I don't think they are related. As you said, the root from which the word shabbath is built, is different from that of sheva. The first is constructed from the root shin-bet-tav (sīn-bā’-tā’ in Arabic) and the second comes from the root shin-bet-'ayin (sīn-bā’-’ayn in Arabic).
שבת (shabbath) means to rest, to stop working and that is why the last day (seventh day) of the week is called shabbath.
On the other hand, שבע (sheva) is the number seven and is related to the word سبعة (sab’a) in Arabic.
Some extra information on the word shabbath: The seventh day of the week for Jews is Saturday as it is with Arabs, so shabbath means Saturday, and so does its Arabic counterpart السبت (sabt) (but for Muslim Arabs, the day of rest is جمعة (jum’a) which is the sixth day). The Persian word شنبه (shanbeh) has been derived from shabbath and has the same meaning (Saturday) but it is not the day of rest; it is the first day of the week. Instead of Saturday, the last day of the week for Iranians is Friday which is the Islamic holy day of the week.
That's all I know so I hope it helps.