0answers
16 views

NLP questions to ask about a Corpus [on hold]

I am taking a Linguistics class and need to ask 2 questions about my corpus and then find the answers by parsing, text analysis, and NLP sites. The text is not clear on what questions should/could be ...
0
votes
1answer
95 views

Why don't any languages have strictly one character for every single phonetic sound?

Of the languages I know about, most of them (not Chinese, Japanese, etc.) only have characters or character groups for specific sounds, and also can have a single specific sound generated by placing ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Could someone clarify for me what the difference between phonologically related and phonetically related means?

i.e. how are two allomorphs phonologically/phonetically related. Thanks!
3
votes
3answers
84 views

Does Basque sound like Spanish, or vice versa?

I am always amazed by how similar both languages sound despite being very different in almost every other aspect. I suspect that this is a classical example of a Sprachbund, but I am interested in ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Common change of conjugation of the verbs in spoken languages?

Is the natural tendency of the verbs in spoken language towards more or fewer conjugations? For example, in my language, we use conjugations related to time, person, etc. In English we have ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

All things equal, does the number of words affect comprehension time?

The English sentence 'He runs' comprises two syllables. The Spanish sentence 'Corre' comprises two syllables. Both sentences mean the same thing, both sentences take about the same amount of time to ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Common change of conjugation of the verbs in spoken languages?

Is the natural tendency of the verbs in spoken language towards more or fewer conjugations? For example, in my language, we use conjugations related to time, person, etc. In English we have ...
3
votes
2answers
74 views

What is the difference between a filler word and a discourse marker?

What is the difference between a filler and a discourse marker? There are words that seem fall into both categories. The Wikipedia article on the latter is sparse and lacks examples, but what it does ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Is there any language where there exist words for smells not connected with smelling objects?

Is there any language where there exist words for smells not derived or already disconnected from words for smelling objects? For instance, those derived from verbs, of obscure etymology, or not ...
6
votes
2answers
87 views

Do other languages distinguish the verbs “to drink” when talking about alcohol?

It's interesting that English uses the verb "to drink" intransitively exclusively when talking about alcohol, as in: I drink a lot. But transitively when talking about anything else, as in: ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Concerning Semitic Pronunciation of Pharyngeal Letters

So a popular theory in the pronunciation of Hebrew is that "Biblical Hebrew" (or, at the very least, Hebrew up to the point to the fall of the Second Temple and well into the 8th century CE) had ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Is there some article/book containing history/comparison of different systems of syntax diagramming used in modern linguistics?

There is a dissertation from 1973 by Richard Coulter Brittain "Critical History of Systems of Sentence Diagramming in English" which outlines development of syntax diagramming until the work of ...
-1
votes
2answers
63 views

What is the least changed language in use today?

I wonder that, among the oldest languages spoken today, which one is the best preserved resembling its oldest known form in terms of grammar and vocabulary. I know that we are limited in our knowledge ...
-3
votes
0answers
20 views

Become fluent in 2.5 languages in 1.5 years? [closed]

18 months. 5-6 hours of individual study possible a day. Unlimited formal tuition affordable and viable. Native speakers of the languages available to converse with. Languages in question: Mandarin ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

What are common non-lexical indicators of sarcasm expressed orally in English

I've been doing some anecdotal research into what indicates sarcasm in spoken form. My goal is to find indicators of sarcasm without relying on the meaning of the words and sentences themselves. ...
4
votes
3answers
81 views

relative complexity of languages

Often, when talking casually about languages, people will say that one language is harder to learn than another. I always thought that this was a common misconception, and that other than the ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

On the search for an example sentence from a German textbook

Once I read three sentences build of made-up words with correct German declination and conjugation, so you were able to parse this sentence although it beared no semantic meaning. It was something ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

How close are pronunciations /ɕ/ and /x/?

I've noticed that some words starting with /ɕ/ in (Chinese) Mandarin become /x/ in some dialects. For example: 鞋 /ɕjɛ/ -> /xai/ 下 /ɕja/ -> /xa/ How close are /ɕ/ and /x/ pronunciation-wise? Does ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Using Swadesh lists to find languages with most frequent vowel use?

Has there been any comparative studies of Swadesh lists from different language, regarding percentage of vowels vs. consonants? Some languages can occassionally be "derogative" talked about as "only ...
11
votes
2answers
143 views

Why are Native American names translated?

Is there a particular reason that Native American names, such as Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Black Hawk, or Red Cloud, are translated into English phrases? As far as I know, no other culture's names ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

What are the foundational papers in computational phonology?

I'm working on a paper on the history of computational phonology. As I understand it, Chomsky & Halle's SPE acted as a catalyst for research in the field, namely by laying the foundations for ...
-1
votes
3answers
95 views

What is the longest sequence of vowels in one word that you know of?

What are the longest sequence of vowels in a natural language that you know of? Be aware that this is an orthographic question, not a phonetical. Please state word, language and translation.
1
vote
1answer
43 views

How do you do an interlinear gloss for an analytic language?

I have reviewed the Liepzig Rules, and google searches are failing me. They don't say much about glossing words that don't have any internal morphology. The gloss of an analytic language by these ...
-1
votes
1answer
37 views

Translation into Latin [closed]

I would like to translate the following phrase into Latin. Unto the Lion and the Lamb Please provide a translation into English. Using Google Translate I got the following: In Leo et Agnus but ...
29
votes
11answers
9k views

Do unschooled people use cases correctly, e.g. in Germany and in Russia?

I wonder if the case system is devised/imposed by literates and not really natural: it is said that the vulgar Latin that most people really used didn't have e.g. the cases (or all of them) of the ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Does ambisyllabicity apply to all words?

In the answers to my last phonetics assignment provided by my professor, the syllable tree diagram for the word /ʌ n t æ ŋ g l̩ / didn't show any ambisyllabic consonants. Our textbook doesn't go into ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Semantic Relatedness metric across Parts of Speech

I am a student in psychology, but I have very little familiarity with linguistics. I am doing working on flexible cognition and memory, and we are developing a task that requires participants to ...
0
votes
2answers
82 views

Would someone be able to identify this language and translate the text to english? [closed]

I just bought this bracelet at a random goodwill shop in Boston and it's beautiful, I would just like to make sure I'm not wearing something offensive or religiously significant.
2
votes
0answers
74 views

Do we know how common it is for ethnic Chinese and Tamils in Malaysia to speak each others language?

Here in Malaysia there are three main ethnicities, Malay, Chinese, Tamil, and most people speak more than one language. There are four main language groupings: Malay - national language and ...
-1
votes
0answers
80 views

Phonemes common to all languages

Is there a set of native phonemes that is common to all languages? For example the 'lh' of Portuguese 'bacalhau' is absent in Portuguese and French; the 'th' of English 'think' is absent in ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Word difficulty as a function of frequency

What is known in general about the relationship between word difficulty and word frequency? That is, for a given word, suppose I know the frequency with which it (or its word stem) is encountered in ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Ellipsis site in information structure

My understanding was always that any elided material does not count for information structure of the overt sentence, naturally. That is, the material has to be given to be elided --- but it cannot be ...
2
votes
1answer
61 views

Is there a term for sentence ending phrases like “if that is the right word”

I'm an amateur looking for help! I talk about "heads" and "tails". Other examples of tails are "don't you think?" "do you see what I mean", "or something similar". They are phrases L2 beginners can ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

Short summary of Cognitive Linguistics [closed]

I'm a german student of English and I have to make a short presentation (about 20 minutes) about the basic assumptions and terms of Cognitive Linguistics. I got a huge collection of books and articles ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

MLU and t units in second language speech

Do most researchers agree that t units and MLU are good measures of fluency and/or syntactic complexity in the speech of children and adults who learn second languages? If so, does this equally hold ...
4
votes
1answer
108 views

What quantity-level of mutual intelligible words are needed for claiming dialects to be languages?

There are much debate of when two dialects become languages. Apart from non-linguistic reasons like politics, quality of understanding is most often used to decide whether two dialects are effectively ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

What are the different ways used to ortographically show the length of vowels?

Norwegian is using vowel length contrastively. This is normally shown in ortography by double consonant after the vowel. tak(tɑːk) vs. takk(tɑk). What other ways are used to ortographically show ...
3
votes
8answers
214 views

Examples of words containing the same letter three times in a row in any language?

I was just reading a french text with the word créées (created). Are there any other languages where triple letters, especially vowels, can be found occasionally?
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Is «plausible» a false friend between English and Spanish? [closed]

I'm a native Spanish speaker and today I was just wondering about this, if it's a case like bizarre and bizarro (which in Spanish means «generous» or «brave», not «weird»). I couldn't fully ...

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