0
votes
0answers
14 views

Is a sentence's deep structure representative of i-language?

That is to say, is the deep structure supposed to be what's happening in our head when we speak a language? Or is this just to make our model of a grammar consistent?
0
votes
0answers
12 views
4
votes
3answers
86 views

Is linguistics limited to natural languages?

Or would linguistics also include the study of accessory languages like esperanto, artificial languages like Klingon, or even programming languages?
4
votes
0answers
25 views

Which languages conflate (imperfective) past and irrealis, and why?

In English, the "simple past" form of a verb can sometimes be used to convey irrealis meanings, without any preterite sense: If I was rich, I'd buy a Porsche. If you only knew! I'd like to be able ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

How can I align an image with the spectrogram in Praat?

I am looking for a way to create a new image display in praat that is aligned with the waveform and spectrogram. The images are frames located every 33 ms. If anyone can help, I would really ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

List of written English linguistic phenomena?

I am doing exploratory research in written-English syntactic constructs that show variability. Is there any list of known linguistic syntactic phenomena? For example, I am familiar with the dative ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

How do idioms and metaphors fit into the principle of compositionality?

The principle of compositionality is formulated as: The meaning of a complex expression is a function of the meaning of its parts and of the syntactic rules by which they are combined. ...
1
vote
3answers
41 views

can the latin word -que coordinate two propositions?

I read in Ovid, Metamorphoses, I.474-477 (Apollo is in love with Daphne) : Protinus alter amat, fugit altera nomen amantis silvarum tenebris captivarumque ferarum exuviis gaudens innuptaeque aemula ...
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Am I a native English speaker? (born I Hungary, lived in US from age 3)

I'm not sure if I'm going to get any answers, but I am trying to find out whether I can qualify as a native english speaker. Here's my story: born in Hungary moved to US at age 3 spoke Hungarian ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Questions about transitive alternation

The following data show that the prefix re- can be attached only to transitive verbs. List A List B reblacken *rego resoften *recry reharden *resleep The verbs of List A whose ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Some common features of unrelated languages: Turkish and Persian

This is somehow related to the question Are some languages known to have taken grammatical features etc rather than just lexicon from their substrate languages? In the area of today's Turkey, Iran ...
0
votes
0answers
37 views

How would a haiku look in English using morae?

I read today that in Japanese, Haikus are based on morae instead of syllables. Wikipedia tells me that morae determine "syllable weight" and "in some languages determine stress or timing". I still ...
0
votes
0answers
65 views

The infamous green squiggly line on Microsoft Word

I'm in the progress of writing an essay at current. I have articulated the following sentence onto the document and the omniscient Microsoft Word has deemed it as "Fragment (consider revising)". ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Two sentences with the same meaning

I am looking for a statistical or linguistic method that could give the degree of similarity between the meaning of two sentences. I have found in literature many distance measures (euclidean ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

X Bar Tree help! [on hold]

I am doing an assignment on syntax and I am really struggling to draw the tree properly as my tutor has confused me with what NOT to do and what TO do, so my notes are all jumbled up and I don't know ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Where to study probability and natural language processing from?

I am a programmer and I am interested in Natural Language Processing. I studied it a bit in college, but it was years ago and anyway it wasn't enough for a good knowledge of the field. I'm ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Turkish loanwords in persian or the other way round?

It is quite obvious that there are a lot of Persian loanwords in Turkish. Some words, though, I cannot easily figure out which way they travelled. Take for example trk. küçük, frs. kucak. I have ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Grammar framework features that are not supported cross-linguistically

There are quite a lot of grammar frameworks postulated since the last century, like MP, LFG, RRG, RCG, MTT to name a few. I like reading about languages, but a lot of publications about languages are ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Language transfer for second language learners (French-English)

How does language transfer occur from French to English within native french speakers' mind? Can we observe this phenomenon ?
0
votes
1answer
60 views

How are phrases such as “How beautiful” usually analyzed?

In English (and I believe in other languages, though I'm not certain), question words like "how" and "what" can be used as intensifiers, in phrases like How beautiful or What splendor or ...
0
votes
0answers
50 views

How can teacher embed academic language into their everyday lesson plan? [on hold]

The question is how can teachers embed academic language into their daily lesson plan? What could be some possibilities?
-1
votes
0answers
49 views

pragmatic usage of intonation in english [closed]

I'm going to study about relationship between pragmatics and intonation. Could you help me to find out some rich sources in order to study about it?
-1
votes
1answer
53 views

recent topics in linguistics [closed]

what are the recent controversial issues in - pragmatics. -socio-linguistics. that are receiving the experts' attention ?
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Constructing/borrowing of complex scientific/technological/financial vocabulary in Esperanto [closed]

Most Esperanto scientific, some technology-specific, or financial dictionaries available online cover vast range, but mostly old terminology that was around for many years. How does one translate or ...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

influence of berebere and french language on english pronunciation [closed]

native speakers of Berber languages VS. native speakers of French speaking *English as a second language* and the influence of their native languages on the acccuracy of their English pronunciation. ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

How does Morphology apply to reading and teaching English Language Learners how to read?

I am not sure if I am answering the question correctly can anyone please comment. Morphology is the study of words. It deals with understanding of word parts (morphemes). To facilitate student’s ...
2
votes
2answers
86 views

Can adjuncts be arguments?

I hear that only complements and specifiers can contain the argument for a verb. But there are certain structures with ditransitive verbs I believe you can represent as an adjunct. Here's an example: ...
3
votes
2answers
119 views

Why are irregular verbs usually common words?

Whilst searching for the origin of irregular verbs, I came across this forum, which points out, among other things, that irregular verbs are more often than not common words. Is there a reason for ...
3
votes
1answer
84 views

Why doesn't X-bar theory overgenerate?

X-bar PS rules are as follows: XP' -> <spec.> X' X' -> <adjunct> X' <adjunct> X' -> X <comp.> What's stopping us from generating phrases like the following? [SPEC ...
2
votes
0answers
87 views

Formal Language theory (context free grammars, pushdown automata)

Does anyone know any good introductions to Formal Language theory and Formal Grammar, that covers the mathematical basis of Syntax and things like context free grammars and pushdown automata? In ...
11
votes
0answers
221 views

Important Notice: Linguistics SE needs new leadership

Linguistics Stack Exchange is a small site, but plays host to a strong community of experts. That's why it’s strange that I can't find anyone to step up as a new pro-tem moderator. Two and a half ...
1
vote
2answers
99 views

Does structural linguistics still have relevance today?

Reading Wikipedia on structural linguistics, you will bump into: Structural linguistics is now regarded by some professional linguists as outdated and as superseded by developments such as ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

How does a dependency grammar generate strings?

Theoretically speaking, if I were to use a rule-based approach to generate grammatically correct strings for a language L, I would implement a phrase structure grammar G = (V, T, R, S) consisting of ...
1
vote
0answers
73 views

Phonology s to š before /i/

I'm trying to figure out the simplest rules to describe the following: [s] —> [š] / __[i] i.e. s becomes š before an /i/ At the moment I have: [+strident] -> [-anterior] / __ [+son, +high] ...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

Understanding the STRUT vowel as a listener without the split

John Wells' Lexical Sets define a FOOT vowel /ʊ/ for words like 〈full〉, 〈look〉 and 〈could〉, and a STRUT vowel /ʌ/ for words like 〈cub〉, 〈rub〉 and 〈hum〉. However, I am from the North of England and do ...
6
votes
1answer
114 views

How old is linguistics as a discipline?

I hear a lot of people talk about how "new" linguistics is, or how "small" it is compared to other fields. Pāṇini studied grammar in the 4th century BC. Surely it didn't take until recent history to ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Does Korean have two classes of adjectives correlating to the -i and -na adjectives of Japanese?

It's widely claimed that Japanese and Korean have very similar grammars despite their differences in (non Chinese-derived) lexicon. Whether they're actually genetically related can be regarded as an ...
2
votes
0answers
70 views

What is the linguistic name of [r͡ʙ]?

I am creating a language with the sound [r͡ʙ]. The only name I can come up for this sound would be a simultaneous bilabial and alveolar trill. Is there anything more scientific than that? It cannot ...
2
votes
2answers
111 views

Would it be possible to discover through linguistics if any non-human languages influenced known language families?

Suppose some recent hominins such as Neanderthal had a spoken language (currently, as far as I'm aware, we are uncertain if they did, but suppose we knew they did). If this were the case, would it be ...
1
vote
2answers
95 views

Language shift because of contact or interest

Are there any examples of language shift, where population A changes language because of contacts with population B? I am not looking about examples where population A was conquered or colonized by B. ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

What's the difference between discontinuity and discontinuous dependencies?

I am reading the Wikpedia page on discontinuities, it says: Worth noting is that a large majority of sentences in most languages are projective, i.e. they do not contain discontinuities. Only ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

What is the maximum accuracy that can achieve a projective dependency parser in English?

From what I understand: a projective dependency parsers can only output projective tree Wikipedia says: "a large majority of sentences in most languages are projective, i.e. they do not contain ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

Do constituency parsers always generate POS tags?

For example, Cer, Daniel M., et al. "Parsing to Stanford Dependencies: Trade-offs between Speed and Accuracy." LREC. 2010. : All 5 presented constituency parsers generate POS tags. Do constituency ...
4
votes
3answers
210 views

Why did English lose cases whilsts German retained them?

Why (or more specifically what caused) did English lose cases whilsts they were retained in German. I am asking this question as I have recently been reading into the various Germanic languages and it ...
6
votes
4answers
125 views

Why is dependency parsing so much faster than constituency parsing?

For example, Cer, Daniel M., et al. "Parsing to Stanford Dependencies: Trade-offs between Speed and Accuracy." LREC. 2010. : Why is dependency parsing so much faster than constituency parsing?
5
votes
2answers
76 views

In what situation a constituency-based tree cannot be constructed from a dependency-based tree?

I am confused regarding the distinction dependency- vs. constituency-based tree: to me they look like they encompass the same information but presented differently. E.g. in the Wikipedia example the ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

Quality of multiple step translation

Say I have 2 dictionaries English<->Spanish Spanish<->French I want to translate from English to French. I wonder, how good will be quality of translation in this case? How much better is to ...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

How is the F1 score computed when assessing dependency parsing?

For example http://naacl2013.naacl.org/Documents/deep-learning-for-nlp-naacl-2013-tutorial.pdf says "+1.4% F1 Dependency Parsing". How is the F1 score computed when comparing dependency-based parse ...
4
votes
2answers
138 views

Is there an accepted objective criterion of “grammaticality”?

I'm not a linguist, but I took "linguistics 101" in college, and remain interested in the subject. One aspect of the linguistics field that has baffled me for years is the fact that much of the ...
3
votes
2answers
120 views

Why does English have progressive aspect but German does not?

In english there are two ways to express a present action: I go I am going However, In German there is really only one way to express a present action: Ich gehe If English is a ...

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