0
votes
0answers
9 views

Why is 'antipode' not pronounced like 'antipodes' without the final 's'?

After I verified the pronunciation of 'antipode' (/ˈantɪpəʊd/ ), I inexplicably decided to verify separately the pronunciation of 'antipodes ' (/anˈtɪpədiːz/ ) This twofold verification emerged ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

How did the Latin stem '-duce' evolve to mean 'from an effect'?

From the following (on the 3 derivatives of ducere), both 'induction' and 'abduction' presuppose 'an effect', but 'deduction' produces (I intended this use of another derivative of ducere) 'the ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

How were Rs recovered in AmE?

In British English, very often the Rs that are there in the written form of the word are not actually pronounced at all. How, then, could native speakers of early American English eventually recover ...
0
votes
1answer
9 views

Whereto learn Athabascan grammar

I want to try and understand Athabascan grammar, but I don't know very much about it, and, because of this I also don't know what kind of athabascan language I want to learn. I have looked on ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

How did the prefix 'be-' function in 'behind'?

behind (adv.) Old English behindan "behind, after," from bi "by" + hindan "from behind" (see hind (adj.)). hindan already meant "from behind", and It doesn't make sense to say: by from ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

What exactly is remarkable about Proto-Germanic *wrakjon?

wretch, n. and adj. Etymology: Old English wrecca , wræcca , = Old Saxon wrekkio , -eo (applied to the Magi), Old High German reccheo , reccho , etc., exile, adventurer, knight errant (Middle ...
-1
votes
1answer
24 views

Chart with audible sounds pronounced, for Proto-Indo-European?

Are there any counterparts like this IPA Chart with Sounds, but for PIE (at least PIE's phonemes)?
1
vote
2answers
48 views

Recognize this script?

I've wondered about this script since I saw it years ago. I imagine it's an English cipher. Can anyone tell me?
1
vote
0answers
19 views

How common are indefinite pronouns in creole languages?

I understand that creole languages from all parts of the world share many disparate features. Amongst them, how common are third–person, singular, indefinite pronouns (like the French “on”) in creole ...
-1
votes
0answers
33 views

What connects and explains the many meanings of 'yet'?

Source: An Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology, An Introduction (2008) by Anatoly Liberman [p 224:] 1. O[ld] E[nglish] gıet (gıt, gyt, get), gı¤eta, ge¤ta, and their Middle English ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Can someone tell me the differences between the vowel system in Canadian English and the one in General American?

I am interested in knowing what are the vowels found in Canadian English, more particularly in Toronto and Montreal. I know that the low back merger occurred where both /ɔ/ and /ɒ/ merged into /ɑ/ in ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

How viable is the Star Wars model of intercultural communication?

It seems to me that nations are currently opting for the hegemony of the English language in intercultural communication. And though single language civilization model undoubtedly has many perks, I ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Do Mongolian and Turkic languages have a common origin? [duplicate]

I had always thought that Mongolian and Turkic languages are closely related, but this was because I had read a long time ago in a book that they are. But now I've come to realize that this book was ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

How does the (Old) English 'rife' relate to the PIE *rei- “to scratch, tear, cut”?

rife (adj.) [⟸] Old English rife "abundant, common, prevalent," from Proto-Germanic rif- (cognates: Old Norse rifr, Swedish river, Norwegian riv, Middle Dutch riif, Middle Low German rive ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Has 'com-' been a causative prefix?

Please correct me if I erred, and if I missed any semantic drifts. Is my effort below right? constitute {verb}     Etymology : [..] con- intensive + statuĕre to set up, place: [...] 6. To ...
3
votes
2answers
62 views

Are American English and British English growing closer together or drifting further apart?

I'm mostly wondering about vocabulary (e.g. truck vs. lorry; apartment vs. flat) but I suppose I'd be interested to learn about pronunciation too. Intuitively I feel like this could go either way. ...
0
votes
2answers
67 views

stem classes and the terms “fusional” / “inflectional”

I have seen both the word "fusional" and the words "inflectional"/"flectional" used as the counterparts of "agglutinative" when describing a morphological process. 1) Is there a distinction between ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Terminology for the words used to represent fractions in a language? Examples where it is different to the words used for cardinal or ordinal numbers?

While in English Romance languages and Germanic languages, the rendering of fractions usually corresponds to that of the ordinal numbers, i.e a fifth, and a sixth, a seventh, etc. ; it seems to me ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Origin of mandarin [migrated]

A friend of mine said that the Chinese language and the fruit are called so because the officials and governors of the Chinese Empire (initially, counselors) were called "mentors". This happened ...
1
vote
2answers
53 views

What is the substrate of Romanian language?

I mean what was the native language of Wlachs and Dacians before they adopted Latin?
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Antonym of 'helper'? [migrated]

This is my question. If 'helper' means 'someone who helps', then what is 'someone who got helped'? Whom does the helper help? Is there any term to define it? Thanks!
0
votes
1answer
45 views

Relation of Persian “Ke” and English “That” [on hold]

First I should say I am not a linguist, but try to understand it to help my English. In my native language, Persian, we do much use "Ke" (که) which almost corresponds to "which, who, that" in ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Difference between linguistics and metamathematics [duplicate]

Pardon my ignorance but I don't know a whole lot about linguistics. I actually wasn't aware this was a subject until I started investigating the foundations of mathematics and came upon ...
-1
votes
1answer
33 views

How to represent acronyms using IPA?

As we all know in IPA isn’t used capital letters. There is also the 2nd option for representation acronyms which is to use dots, but in IPA dots is used to represent syllables. And therefore I'd like ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Is there a phrase for someone being ashamed of, or self-conscious about their accent when moving to another region?

I was reading a book about accents at a local library and there was a chapter where the author says "some varieties of a language are more aesthetically pleasing than others". Some accents are ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

What is the difference between “creativity” and “productivity”

Studying on unique properties of human languages i stuck at some point. While productivity means being able to create novel sentences what does creativity means? Is it exactly same with ...
4
votes
4answers
129 views

Is there a unicode for words?

A good QA on StackOverflow led me to this great read about Unicode, The Absolute Minimum Every Software Developer Absolutely, Positively Must Know About Unicode and Character Sets (No Excuses!). It ...
3
votes
2answers
67 views

Where exactly was the polish-german language border in Silesia arround 1900?

I am asking about lower class rural population, I know that German was spoken in cities. There already exists maps which shows some details on the matter: Map about german language extention Map ...
2
votes
1answer
61 views

Syntax-semantics interface

In books on generative syntax it is often said that LF itself becomes an input to the so-called syntax-semantics interface to satisfy some conditions (e.g. to get rid of uninterpretable values). But ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

After verbs, how does 'from' compare with 'of'?

(TL;DR) I've been plagued by the postverbal use of the preposition 'of'. After verbs, when describing attributes like origin or source, what are the differences between 'from' and 'of'? The verbs ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

What's the etymology of 'of' after verbs?

(TL;DR) While reading about preposition of on OED (eg avail of, enquire of), I encountered OED's claim that the postverbal of originates from the genitive case, and from Old English. How can this ...
1
vote
2answers
75 views

How did “as” (in English) branch into many meanings that look unlinked?

How did as change semantically and ramify into all the meanings beneath? What underlying ideas or metaphors link them? Beneath, I chose only the broadest meanings from ODO, to see the "overall ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

What is autosegmental phonology?

I am an armchair music theorist and trying to read about John Goldsmith's theory of autosegmental phonology. Can someone summarize the basic principles behind his theory for a linguistic layman?
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

'wont': How did 'to rejoice' evolve to mean both 'to inhabit' and 'to be accustomed'?

wont (adj.) [⟸] [4.] "accustomed," Middle English contraction of [3.] Old English wunod, past participle of wunian [3.1] "to dwell, inhabit, exist;                          [3.2] be ...
1
vote
2answers
58 views

Are Question Marks Universal?

I'm always shocked when I see a foreign text with a simple question mark in it. Spanish has the upside down question mark to offset a question right from the outset. Are Question Marks Universal?
2
votes
1answer
90 views

Why is /f/ easier to pronounce than /p/?

[Source:] Assistant Professor of Linguistics Andrew McKenzie, University of Kansas In particular, there is no real reason why certain changes happen while others don't. For instance, the * p ...
0
votes
1answer
76 views

Assuming that passives need verbal morphology, which languages commonly said to have a passive do not actually count?

Among others, I recently read the passive definition by Martin Haspelmath (from THE GRAMMATICIZATION OF PASSIVE MORPHOLOGY, 1990), which states (page 26/27 of the book, the second/third page of the ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

For each IPA letter, where can I find pictures or videos that depict where the tongue must be?

(TL;DR) For each IPA letter, are there diagrams, pictures or videos that depict exactly and precisely the location of your tongue (and any other relevant organs), needed to vocalise that letter? ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Comprehensive diacritics normalization

I would like to construct a normalization program for text containing diacritics or special symbols. For some languages that I am familiar with, I can obtain a canonical form easily; German: ä -> ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Felicity judgement for English sentence

I wanted to ask English speakers what they think of the following sentence. John left three years before Bill arrived. In fact Bill never arrived. Is this an acceptable sentence? If not, could you ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

Etymology of “Haggard” has anything to do with Hagar in Islam?

A simple google search tells me that "Haggard" emerged in... ...mid 16th century (used in falconry): from French hagard ; perhaps related to hedge; later influenced by hag. However, on a ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

What might *bhes- have imitated?

bhes- To breathe. Probably imitative. Zero-grade form **bhs‑*. Of what was bhes- probably imitative? How? Please expose and explain all hidden, missing semantic drifts and links.
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Schwa syncope in “hundred”

My girlfriend noticed that I say when I pronounce a word like 'hundred' it sounds like I'm deleting the schwa sound in the final syllable and pronouncing the word mroe like, "hundrd". Does this fall ...
-4
votes
1answer
64 views

Are cent and cena related?

A number of Slavic languages have the word "cena" meaning "price": Slovenian, Slovak, Polish cena, Russian цена I wonder whether it is related to the word cent
8
votes
3answers
304 views

Is “sentence” a useful and/or clearly-defined term in linguistics

Further to comments against Do complex sentences always need a conjunction? as recently asked on ELU (and Complex sentence without a subordinating conjunction? here on Linguistics), I'd like to know ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Any suggestion for Classical Arabic language online dictionary or PDF?

Can anybody suggest me the websites or PDFs from where I can get the meaning and etymology of Classical Arabic terms or any online dictionary of Classical Arabic language or any PDF of that ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

għ (għajn) in Maltese (Malti): modifications to following letters brought about

Maltese natives often say that the għ is a silent letter combinatipn that can alter the word that follows by either lengthening the vowel that follows (as in għada) or by inserting a vowel (not dire ...
3
votes
2answers
74 views

Algorithm for Separating Consonant and Vowel Waveforms from Speech Signal

Is anyone aware of a software package or general algorithm that allows the separation of consonant and vowel waveforms from a continuous speech signal? I've tried to implement the technique ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Use of subjunctive in various languages

The subjunctive is most often used when expressing volition. Using English and Spanish as examples: The doctor recommends that you eat vegetables and fruits. El médico recomienda que comas ...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

Confused about vowel diagram (Vowel chat)! Can you clarify & explain how to read it?

Ok, here is the English vowel chart: I'm really confused, what do "front" "central", "back", "close(high)", "close-mid", "open-mid", "open (low)" mean? Ok, Here is what I understood, please ...

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