0
votes
0answers
36 views

English words with the /ɔ/ vowel sound [on hold]

I'm looking for English words with the /ɔ/ vowel sound... suggestions? If folks could give me their list of open back counterparts to /o/, I would appreciate it! American English preferred but other ...
1
vote
2answers
59 views

Are there languages that form noun singulars by adding suffixes to plurals, rather than vice versa?

In languages that express grammatical number in nouns with suffixes, usually there is either a suffix added to an unsuffixed singular to form the plural (cat—cats), or the suffix (or inflectional ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

How can a pronoun refer to a negative indefinite pronoun?

Optional Foreword: I understand pronouns such as 'none, no one, nobody', if they're the subject of one independent clause. But the quote below (encountered herein) confuses me. I ask here (and not ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

Select a portion of a sound in Praat

In Praat, I want to select a portion of the sound, extract it, and save it separately from the original file. This part of the sound is always between 0.108 s and 0.112 s because it is from pure ...
3
votes
0answers
47 views

Why do we use an upward inflection when asking questions?

I have tried Googling where the upward inflection comes from but all I get are "Valley Girl" results. My curiosity in this started with my new German Language course I'm taking and noticed that the ...
-1
votes
0answers
18 views

Convert Asterales to opposing plurality [on hold]

I dont know which plurality Asterales, a Latin word for a botanical class, is in? Can someone tell me which and what the opposing form is?
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Syntax presupposed by Heim and Kratzer

Heim and Kratzer's "Semantics in Generative Grammar", bases its semantics on some version of transformational syntax. However, it is remarkably inexplicit about formalising the syntax it presupposes ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Plural Singular Forms in Latin [on hold]

Which form is are the two following words in? And what are the words for the opposing form? Goniotrichaceae Goniotrichum
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Why does väcka/wecken seem to be built as a causative although vakna/wachen is a weak verb?

The causative verbs in germanic languages are built upon the preterite of a strong verb. However there's one verb that seems to fall out of that scheme: Swedish: vakna - väcka; German: (auf)wachen - ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

how to figure out the context of a math expression? [on hold]

let me take solving an equation as an exmaple. say I want to solve "(x+1)^2=4". so i write down the following steps: step1 (x+1)^2=4 step2 x+1=±2 step3 x+1=2 step4 x=1 step5 x+1=-2 step6 x=-3 step7 ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

What's a good test to distinguish past participles from predicate adjectives?

Most past participles can act as predicate adjectives: "The island was inhabited." but there are some words that may look like both parts of speech, but can only be used in one way or the other: ...
5
votes
3answers
86 views

What is the Mongolian vowel separator for?

I've heard of the Mongolian vowel separator from programmers, who regard it as an interesting quirk in Unicode. When I google for it, most of the hits are from those revelling in its geekiness. But ...
2
votes
2answers
39 views

What are the most authoratative references on the notion of shallow parsing?

What are the most authoratative references on the notion of shallow parsing (also known as text chunking) in NLP? I am looking for definitions, examples, and discussion of strings of words that ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

How can a PIE root be a 'pronominal stem'?

i-   |    Pronominal stem.   |   1. This answer explains the possible difference in meaning between 'root' and 'stem', which induced my question in the title above. 2. What does it mean for a ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

How can we account for head-final PPs and VPs in Classical Chinese?

According to Koopman (1983), there is an explanation for why Chinese, despite being a head-final language, has SVO and prepositional features. She suggested that Chinese assigns Case to the right but ...
4
votes
1answer
60 views

Are there languages that disallow initial vowels and lack glottal stop?

Which, if any, of the world's languages have both the following features? Syllable-initial vowels are disallowed; all syllables must begin with a consonant. There is no glottal stop phoneme.
-1
votes
0answers
19 views

Probes and Goals in English [closed]

what is probes and goals in English and what relevant materials can help me understand it. please help am confused
0
votes
0answers
39 views

What are paradigm shifts in linguistics? [closed]

What are some of paradigm shifts when it comes to linguistics?
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Spanish Word “Big” [migrated]

What is the equivalent to "Grandecito" in English? At first it seems redundant because in English you cannot say, "big-small" or "small-big". I have heard, "its biggie". I also have heard, "biggish", ...
1
vote
5answers
86 views

Natural vs. “Forced” language learning

Would the "natural" way of learning a language (the way we learn our mother tongue) be better even for acquiring second (and third, etc.) languages? What I mean is: The "natural" way to learn a ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Are the following two versions of a meaning postulate of Montague Grammar equivalent?

Seem I can't use latex commands on here. Latex works on math.stackexchange, maybe it would be a good idea here as well if linguistics.stackexchange is intended to be a place for questions about formal ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views

Participle + indicative of the same verb (gustans gustavi, videns vidi etc.)

A couple of excerpts from the Bible (Septuagint, Nova Vulgata, Elizabeth, KJV): Acts 7:34 ἰδὼν εἰ̃δον τὴν κάκωσιν του̃ λαου̃ μου του̃ ἐν Αἰγύπτω̨ καὶ του̃ στεναγμου̃ αὐτω̃ν ἤκουσα καὶ ...
3
votes
1answer
115 views

Etymology of 'but', from West Germanic to Old English

but (adv., prep.) [<--] Old English butan, buton "unless, except; without, outside," from West Germanic * be-utan, a compound of * be- "by" (see by) + * utana "out, outside; from ...
4
votes
1answer
46 views

Pig Latin equivalent for ASL?

Does ASL have language games? They seem very common for spoken languages (e.g., Pig Latin for English), but I can't find any documentation of them for sign languages.
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Vowel-Backing in English?

Has anybody heard of vowel-backing in English? In East-Central Alabama, USA, I have observed forms such as: suckint ['sOkh Inˀ] for "second" butter ['bOD ɚ] for "better" woonda ['wUnd ә] for ...
6
votes
3answers
124 views

Do animals have foreign languages?

Humans living in different parts of the world develop different languages; humans living in the same area speak the same language in order to be able to communicate with each other. We know that other ...
2
votes
1answer
27 views

Metaphor and metonymy in proverbs

I have a question about metonymy and metaphors in English proverbs below: An apple a day, keeps doctors away. Meaning: Fruit is an important part of a healthy diet Beggars can't be choosers. ...
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Term for words or phrases signifying change in numeric quantities?

Phrase like "take away", "more than" ,"times" imply certain mathematical change (subtract,add,divide etc.) in the quantity in current context. For eg. The number of girls "exceeds" the number of boys ...
0
votes
2answers
57 views

How would one make a sentence without using “words”

Say I were making a language and I wanted to convey, through writing, anything that a real language could convey, except I didn't want to convey what I wanted to say by using words. Also, in this ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

scansion of a iambic trimeter

I'm stuck with the scansion of the second of the following lines I read in Euripides' Bacchae : 441 κἀγὼ δι᾽ αἰδοῦς εἶπον : Ὦ ξέν᾽, οὐχ ἑκὼν 442 ἄγω σε Πενθέως δ᾽ ὅς μ᾽ ἔπεμψ᾽ ἐπιστολαῖς. ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Praat's y-axis in spectrum graph

We have a tone in notched noise in Praat. We want the noise to be 23 dB less than the tone, so we created a noise coefficient using SNR, applied this to the noise file, and combined it with the tone ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Question type corpus

I'm looking for a corpus that contains questions and question types. Like in this article, but they didn't attach any link to their corpus. http://polibits.gelbukh.com/2009_40/40_01.pdf
2
votes
1answer
93 views

What languages, if any, require spaces around punctuation marks?

I have often seen posts on various Stack Exchange sites that have spaces around punctuation marks. For example: Here , spaces around a comma. A space before a question mark ? I think I've ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Where can I get a good Maltese grammar book?

I am looking for a good Maltese grammar book which lists all verb forms, tenses, and declensions. Where can I find one (perhaps anywhere on the Island given that Amazon does not seem to carry such ...
0
votes
2answers
66 views

Why aren't there any Czech dictionaries that report the gender of nouns?

I can't find any Czech dictionaries that report the gender of nouns (masculine, feminine, or neuter). Without this knowledge it is impossible to master perfect Czech. So why aren't these ever ...
-1
votes
0answers
42 views

How did '-ikos' evolve into '-ic'?

-ics [<--] in the names of sciences or disciplines (acoustics, aerobics, economics, etc.) it represents a 16c. revival of the classical custom of using the neuter plural of adjectives with ...
0
votes
0answers
42 views

Why were prefixes repeated as postverbal prepositions?

abstain [from] (v.) [<--] late 14c., "to withhold oneself," from Old French abstenir (14c.), earlier astenir (13c.) "hold (oneself) back, refrain, abstain (from), practice abstinence," ...
1
vote
2answers
46 views

Sounds for an Indo-European Language, such as Sinhala?

I speak American English and am trying to learn Sinhala and have found conflicting spelled descriptions of Sinhala words in various learning resources, so I started trying to figure out how to notate ...
1
vote
2answers
47 views

Language with without a lexical entry for “before”

Has anyone encountered a language in which there is no lexical entry corresponding to English "before" and the relation of temporal precedence is manifested by something equivalent to "earlier than"? ...
2
votes
0answers
66 views

Parallels between h₂ and t in PIE and Nostratic, what is the explanation?

In Afro-Asiatic we have the feminine ending -a which has the following evolution history: -a < -aha < -at < et where ha is aleph In IE (for instance, in Russian, Greek, Latin) we also have ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

What is the difference between Arabic forms and cases?

Every word in Arabic derives from 3 root letters. Forms in Arabic are a way of modifying these roots to create new words whose meaning is based on the original one. For example, one might turn a verb ...
-1
votes
0answers
17 views

How does 'to push, thrust' relate to 'put a fire out'?

distinguish (v.) (<--) [...] dis- "apart" (see dis-) + -stinguere "to prick" (compare extinguish and Latin instinguere "to incite, impel"). Watkins says "semantic transmission obscure;" ...
-1
votes
0answers
27 views

How does 'to quench' relate to PIE *steig- (“to prick, stick, pierce”)? [on hold]

extinguish (v.) = 1540s, from Latin extinguere/exstinguere "quench, put out (what is burning), wipe out, obliterate," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + stinguere "quench," apparently an evolved ...
-2
votes
1answer
49 views

How do you learn to rewrite clauses with double negation or hypernegation? [closed]

Per p 24, A Student's Introduction to English Grammar (2005), by Huddleston & Pullum, Polarity is the name of the system contrasting positive and negative clauses. I ask this question in ...
2
votes
2answers
76 views

Why does “date” in Portuguese became “data”, while in Dutch “datum” is used?

I didn't study Latin, but I can recognize when a noun is singular or plural. It's weird that date is used in the plural form data in Portuguese - a Neo-Latin language - while Dutch contains the form ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Extract location from a string with a city, state, country in it?

How could I extract a location from a string like San Francisco 49ers and get San Francisco from it? The only way I can is by training a neural-network, but training with every city, state, country, ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Need help distinguishing 3 “Eskimo” languages - by one morpheme and corresponding semantics

In The Origin of Agent Markers by Enrique L. Palancar an attempt has been made to list morphemes used 1.) as a case morpheme belonging to a noun and 2.) as a morpheme on such nouns that express the ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Palatalised allophones of /k/ and /g/ as a cross-linguistic phenomenon

As a native speaker of Russian, where [k]/[kʲ] and [g]/[gʲ] are phonemically distinct, I've always been intrigued by the fact that several languages that don't have that distinction, and are in fact ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Which linguistic theories account for non native accent?

Clearly, there is a lot known about acquisition of second language by adults, and the different degrees of fluency (at least on the phonetic and phonological levels) which are obtainable. What ...
0
votes
0answers
53 views

Some PIE words, traditionally reconstructed with o-coloring laryngeal, could they have u̯ instead?

Particularly I am interested whether words for orbit and orphan related to the root u̯er- "bend". Traditionally we have o̯orbhis circle, orb, turning object o̯orbhos orphan, servant The semantic ...

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