-1
votes
2answers
16 views

What language differs in the most aspects from English?

By aspects I mean things like grammar, punctuation, pronounciation, etc. I want to learn a language but I deliberately want it to be as different to English as possible while still being a reasonably ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

What is the difference between predicate-argument structure and case structure

Predicate's arguments are just case slots, aren't they? So predicate-argument structure and case structure are just the same thing?
-1
votes
2answers
38 views

Do all cultures allow for 1 to 1 swapping of decimal numerals?

Given the decimal numerals we're all familiar with: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,0 And given any number, for example: 1 100 156021 -23 -212311 242.2129 -21.001 Can we safely assume that in every language ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Political Advertising Corpus

Is there a large political advertising corpus available for download? I am working on a project but the Wesleyan and University of Wisconson corpus are off limits to me. I sent a request on official ...
-1
votes
0answers
24 views

What can longer sentences accomplish than shorter sentences cannot?

Abbreviate SS as Shorter Sentences, and LS as Longer Sentences. I know that only LS can feature certain grammatical units (like relative pronouns), but how does my question affect meaning and deeper ...
-1
votes
0answers
26 views

What skills or mental proceses improve understanding of longer written sentences?

This question concerns only written sentences, and presumes that longer sentences are more difficult to read and understand, a presumption which consists with the formula behind the Flesch–Kincaid ...
3
votes
1answer
16 views

Maltparser vs Freeling for Spanish dependency parser

I need to parse a Spanish corpus with syntactic dependencies. I have tried both Freeling and Maltparser, they both give similar results, but with some divergence. I need the highest accuracy possible, ...
-1
votes
0answers
6 views

How diverse is Spanish [migrated]

There are many varieties of English: American English, Canadian English, Australian English, Hiberno-English, Scottish English, etc, etc. With these varieties contrasting in terms of dialects, ...
-1
votes
0answers
15 views

What is the difference between language of thought is innate (known as mentalese) and natural learned language?

Language of thought theories generally fall into two categories. The first one is accept the innate, known as mentalese and the second one is which don't accept the innate, but the language of thought ...
0
votes
3answers
69 views

Why does English, Italian, German, Spanish, French and Latin share common alphabet and other words?

I wonder why English, Italian, German, Spanish, French and Latin share common alphabet and other words. Also what is the relation among them.
0
votes
0answers
34 views

What is the romanized short version of ukrainian name Volodymyr? [on hold]

Is there better way to shorten Volodymyr than Vlad (which is not 100% accurate since it's a short version of Vladislav)?
1
vote
2answers
86 views

Was the change in spelling from “cw” to “qu” in English associated with any difference in pronunciation?

I always thought that "cw" in Old English represented /kw/, and the same for modern English "qu", and that the change from one to the other was purely orthographic, since the "qu" digraph was more ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

ù - Are there other words (in which languages?) other than the french word “Où” that uses it?

I was discovering lately that the only French word using "ù" was the only word "où" which means "where". On the french layout keyboard (aka AZERTY), there's a key only dedicated to this "ù". We were ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

Adjectives describing an idafah construction? [migrated]

In arabic, idafah is a construction of two nouns, the first of which has no definite article, nor does not take nunation, and the second of which is in genitive case, and the definite-ness of the ...
2
votes
0answers
63 views

Shannon's entropy as a measure of vocabulary richness

The Entropy formula for lexical richness is The probability p-ith is calculated by dividing V-ith by N, where N is the total number of tokens in the text and V is the number of types. However, I ...
0
votes
2answers
44 views

Evidence of connections between f0 and a physiological parameter?

I have the impression that physiological parameters like e.g. the size of neck will alter their f0. It's just an impression but it seems to hold - I can usually guess someone's neck size over the ...
3
votes
0answers
66 views

Help us save a dying language with only 1 speaker left! [on hold]

It's difficult to do this single-handedly, so I could use some professional help. :) I'm a professor of Ancient Egyptian (and cosmology as well, which means I'm a perfect target for conspiracy ...
-1
votes
0answers
38 views

Is Latin more structured and systematic than Germanic languages? [on hold]

By 'Latin', I mean all written, attested forms of Latin (from Old to Medieval to Modern Latin). Germanic languages, including English, seems less formalised and more lawless. I recognise some ...
3
votes
2answers
56 views

How are English spellings determined for words from eastern languages

How are English spellings determined for words from languages with logographic writing systems. Since these don't have an alphabetic script the words in the original language don't have a "spelling." ...
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Is the ellipsis behind 'such as' grammatically correct?

[OED] 7. a. With correlative as pron. (see AS conj. 17), Middle English also as that, taking the place of Old English swelce, swá. such as = Of the kind or degree that; the kind of (person or ...
1
vote
2answers
719 views

Which official document defines the English alphabet?

This page says that standardization took place in year ~1700 So, where is it stated that English language has 26 letters and where are all letters defined? This link ...
-1
votes
0answers
27 views

phonetic description help [closed]

In each group below, one sound does not belong, and the rest form a phonetic class. For each group, (a) write down the sound that does not belong and (b) name the class that includes the rest. ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

syntax trees from sentences [closed]

I really do not understand how to create syntax trees. I am having a very hard time and I cannot figure out how to make trees for these three sentences. i) The cat with the long tail and the dog ...
0
votes
2answers
54 views

Do we have a taxonomy other than part of speech?

I'm trying to create an educational system, and I would like to have more taxonomies than a simple part of speech. For example, I would like to be able to categorize words into: Tree => object ...
-1
votes
0answers
16 views

topics in pragmatics for a research paper [closed]

This year I am supposed to prepare for my viva in linguistics and Iam a little bit confused between two modules between pragmatics and TEFL really do not know what to choose and the worst thing is ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

What rules govern when to use і, та, й or и in Ukrainian? [closed]

Google translate translates і vs та vs й vs и as and vs and vs and vs and.
-3
votes
0answers
68 views

How did the Germanic base *lik- mean both 'body, form' and 'like, same'? [on hold]

like (adj.) [...] from Proto-Germanic * galika- "having the same form," literally "with a corresponding body" (cognates: Old Saxon gilik, Dutch gelijk, German gleich, Gothic galeiks ...
-1
votes
1answer
28 views

What might explain the loss of -l- from Latin to Old French?

feeble (adj.) [:] late 12c., "lacking strength or vigor" (physical, moral, or intellectual), from Old French feble "weak, feeble" (12c., Modern French faible), dissimilated from Latin flebilis ...
2
votes
2answers
36 views

accusative being used to express an origin?

I read in Plutarch (Demosthenes.1) the phrase ὑπάρξαι ‘τὰν πόλιν εὐδόκιμον‘ (~ to be born in ‘a famous city’). (τὰν πόλιν εὐδόκιμον being a quote from (pseudo-?)Euripides' ode to Alcibiades, cf ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

What similarities exhibit the relationship of American Sign Language (ASL) to French Sign Language (FSL)?

What similarities exhibit the etiological relationship of American Sign Language (ASL) to French Sign Language (FSL)? A deaf studies student described to me the origins of ASL and relationship to FSL ...
2
votes
0answers
57 views

Head to head movement and features in Minimalism

Consider 2 heads a and b. b moves to head a. Does the feature [X] get on a1 by virtue of b merging to a2 by head movement? Is this kind of feature percolation still allowed in the Minimalist ...
1
vote
2answers
36 views

What are some canonical or seminal corpus linguistic studies using the Brown Corpus?

I'm looking for some good works of corpus linguistics using the Brown Corpus. Does anyone know of an important early work, and/or an important recent work that uses it?
-1
votes
0answers
29 views
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Which Romance language has the simplest phonotactics?

I have decided to give my latest conlang romance vocabulary, but I want the phonotactics of this language to be as simple as possible and yet still be recognizably Romance. (I don't generally spend a ...
-2
votes
0answers
35 views

Are Japanese honorifics capitalized? [closed]

Do we capitalize the first letter of Japanese honorifics? Example: Senpai, Sama, Chan, Kun.
0
votes
0answers
42 views

How did the language that we use came to exist,? [closed]

I am unable to understand how come our language developed ? How we people came to understand each other?
2
votes
1answer
46 views

How to disambiguate cognate verbs that differ only by a prefix?

What linguistics terms describe the following pairs of verbs? 'Cognate' seems too vague. Are there any resources that investigate the big picture behind, and possible explanations of, the differences ...
-3
votes
1answer
33 views

Does '-ous' imply no interruption, and '-al' the possibility of interruption?

I already know that 'continuous' is stronger than continual, but that both derive from the same Latin etymon continuus. These answers on ELU evidence this difference, but does not explain the cause. ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

What's the best way to combine systemic functional grammar and historical linguistics?

One last question, ladies and gentlemen, sorry about that. What's the best way to combine SFL/SFG and historical linguistics? I've just thought of diachronic genre analysis as being an interesting ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

underinvestigated areas in systemic functional grammar/linguistics?

Second question, or rather a bit of a 'cluster' of questions. :-) Are there any underinvestigated areas in systemic functional grammar/linguistics? I specifically mean areas that may merit a special ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

current state of affairs in (systemic) functional grammar/linguistics?

Based on jknappen's recommendation, I'm splitting my previous post into three separate questions. :-) Here goes the first one, then. What is the state of affairs in (systemic) functional ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

What is the current status of (systemic) functional grammar/linguistics

I'm sorry if my questions may sound rudimentary, so please bear with me. :-) I'm thinking of delving deeper into functional grammar/linguistics (most probably systemic in particular), perhaps with ...
3
votes
1answer
172 views

IPA Listening Training

Are there any programs that will play a sound and allow the user to choose which sound was played? The options would need to be IPA or some other descriptive method (e.g., voiceless alveolar stop). ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Why is the past participle of the French « lire » « lu », but « rire » « ri »?

Phonologically,« lire » and « rire » sound like a minimal pair, with the first letter as the only difference. So what might explain the difference between their « participes passé »? Their etymons ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Finding a word tree translater for sentences that does all the work for me

I am not an expert in linguistics. I want to know if there is a site or a program that will allow me to put in complex sentences of novels that I read , then answer with a word tree labeling the ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Incomplete sentence parsing and relation extraction

I'm building a tool which parses natural language input into nouns and relations. For example sentence Barack is the president of the United States and lives in Washington DC and went to Harvard ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

How does the view that theta-roles are features work exactly? For example, in Hornstein 1999 Movement and Control

Hornstein 1999 says that theta-roles are features on verbs and a DP receives a theta-role by checking a theta-feature of a VP that it merges with. How would this be represented in a syntactic tree? ...
2
votes
0answers
14 views

Slot filling corpora

I was wondering if anyone knows of slot filling corpora such as ATIS. I tried finding ATIS but since I am not a member of LDC I couldnt get access to it. Do you know of any place where I can find a ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Literature on the reconstruction of proto-Greek

I usually find scattered proto-Greek word reconstructions, but I never came across literature that focus on the reconstruction of that language. Do you know of any?
-1
votes
1answer
39 views

How does a rule explain how « à chef » evolved into « achever »?

Etymonline refers to the "An Etymological Dictionary of the French Language" by Auguste Brachet, translated by G.W. Kitchin, Oxford, 1878. Its entry for achever, on page 152 of 558, states: For f ...

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