0
votes
0answers
17 views

Memorability of words?

I'm asking this here as I'm not seeing a psycho-linguistic group, and I think that is what I'm looking at. I'm hoping there is some degree of crossover. Is there a specific word or phrase used that ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Alternative subject positions in Spanish questions, economy and markedness

The following six Spanish sentences are different versions of the question/different questions corresponding to the unmarked declarative sentence Alguien más podría haber estado usando su ordenador ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Do languages with long clusters have minimal vowel or consonant inventories?

I assume, considering the Onset principle, that there are not many languages that have a structure with VV or VVV but are there languages that have a CV.VV structure? If there is, I would assume that ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

What feature classes do ʙ r ʀ belong to?

I am unsure which features would be inclusive of trills, any information is greatly appreciated! Also, if anyone knows of a feature chart online that includes trills and could link to it that would be ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Are there verbs in Swahili which can be both active and passive?

In English some verbs can be both active and passive, depending on the context - for example: The mother is cooking. The chicken is cooking. In the case of my mother, I am using the active ...
-1
votes
1answer
44 views

Which two languages are the most unlike each other?

So, which two existing languages are the least like each other?
0
votes
1answer
32 views

History of languages from a geographical perspective

Unfortunately I am totally unaware of the research and most of the basic methodology of Linguistics, but I am really keen on knowing more about languages because I am a passionate learner of new ones, ...
-1
votes
1answer
56 views

Trying to understand why adjectives do not refer

[Question rewritten and retitled, now that I have a better understanding of what I didn't understand, due to comments] This is probably information I could find on the Internet elsewhere, but I am ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

How does one learn the meaning of a new symbol in Chinese?

We've all been there. Say you're reading an article about something, and you come across a new word you've never seen before; how do you find out what it means or what it sounds like? In most ...
-1
votes
0answers
19 views

English word usage statistic

Hello I would like to ask if there exists an article about ratio of words usage in various languages, for example English. What do I mean by ratio of usage is that to every word there is assigned some ...
2
votes
5answers
97 views

Which comes first? Grammar or language?

I always have the impression grammar is just a tool to help studying and learning a language, i.e. it is a scientific tool invented for a language after the language has existed. But to think of it ...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

Why is “Shanghai” pronounced the way it is in English?

Most English-language news sources and people in America pronounce the name of the city (上海) with a long a sound as in "way" within the "shang (上)" syllable, but it's not pronounced that way in ...
3
votes
2answers
54 views

At what point in the syntactic hierarchy inside a clause do phrases acquire ‘propositional’ status?

In standard propositional logic, both p and –p are ‘propositions’. In natural language, however, what phrases smaller than TP are ‘propositional’ is much less obvious. For example, take the simplest ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Gold Part-Of-Speech tags

I've read this term in many papers in NLP: (Gold POS tags). what does it mean? Thanks.
3
votes
2answers
116 views

Etymology of Demeter

Can the name of the Greek goddess Demeter come from PIE word for tamer, dōma̯tēr (especially given the Aeolic form of the goddess' name, Δωμάτηρ)? I am interested in both whether it is possible from ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Evaluate idea to autobuild russian-english parallel corpus

I was looking for russian-english parallel corpus, but have found none publicly available to the moment. If you know one, or parallel text database, I would be very grateful for one. (I heard of ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

Glottal stops that aren't tenuis

Is any language known to contain a glottal stop [ʔ] that isn't tenuis? For example, an aspirated glottal stop [ʔʰ], a palatalized glottal stop [ʔʲ], or a labialized glottal stop [ʔʷ]. CORRECTION: It ...
2
votes
2answers
47 views

What is the history of the International Phonetic Alphabet?

I know it has its origins in the International Phonetic Association, but the idea of a unique alphabet for each speech sound of the world's languages organized by place and manner must've had an ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

(allegedly) ungrammatical preposition stranding [migrated]

Certain types of preposition-stranding are considered by some linguists to be "ungrammatical" in English, even though they do not seem remotely strange to me (an English speaker). I'm not talking ...
2
votes
3answers
55 views

Why does google translate produce awkward sentences

Anyone who has ever used Google translate knows that the translated version is mostly grammatically correct but often extremely awkward to use in a conversation. This is one of the factor which has ...
1
vote
2answers
67 views

If word usage is based on semantic range, how do new meanings emerge?

I recently read an article in which the author was attempting to explain how "semantic range" works. He explained it like this: words don't have "a" meaning; they have a semantic range of possible ...
1
vote
3answers
93 views

Which languages contrast /ɕ/ and /ʃ/?

According to Wikipedia, there's a phonemic contrast between /ɕ/ and /ʃ/ in Ubykh, North Qiang, South Qiang and Luxembourgish (though they are merging). Do any other languages exhibit this distinction? ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

What is the most comprehensive context-free grammar for English?

I realize how hard it is to develop a CFG to model an arbitrary English sentence. Some valid discussion points for this topic can be found here: Is there an EBNF that covers all of English? However, ...
0
votes
2answers
52 views

Are there measures of language complexity?

I can find measures of "readability" but not language complexity (there might be another word for this, I give an example below) online. If anyone knows of any, would you list them? By complexity I ...
0
votes
2answers
45 views

The reasons for displacement letters of the words in the transition between languages and dialects

I saw the displacement letters of the words in the transition between languages and dialects.For example in my language (Persian) dialects: Lajegir converted to Lagejir.I don't remember any example ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Why are non-stop nasals so rare?

Almost every language has at least two nasal stops (usually /n/ and /m/), and a language that lacks any nasal stops is extremely rare. And yet, also very rare is any kind of nasal that isn't a stop, ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Steps to build a dependency parser [closed]

I'm a beginner in NLP. What are the main steps to build a dependency parser? thanks.
3
votes
1answer
52 views

Semitic: *w > y

In some Semitic languages, the consonant w seems to have become y (a palatal glide) in certain positions: for example Arabic walid "newborn", Hebrew yeled "child", or Arabic waraq "leaves, foliage", ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

What is the root of an utterance without a verb?

Dependency grammars treat the main verb of a sentence as the root node of a dependency graph. Not all utterances, however, have verbs. (Example: the widely known exclamation "holy shit!") In these ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

markov chains in text generation

I'm a beginner in natural language processing, what is the disadvantages of using markov chains in text generation versus using productive grammars? any help or keywords? thanks.
-1
votes
2answers
117 views

Why can verbs with imperfective morphology have a perfective meaning?

Some languages, e.g., Russian (1), Bulgarian (5) or Greek, show perfective readings of morphosyntactically imperfective verbs: (1) Jakov ezdil na more dvazhdy za poslednij god. J. rode.IPF ...
4
votes
3answers
274 views

Are some languages more advanced than others?

I have read about animal communication, particularly in mammals and historical evidence in early hominoids. Naturally, I am always amazed how much information species like dolphins and orcas can ...
1
vote
4answers
84 views

Any world languages having multiple-letter-based or single-ideogram-based syllables where three or more consecutive syllables of any word repeat?

My question is related to this interesting question, but instead of looking for letters within words which happen to appear repeated three or more times in a row, I'm looking for consecutive identical ...
0
votes
2answers
62 views

adjectives and adverbs functioning as prepositional complements

what kind of adv and adj are these? what is prep. complement. Can you give ma a couple of examples of adj. and adv. which may function as prepositional complements?
2
votes
1answer
30 views

Are Spanish “que” clauses following “parece” complements or postponed subjects?

The Spanish equivalent of It seems that they hate each other is Parece que se odian. In both languages seem/parecer are one-place predicates (well, both can optionally accept a second argument with ...
3
votes
4answers
72 views

Origin of Language as Commands?

I'm not sure if this type of thread is allowed, but I've been pondering the possibility that language began as commands rather than expression of arbitrary thoughts. This is based on the observation ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Wh embedded question ambiguous trees [closed]

I am having problems drawing the trees for the following sentence. I'm interested in both the pre and post movement trees for this ambiguous sentence: Lisa wondered when Bart said she saw Nelson. If ...
2
votes
1answer
80 views

How can a Language or a Dialect be incorrect or inferior than some other one?

The question is that can one say that a Language or a Dialect is grammatically incorrect? What if I say, Sanskrit is grammatically incorrect modern Hindi This doesn't make sense. We cannot ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

List of minimal pairs in Turkish

Is anyone aware of a resource (web-based or in print) providing a comprehensive list of minimal pairs in Turkish?
1
vote
2answers
32 views

Is it possible to build thesaurus automatically?

Is it possible to build thesaurus by simply analyzing lots of text, or it's obligatory should be handmade? Also a question: is there free-to-download&use English language thesaurus?
3
votes
3answers
55 views

What is the origin of the paucal form?

I just recently learned about the distinction between paucal and plural forms in my native Serbo-Croatian. Designating groups of counted nouns as smaller or larger than five adds complexity to the ...
1
vote
2answers
61 views

Detecting actions within text

I'm looking for a way to computationally find any actionable clauses within a body of text. Ideally there is a library I could use that I just give a body of text and it spits out the actions that it ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

The Difference between “Imperium Persarum” and “Persarum Imperium” [closed]

First time asking. :) As the title suggests, I wanted to know the difference between the two names for the Persian Empire in Latin. (I'm not even sure if both are used...) I've tried asking other ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Does Lao (or Thai) have any “verbalizer” morphemes?

I know of at least two morphemes in lao which are nominalizers that can convert lexical verbs or adjectives into nouns: ການ and ຄວາມ. What I'm wondering is whether there are any counterparts which ...
1
vote
2answers
57 views

Language characteristics only found in one language

I am looking for language characteristics only found in one single language. (Maybe that could shed some lights on language development, since that could be a starting point to investegate why these ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Are there Tai languages (or Tai-Kadai) which have a voiced velar stop phoneme?

Thai and Lao each have three series of stops, unvoiced unaspirated, aspirated, and voiced. For labials and alveolars, all three exist, but for velars there is no voiced stop. Is this the case for ...
5
votes
5answers
141 views

How did the same perfect-tense structure become so widespread in Europe?

In many Germanic and Romance languages, the perfect tense is formed with the verb 'to have' or 'to be' plus a past participle. It's easy to find explanations ["I have an arrow (which is) made (by ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Finding word frequency for calculating PMI

I am going to calculate PMI (Pointwise Mutual Information) for a set of words. As we know, for calculating PMI for two words we need to have the frequency of words (specifically, 1-gram and 2-grams). ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Do Persian Adjectives have Masc. Fem. and Neuter forms

For adjectives in Farsi (Persian), do they have Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. For Example: The adjective خوب (Khoob, meaning good), does it have different forms, like in French or Russian? ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

Etymological reason behind Lao's many seeming variants for “stairs”?

I'm in Laos studying Lao on my own and came across the fact that different sources have slightly different words for "stairs" and the SEAlang Lao dictionary has even more: ກະໃດ - 15 Google results ...

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