0
votes
1answer
16 views

Relation between Hebrew 'סמפוניה' and English 'Symphony'

In the Mishna, it mentions a musical instrument called 'סמפוניה', transliterated 'Simp-O-nya'. This sounds rather like the English word symphony, which is a musical composition. What is the relation ...
-1
votes
3answers
56 views

What' s the hardest language to learn? [on hold]

What's the hardest language to learn???
0
votes
1answer
39 views

speech acts, blackmail, threats

I'm doing research for a univeristy course. It's about linguistic approach to blackmail, threats, language of violence. I have a problem with collecting data. Any ideas where can I get it from? What ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Why are “dynamic” and “deontic” modalities so called?

It is said that there are three types of modality: deontic, epistemic and dynamic. Here are sample sentences for each type of modality: (1) You can stay as long as you want. [deontic] (2) ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Conversational English corpus for download

I have a project which requires a corpus of conversational English in plain text (although I can perform some processing as needed). Since I am a student, I need to find a corpus that is free and ...
1
vote
3answers
56 views

Parts of speech in a language

I am starting studying linguistics independently. I have a few basic doubts. English has following types of words: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection. ...
1
vote
2answers
66 views

What is the relationship between lambda calculus and logical form?

I was first introduced to lambda calculus as a way to use syntax to compose the semantic value of a phrase from the semantic values of the components of that phrase. Lambda calculus does more than ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

I am having trouble drawing a tree diagram for the following sentences [on hold]

Help the hungry in your community. There are many superb burgundies in California. Many recent war veterans are taught new skills at community colleges.
2
votes
1answer
48 views

What languages are writer-responsible?

It seems like every scholar since Hinds has only mentioned English as a writer-responsible language, which is also used to contrast reader-responsible languages (that are usually identified as Asian ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Using Google Custom Search API for getting word frequency

I want to use a search engine like Google to get the frequency of Unigrams and Bigrams of a list of adjectives. I figured out that I can use Google Custom Search (GCS) API and I have already written ...
0
votes
2answers
34 views

Syntax and linguistics

I know that syntax deals with the ways words are put together to form phrases and sentences, I would like to know how does it relate to linguistics more broadly.
0
votes
2answers
18 views

What heads can an adverbial phrase have?

What heads can an adverbial phrase have? Consider the following examples: I'll go to bed [soon]_AdvP. I'll go to bed [in an hour]_AdvP. I'll go to bed [when I've finished my book]_AdvP. ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Male and Female terms' appropriateness to distinct Plugs from Sockets [on hold]

To distinguish a plug from a socket of a connector (basically electric), there are common terms used in English: male for plug and correspondingly female for socket. This obviously refers to a common ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

How to represent a dative verb in first order logic?

I understand that the representation of an intransitive verb, V in lambda calculus would be lambda x. V(x), where x is the subject. How do I represent an intransitive verb followed by a ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Wordplay in ancient texts

I learned once that ancient texts (for example in Latin) did not separate words. Was that always true or only in specific kinds of documents and writings. Since I have been a bit interested in ...
-2
votes
2answers
62 views

Did people actually used poetic languages like Latin and Persian for basic spoken communication?

I can't help but notice the older generation frequently scolding the younger ones of corrupting the language by introducing words like lol, ASAP, brb, OMG, pj, etc. Indeed, with the astronomical ...
-1
votes
0answers
32 views

Suggested topics for research in Semantics [on hold]

I am a PhD Student at the university of Jordan and I think I am stuck with a topic in Semantics. Can anyone help me with some real topics that I can write about? Please I need this so urgently. I ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

What is the morpheme that marks a question called?

When languages have a morpheme attached to the word that makes it a question, such as a suffix, is this called a question suffix, an interrogative, suffix, etc? I don't have much experience in ...
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

I want to parse this sentence please [on hold]

Unusual among grains, quinoa has a high protein content, and it contains all those essential amino acids needed for good health that can prove so elusive to vegetarians who prefer not to take food ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Is 'identity' a grammatical term?

Originally purposed for this ELL question, the following from this thread claims that which I've greyed. I ask about such a claim for English and French. [User 'RuthP' dated 2012 Dec 26:] That ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Is it possible to force the Google speech synthesis engine to pronounce individual phonemes?

I wish to have an app makes individual sounds of letters (phonemes) and I'm wondering if, rather than record them all myself, I can force Google's speech synthesis engine to give me individual sounds. ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

Nominative Case Assignment and VP-Internal Subjects

From what I've learnt, structural case is assigned in certain structural configurations. For example, nominative case is assigned by tensed I/T to nominals in SpecIP/TP. Therefore, the case filter ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

how do i draw the drawing trees for syntactic ambiguity section? Linguistics for everyone book chapter 8 [closed]

How do i draw the drawing trees for the sentences "The boy with the hat sat on a mushroom with green spots", "the white horse ran out the door on monday.", and "the ladybug with six spots the ...
-1
votes
0answers
49 views

Why modern linguistics are descriptive rather than being perspective? [duplicate]

I mean if we explain it in a perspective way the comprehension will be better.
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Colloquial use of adjective that is actually acting as an adverb — examples or formal use?

In a song by rap group NWA they say this: "The bitch sucked one hell of a dick" Disregarding the potentially offensive nature of the quote, it stood out to me that although "hell of a" is an ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Parallel dependency grammars

Is there something like ParGram but dependency-based? Note that I'm not looking for a corpus but for a formal grammar (set of rules) with a parser and a corpus of test sentences.
-1
votes
0answers
34 views

pls i nid ansas †̥ these questions [closed]

Generate a deep structure of the following sentences with the aid of tree diagrams: 1. The brilliant student passes the exam. 2some school received their salary. 3. Students drive flashy cars. 4. The ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

What is the type of adjective that denotes capability?

I have encountered a number of adjectives while programming that all have the same use case of describing capabilities of a noun. "Clonable", "serializable", "runnable", "hashable", "immutable", ...
0
votes
2answers
43 views

On use and mention in “His name is Joseph but you can call him Joe”

In a sentence like His name is Joseph, but you can call him Joe the names Joseph and Joe are not used 'referentially' (to name a certain male individual) but just 'mentioned', i.e., they are used ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Laotian image translation [closed]

Need help translating image below from Laotion to English.
0
votes
0answers
47 views

French letter closings in English?

When I first learned about the Closing Formula for French business letters, I had found them affected and foreign, especially since I haven't seen them in modern English (though I'm unversed in ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Position of 'notwithstanding' and « nonobstant »?

Hereafter, I ask only about English vs French (Alas, these two already trouble me enough!) Based on the etymology, I guess that notwithstanding and « nonobstant » are cognates? Am I right? If so, ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

How is the dative case for help being used here?

Swiss-German has dative and accusative case-marking for its objects. In the sentence "I gave him the book," "him" must be marked as dative and "the book" must be marked as accusative. It's clear that ...
2
votes
4answers
88 views

Are the orthographies of the Slavic languages generally consistent?

I need to learn two Slavic languages, any two initially, and eventually at least one each from the East, West, and South Slav groups. I understand that each language has its own version of the ...
4
votes
2answers
142 views

Has grammatical gender ever been observed to emerge in a language that previously had none?

Does a language exist whose older forms are known to have lacked the category of grammatical gender, and which proceeded to evolve one (perhaps from a non-gender-based system of noun classes)? Are ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Are there any tools on the market that employ prosodic research to help overcome speech impediments?

I see a lot of language learning software, apps, intelligent games on the market, but nearly all of them focuses on grammar and lexical aspects of linguistics. I wonder if any techniques are dedicated ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Should I always use the -ised ending for UK english and the -ized for US? [migrated]

Realized vs realised, randomized vs randomised etc. Is it true that the former is always correct in US and the latter in UK english? Is there a list of english-speaking nations that use the former or ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

What is the name for this type of diagram?

When studying an agglutinative language, one sometimes encounters the following type of helpful diagram, which labels a sentence according to the grammatical function of each constitutive element. ...
2
votes
0answers
50 views

What's the real need for an end-symbol in n-gram models?

There's a footnote in Jurafsky & Martin (2008, p.89) pointing out that, without an end-symbol, an n-gram model would not be "a true probability distribution". Even after seeking the paper they've ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Difference between pitch and intensity

I would like to understand what is the difference in lignuistic betwen pitch and intensity. On the picture (taken from native HK speaker), I have a Cantonese sentence. Nei5 Jiu3 Caa4 Maa3 ? ...
4
votes
2answers
56 views

Where can I find a good primer of dependency grammar?

I found a good phrase structure grammar primer, namely "Beginning Syntax" by Thomas, which has been recommended by more than one person on this exchange. However, when I looked for any similarly ...
-1
votes
2answers
62 views

Regular expression that captures sentences

This RE : ((?:\w+ )?|((?:(j|J)e )|(tu )|(il ))?)(?:ne )?(?:veu(x|t)\b|voul(ais|ait)\b|voudr(ais|ait)|voul(ez))-?(?:vous)?(?: pas)? qu(e |') Captures these French sentences : On voulait que nous ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Is there a resource where I can select a (combination of) IPA sounds and see the articulatory gestures?

I have been thinking a lot about how phonotactic constraints may influence articulatory gestures. However, I'm a visual person and so I learn better by seeing rather than reading -- especially when it ...
3
votes
4answers
94 views

What is the difference between coreference resolution and anaphora resolution?

Is there any difference between coreference resolution and anaphora resolution? More generally, what is the difference between coreferences and anaphoras?
0
votes
1answer
64 views

Origin of “Eridanus”: Indo-European or Sumerian?

With the discovery and decipherment of ancient Babylonian and Sumerian texts in the 19th century a theory was offered that the name of the river constellation Eridanus, which appears in the poem ...
1
vote
4answers
151 views

Why does Europe use a similar alphabet, but South East Asia does not?

Why is it that in Europe, most written languages (Spanish, English, German, ect.) use very similar alphabets (Latin), while in South East Asia, which is similarly geographically close to one another ...
6
votes
3answers
129 views

The French of Shakespeare — why does it seem so modern?

In Henry V, Shakesperean English is difficult to understand (even for modern native English speakers -- at least for me) without a good amount of help. However, there are a few scenes conducted ...
-1
votes
2answers
38 views

How is the concept of formant used in linguistics different from that used in instrumental music?

Linguists use the term "formant" to refer to refer to those frequency components that e.g. distinguish one vowel from another. Typically, we refer to F1, F2, F3, and F4 and their role in determining ...
2
votes
2answers
76 views

Where did generative semantics go wrong? Why was their conception of language faulty?

Where did generative semantics go wrong? Why was their conception of language faulty? What were the main weaknesses of generative semantics adherents' claim that "a grammar starts with a description ...
3
votes
0answers
73 views

Can Wernicke's aphasia lead to grammar deterioration?

Speech often (always?) deteriorates for people with post-lingual deafness. This presumably occurs because of insufficient auditory feedback. Given that people with Wernicke's aphasia cannot ...

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