1
vote
1answer
23 views

What's the difference between [ɚ], [ɹ̩], and [əɹ]?

I've seen the "-er" sound in English (like in butter) transcribed in all three of the above ways, but I've heard there are subtle differences between them. What are these differences, if there are ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

HELP with syntax trees! [on hold]

I need help writing syntax trees for three sentences as soon as possible! 1) The man in the forest has kicked the bucket. 2) the man who saw sean saw me. 3) I kicked the man who saw sean.
-1
votes
0answers
16 views

IPA Close Transcription of B.E. Rhotic Vowels

In dialects of British English, there are non-rhoticized where American English has rhoticized vowels. For example, "Tarzan" might be realized as [ˈtʰɑɹˌzæ̃n] (TAR-zahn) in American English, but as ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

How to find origin of a borrowed word?

For example what is the origin of name Catherine? Etymology Dictionary says that: it's from French Catherine, from Medieval Latin Katerina, from Latin Ecaterina, from Greek Aikaterine. The -h- was ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

What are examples of Haudricourt's tonogenesis in Chinese?

As far as I know, tonogenesis occurs when consonants merge. The merging of initial consonants results in register tones and the merging of final consonants results in contour tones. What are concrete ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Is there a good introduction to subjectivity in language?

Since the topic of "subjectivity in language" is all new to me, I am looking for an introduction to the topic that 1) gives an overview of the phenomena usually associated with the topic ...
2
votes
1answer
163 views

What is it called in linguistics when you change a word from one part of speech to another?

So, what is it called when, for instance, the following happens: mad(noun) > madly (adv) > madlyness (noun)
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Reed Leaf Unilateral Transcription in Hieroglyphic Egyptian. Why isn't there one? Or is there?

So I've begun teaching myself Hieroglyphic Egyptian with James Allen's introduction. He presents a table of transcriptions in European format (he has one with computer, budge, British, and ...
0
votes
2answers
57 views

Does an -es suffix for plurality have Proto-Indo-European roots?

I'm researching proto-Indo-European, and have seen a few remarks which imply that an -es suffix for plural was a likely component of the language (including here on L.SE; Wiktionary). Is this a ...
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Is there a special term describing mental translation between L1 and L2?

Is there a special term to describe the mental translation of a word? E.g. when one sees a recently learned term, they may think of the L1 meaning rather than directly think of the concept.
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Is there a diagram showing the components of form-meaning-use? [on hold]

One can use the form-meaning-use paradigm when considering what aspects a language learner must know when learning a word or phrase. Is there any diagram or expanded paradigm which shows all of the ...
3
votes
0answers
20 views

Is there an online tool to convert IPA symbols into audio sound?

As many amateurs and beginners know, IPA is difficult to memorize and internalize at first. Does software exist where one can paste in IPA text and hear synthesized speech (ideally in the form of a ...
-1
votes
0answers
11 views

simple english abbrevations database [on hold]

I am searching for a simple database which contains mappings for common English abbreviations for a NLP application. Nothing fancy or specific, just maybe 100-1000 cases. Searching the web does give ...
-1
votes
0answers
25 views

How can I type stress markers into Word? [on hold]

There are filled in circles above the words in my pronunciation textbook to show where the stress is in a word or sentence. These circles can be used in any language, but I'm teaching stress in ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

In the context of vocabulary learning, what is “facile access”?

I am reading a book about vocabulary learning. They use the term "facile access". I tried searching dictionaries, etc., found many usages, but no explanations for the meaning. What is the meaning?
2
votes
0answers
28 views

Linguistic typography documented?

There are some typographic conventions adhered to in most of linguistic literature, like punctuation affixes for /phonemic/ and [phonetic], prefixes like *wrong or italics for object language and ...
1
vote
2answers
34 views

How can I recognize someone's voice from a spectrogram? A puzzler!

Let's say I record five friends, each individually. I label the recordings 1-5. All are the same gender and the same age-range. Now, I have another recording. I am not allowed to hear the recording. ...
-1
votes
0answers
13 views

What is the role of watching articulation in learning pronunciation?

It's obviously easier to pronounce and, perhaps even acquire, a sound or sequence not present in one's native language if one watches carefully a speaker's mouth. What is this phenomena called? Where ...
3
votes
3answers
72 views

Is there a trend toward more homophones over time? What can counteract that trend?

It is my understanding (correct me if I am wrong) that many homophones develop as a result of phonemic mergers. For instance, I, like many Americans, have a "cot-caught" merger where I do not make a ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

What language is this and what does it means?

I have this kind of flag since i was born, it was given by some japanese friends of my father as a gift for my birth. But today neither me or my father know the meaning of what's written in it. ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Is there a term ending in “-nym,” that signifies terms that all have the same hypernym?

We have terms like hyponym and hypernym, which convey the relationships "subcategories" and "supercategory". Metaphorically, one could think of such relationships as similar to parent/children ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Way to learn foreign languages

I'd like to start with "Hi!" since it's my first post here. I'm coming here with some questions, but before I ask it, I'd like to tell you what made me come here. So I was planning for a long time to ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

dependency or constituency treebank?

Most Treebank conversion which I found in the web are from constituency treebank to dependency treebank, I wonder why there is little jobs in the opposite direction? Does it mean that nowadays ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

Examples of discrete place-of-articulation changes

Most sound changes that involve consonantal place of articulation are gradual changes between two POAs that are contiguous: for example, a velar gets gradually fronted until it becomes a palatal. What ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

What is the term for pairs of words with converse meanings such as (gave<>got) and (bought<>sold)?

I'm seriously struggling to identify a name for the relationship between such words. They are transactional terms,of which there are two parts. They may even show tense. John gave me an apple. I ...
2
votes
0answers
14 views

SALT Software transcription

When using the SALT software, how does one transcribe non-standard verb tenses used in AAVE. For example, "We is going to the store."
4
votes
1answer
80 views

copyright issues when making a corpus from the web

I realize that this is probably technically off-topic as it relates to copyright legalities of corpus construction. However, it is a practically very important issue for corpus linguistics and so I ...
-1
votes
0answers
24 views

Self reference in Latin - myself [closed]

I'm trying to construct a phrase in Latin, but got lost at this one. How would I say "[do something to] myself". Example of phrases "praise myself", "love myself" etc. Would it be gender neutral?
-2
votes
0answers
25 views

Soft introduction to LFG [on hold]

Can anyone suggest a soft introduction to LFG? Also in particular, how is it less "pure" or more sophisticated than what you can do with NLTK, as mentioned here. And, in what sense is it "functional"? ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

VerbNet semantic roles and preposition groups - how to determine matches

Using verbnet to test whether a sentence matches a frame, how does one determine whether the semantic role specified in the verbnet frame is appearing in the sentence or not? e.g. on this verbnet ...
2
votes
3answers
81 views

How does the reaction against gender-specific pronouns relate to a languages' use of gender?

This is a question out of gross ignorance, so I may be way off the mark here. If that's the case, the answer should be easy to provide in the negative. My background I'm an American, I spent the ...
3
votes
1answer
66 views

Order of derivational and inflectional affixes

I saw the following formula on Wikipedia: morpheme + derivational morphemes + desinence (inflectional morphemes) followed immediately by the comment not not necessarily in this order. But all the ...
2
votes
3answers
103 views

Are there languages with consonant clusters that include consonants that never occur alone?

In the languages I know more about I can't think of any cases of consonant phoneme clusters that are not made up entirely of consonant phonemes which also occur on their own in the language. But I'm ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Formal definition of English grammar

I saw on a related question some mentions of a formal grammar definition for English. It is mentioning there a definition called English Resource Grammar. Perhaps anyone here would know about loosely ...
0
votes
0answers
3 views

Identifying styles of reasoning in text

I'm trying to programmatically identify in a text some elements of "style of reasoning". I'm more specifically thinking about syllogism, induction, abduction, deduction, etc. More generally i would ...
4
votes
2answers
37 views

Help me unpack this Classical Greek word? [closed]

ἁλιπτοίητος Liddell and Scott seem somewhat uncertain how this links to other Greek words, though they affirm the reading as "driven by fear across the sea." My Greek is rusty, and I don't know that ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

How do I diagram this sentence using x-bar theory, with CP, TP, & DP [closed]

How would one diagram this sentence: John believes that the boy in the bar loves the girl in the bookstore.
3
votes
0answers
31 views

Stanford NLP parsers and idioms that have common semantic meaning

I have parsed the following sentence in the Stanford CoreNLP demo page and the Stanford parser demo page. Although both result in a parse that can imply purpose semantics (hinging on the advcl and the ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Do native speakers of languages using logographic writing internally vocalize while reading?

I study Chinese as a second language. Listening is my strong point. When I read, I go through this process: see character  imagine myself speaking the pronunciation  think of meaning (from the ...
3
votes
1answer
37 views

singular part of speech for multi-word units and expressions?

Part of speech assignment provides a pos to a word. In many pos systems this can occasionally produce errors due multi-word expressions of one form or another. When 'we' look at the text, we may see ...
0
votes
0answers
57 views

Did German or English form of infinitive appear first?

German and English languages have a common root but an innumerable amount of differences. One of them is how infinitive is formed. In English we have to+verb: "to stand" in German we have a verb ...
-1
votes
0answers
19 views

Old Test Text Sample

I was told during my studies (Computational Linguistics) of a text excerpt from an old book that was used to test text processing rules and models in a nutshell before the rise of big corpora. The ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

Why is Latin not used anymore? [closed]

During the time of the Roman empire Latin used to be the most spoken language. How come such an important language is almost no longer in use?
0
votes
2answers
54 views

unicode symbol(s) for a long syllable in a Latin text

I want to write the following line (Ovid, Metamorphoses, X.30) with its metric peculiarity : per Chaos hoc ingēns uāstīque silentia rēgnī (something like : By this huge void and these vast and ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

What is state of the art in the field of NLP? [closed]

I am new to Natural Language Processing, I think NLP is a challenging field, the syntax and semantic ambiguities could cause a lot of problems. For example I think for these problems machine ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

“an” -> “a” When Describing a Noun With Adjectives

Observed in fluent speech: a unrounded vowel To a native English speaker, the following would be expected instead: an unrounded vowel What's happening here? It looks like the speaker is ...
-1
votes
0answers
14 views

Python or Solr for Text Classification

I have a corpus of approx. 100K web pages crawled. I would like to classify these html documents into categories. which tool would you recommend to use to classify - NLTK, Solr or something else?
3
votes
1answer
56 views

Are there any languages with a plufuture for tense sequencing?

(I admit a Romance bias in asking this question, perhaps expressing what I'm looking for is quite common in other families) After answering a question recently on the Spanish SE on tense sequencing, ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Are Biological and Linguistic Evolution Similar? [duplicate]

Natural selection, based on Darwin's theories, states that organisms with characteristics that benefit survival survive while the weaker, less adapted individuals are weeded out. Languages also ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

in the definion of government, why can't we allow asymmetrical c-command while we accept symmetrical c-command?

When we define the term 'government' in syntax, we should exclude the interfering nodes which asymmetically c-command node B.Why can't we allow asymmetrical c-command while we accept symmetrical ...

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