0
votes
1answer
26 views

Translations into Mongolian and Icelandic [on hold]

I wish to translate into Mongolian the sentence "I have no home", and into Icelandic the sentence "However, I have the road". I tried Google Translate, but couldn't fully trust the results. I can't ...
0
votes
2answers
69 views

dear, ear, fear, gear, hear, near … why are bear/pear pronounced differently? [on hold]

Some of you have helped me and my mum, so thank you for that. In class last week we were looking at pronunciation ... and something caught me out. Why are some words spelt very similar to multiple ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views
+50

Help me find an early Old Norse dictionary (or even a grammar)

For some time I've been looking for a dictionary of Old Norse that reflects an early situation in the language; this kind of resource has been amazingly hard to find, for some reason. Most ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

How can I embed language proficiency assessment within an unrelated experiment design?

I'm in the process of designing a self-paced-reading & a grammaticality-judgment-task experiment, which should be performed by second language learners. It is crucial to the study is how the ...
-2
votes
0answers
31 views

Convert English Sentences to First Order Logic [on hold]

I want to convert the following sentences to first order logic.I need help urgently. ' You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time but you cannot fool all ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

In how small chunks can I chop up a text for piece by piece translation?

I'm creating a piece language learning software, which will include a component that lets the user read texts with a translation on the side. The texts will be chopped up into segments, and have the ...
0
votes
0answers
48 views

Translation of “Beowulf”

In the brief span of time I have studied this ancient poem, particularly verses 1829-30, I have read several translations. While observing each individual rendering of the text, it was evident to me ...
0
votes
2answers
59 views

How to work with an IPA chart?

I am trying to learn French vowel sounds using this IPA chart. My question is about this chart. I use it for the first time and I am interested how comprehensive it is. Does a position at this chart ...
0
votes
0answers
81 views

Japanese: “osowarata”?

These are the lyrics to a metal song about Lovecraft's The Dunwich Horror. The band tends go Classical for effect (cf. the refrain at the end: 闇にこぞりて / 我が主来ませり …). The first verse is transcribed in ...
4
votes
4answers
97 views

Are there writing systems with more than upper case and lower case?

The English alphabet has two "cases", UPPER CASE and lower case. Japanese hiragana has one case. Are there any writing systems, with, say, 3, 4 or more cases?
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Complex sentence without a subordinating conjunction?

Here's the sentence that's been confusing me: Compared to dogs, cats showed more enthusiasm. I feel this should be a complex sentence because there's one independent clause and one dependent ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

The 'ch' sound in Chilean Spanish — is there a difference between these symbols?

I am researching dialects in Chilean Spanish , and one feature that is often mentioned (and one that you can hear all across Chile in conversation) is the varying pronunciation of the 'ch' sound. I ...
-1
votes
0answers
68 views

What linguists are serious about mathematical formalization? [on hold]

Most linguists don't pay any attention to the mathematical formalization. It is something the theoreticians play with, but the formalizations don't represent any real autonomous systems. I need ...
5
votes
0answers
83 views

Does Japanese have pronouns?

It is often said that Japanese doesn't really have a pronoun word class, such as in the Wikipedia article on Japanese Grammar: Although many grammars and textbooks mention pronouns (代名詞 ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

How are “spectral properties” distinct from “linguistic properties”?

As a linguist, I have a good idea of what linguistic properties of a sound can be: be they describable in terms of distinctive features or whatever. But what, then, are spectral properties? It's not ...
2
votes
2answers
76 views

Languages with different open and closed word classes

The prototypical example of languages with unusual open and closed categories, which is mentioned almost every time that the topic comes up, is Japanese, where pronouns are an open category and verbs ...
2
votes
1answer
410 views

Is Huawei a pentaphtong?

Is the word Huawei a pentaphtong?
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Pronunciation software?

Do you know of any pronunciation or phonetics software that would be useful to ESL learners? I have read that software with spectrographs or xrays showing tongue placement are very effective. I am ...
3
votes
1answer
41 views

Grammatical variation between Attic Greek prose authors

I'm interested in the grammatical variation that is found between prose writers in what is putatively a single dialect of Greek, Attic. Such variation exists on various levels: Phonology: e.g., some ...
-1
votes
0answers
68 views

Is Spanish a relatively easy language for Japanese people to pronounce?

Is Spanish an easy language, compared to for example English, for native speakers of Japanese to pronounce? I've heard that pronunciation is similar between the two languages, with an assumption that ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

What is the scope of negation (again)?

I recently asked a question concerning the scope of negation. I received helpful feedback from a number of linguists who frequent this forum. My efforts to discern the scope of negation continue, and ...
-1
votes
0answers
17 views

Computing Lexical Density

I'm looking for a tool / program which is capable of calculating the lexical density (Content Words / N [cf. Halliday]) of a piece of text. This would require the program to identify content words ...
-1
votes
0answers
21 views

Growth increase when merging two dictionaries

More specifically, I have two corpora of the same size, and from the (more or less) same domain. If I merge their respective dictionaries, is there a good estimate by how much the joined dictionary is ...
4
votes
1answer
69 views

The contrast between predicative and ordinary

Predicative elements can also be adjuncts as in He wrote most of his poetry drunk: the contrast between predicative and ordinary (non-predicative) thus cuts across that between complements and ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

“se se” in Portuguese

In Portuguese it occurs a phenomenon of se word repetition. The first se is translated to English as if, and the second is the reflexive pronoun of the singular 3rd person, as the last word of the ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

Why is less consistent SVO more common than VSO or VOS?

"Language Change as a Source of Word Order Correlations", by Brady Clark, Matthew Goldrick, and Kenneth Konopka, is among the many sources dating back to Greenberg (1966) stating that language ...
1
vote
2answers
84 views

Why are Latin descendants SVO?

Latin was a language which predominant order was Subject-Object-Verb, as in the example proverb Errare Humanum Est So, why all its modern descendents are predominantly Subject-Verb-Object order? Or ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

2nd person convergence in other languages than English

Besides English, is there any other language where the 2nd person singular converges with the second person plural? And is there any other language where the informal singular 2nd person converges ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Who and whom confusion for this sentence? [closed]

This question arose when I wrote this sentence - John was crying for who/whom he lost. Now while writing I got confused whether to use "whom" or "who". I know there is no problem if we use ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

The true place of articulation of Korean affricates

About a month ago I began studying Korean and I am now at a stage where I have some familiarity with the writing system and the phonology. A native speaker is available to me, and while she tells me ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

The study of Prowords

I want to do a research about prowords - procedure words - those are used in army to communicate. In what field of linguistics I will find the study about procedure words? Is it in morphology, ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

What are some alternative communities/forums that are home to engaged linguists?

I have made accounts on some forums that seem quite lackluster. Quora can be fun, but it's not really enough. Reddit fails in this regard. I would love to find a forum for discussion that I can look ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Symbols for IPA categories

In IPA a consonant can have different places of articulation such as Bilabial, Labio-dental, Dental etc. I want to create a IPA chart that doesn't take much space. For that purposes the words are too ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Etymology of Ancient Greek deictic -ī

In Ancient Greek, a deictic particle -ī can be attached to demonstratives to strengthen the "this here" meaning: e.g. houtos "this one", houtosī "this one right here". What is the origin of this -ī? ...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

Is there an estimate for the typical number of morphemes in natural language?

Martinet's "double articulation of language": With phonemes we build morphemes, and with morphemes, words. I'd like to get a sense of how productive are these combinations: With only a few phonemes ...
3
votes
1answer
61 views

Verb conjugation convergence

Portuguese has a strange coincidence in the preterit perfect tense of the verbs ir (to go) and ser (to be): they are conjugated exactly equally. Portuguese — English to go | English to be Eu fui — ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

How is “Writer/reader-responsible language” correlated with synthetic/analytic languages?

This blog post suggests a rather interesting concept of writer/reader -responsible languages. Basically, this quote expresses the idea: English is a writer-responsible language. That means it ...
0
votes
3answers
69 views

What are the uses of language in thought? [closed]

In Bertrand Russell's Analysis of Mind, after he gave only a few examples, he wrote "But it is unnecessary to prolong the catalogue of the uses of language in thought." At the height of excitement, I ...
1
vote
2answers
73 views

Is there an objective definition of compound words?

I've always had difficulty in distinguishing phrases from compound words. To me, spelling a compound word without spaces between the constituents seem to be mostly arbitrary. For example the spelling ...
3
votes
2answers
134 views

Do individuals have an Occam’s razor for word meanings?

Background and Example On the German Stack Exchange, we had a lengthy discussion regarding the meaning of the word Gefäß. It was undisputed that a Gefäß is: an item which can contain liquids ...
-1
votes
0answers
31 views

Are Vasconcelos and Vasco related to basque people?

After learning that Vasconços means Basques and Vasco means Basque in Spanish, I want to know if the Portuguese: Family Surname Vasconcelos Personal First Name Vasco are in any way related to the ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Software that analyses a speech recording and displays a graphic readout

Are there programs that take a recording of human speech as input, perform some kind of phonetic analysis and then return a graphic readout of the phonemes that have been found? I'm currently trying ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Linguistics software (SPAD-T)

I am looking for an old program called SPAD-T that is still used for textual analysis. Can anybody tell me where to find it? Otherwise can anybody send me a copy of the software? It shouldn't be ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

How to annotate a corpus of written discourse for pragmatic analysis (speech acts)?

I am currently creating a small-ish corpus of online conversations that I wish to analyze quantitatively and qualitatively from a pragmatic perspective (speech acts level mainly). The problem is that ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Where to find a dataset of related/sister terms

I'm working on a Natural Language Processing project that requires me to automatically categorize various articles. I've tried creating categories based on wikipedia, freebase and dbpedia but often ...
4
votes
11answers
170 views

Languages with multiple forms of the verb “to be”

Many languages have multiple forms of the verb "to be". For example, Spanish has ser and estar, while Nepali has हो and छ. Some other examples are given in this nice blog post. My question is: what ...
1
vote
0answers
80 views

Are theta roles universal?

Is the theta role in one language (ex. English) - L1 the same as in another language - L2, when this two sentence are about the same ? Can anybody give me example, when they are different ?
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Heterogeneous vs. inhomogeneous [migrated]

I am puzzled about the word "inhomogeneous." Isn't "heterogeneous", strictly speaking, more correct? Do correct me if I'm wrong, but to me, "inhomogeneous" looks like the Latin prefix "in-" added to a ...
4
votes
1answer
78 views

Case matching asymmetry in German dislocation

Left- and right-dislocation in German behave differently regarding the case the dislocated expression takes. Left-dislocation seems to be lenient, as it allows the nominative as well as the case the ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

How can I improve my writing fluency in English? [closed]

So this is a problem I've been struggling with for quite some time now. English is a second language for me despite the fact that I've spend a lot of my childhood years in Australia (grades 1 through ...

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