Inflectional forms that indicate the grammatical functions of nouns, pronouns and their modifiers (such as adjectives).

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How do various frameworks account for situations when multiple cases can be assigned?

My mother and I went to the market. My mother and me went to the market. Many (most?) English speakers today will accept both of these as grammatical. But it would be hard to argue that ...
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53 views

What is the difference between case marking particles and adpositions?

Apparently there is some relevant book which claims, more or less: Case marking particles and adpositions are not identical, one is a morphological, one a syntactic unit. This claim was heard ...
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81 views

Case matching asymmetry in German dislocation

Left- and right-dislocation in German behave differently regarding the case the dislocated expression takes. Left-dislocation seems to be lenient, as it allows the nominative as well as the case the ...
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1answer
132 views

Why are these Sanskrit words in the nominative case

I'm studying the Sanskrit mantra that starts with asato ma: असतो मा सद् गमय तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय मृत्योर्मा अमृतं गमय The meaning of the first two lines is "lead from the unreal to the real. Lead ...
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54 views

Do Germanic languages have partitive case?

Finnish, among a few other languages, is known for its partitive case. I have been told that in some Germanic language, partitive case is required whenever SV-order is absent. SV-order is absent, ...
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112 views

What sort of morpheme is this suffix meaning ‘about'?

Some background: This is a conlang that I'm developing as part of my job. It's a difficult task, but I want to make it as realistic as possible. I have to make a detailed grammar so that other ...
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2answers
109 views

How does one gloss a case that has both locative and genitive meaning?

I am designing a language where a single case affix expresses both loc and gen. How should such a case be labelled? An example would be: house-GEN.LOC 'in the house'; he-GEN.LOC house-3POSS 'his ...
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4answers
485 views

Why did English lose cases whilsts German retained them?

Why (or more specifically what caused) did English lose cases whilsts they were retained in German. I am asking this question as I have recently been reading into the various Germanic languages and it ...
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74 views

What are other 'tacit perfectiveness/imperfectiveness event markers' in Russian? [closed]

I have discovered that making a communicative wishing constructions (like in 'have a good trip' or 'merry Christmas') in Russian, they use different structures depending on ...
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5answers
330 views

Pronouns in highly inflected languages

I'm currently studying Icelandic. Right away at one of the first steps I found a bit of difficulty and I wonder if any of you might be able to help me as the question might be answered based on any ...
2
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2answers
108 views

Distributive case in Latin

Why? I've taken a great interest in linguistics lately and want to learn more about the basic principles but also advanced topics we built into different languages. What? As I was browsing through ...
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2answers
212 views

Which language(s) has cases which cannot be mistaken for other cases?

I would like to learn a language which has cases which cannot be mistaken for other cases, in pronunciation and writing. Does such a language exist? For an example of what I want to avoid: The case ...
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150 views

Are there signed languages that have a case system?

In a prior question I asked whether word order in ASL has a special significance, which naturally lead to another question: do any signed languages, that is languages communicated mostly if not fully ...
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2answers
344 views

How do English people understand the grammatical cases? [closed]

In Czech poetry you can say something like this: "zvukem kulek k tobe promlouvam" which is "I speak to you with(through) the sound of bullets/shots"./"Mluvim k tobe se(skrz) zvukem(zvuk) kulek." ...
3
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1answer
117 views

Across ergative languages, is there a case that typically marks arguments in copular & existential clauses?

Across ergative languages, is there a case that typically marks the arguments in copular & existential clauses? For example, in sentences that translate as "The beetle is red" and "There is a ...
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1answer
255 views

Do applicative verbs ever govern the cases of their objects?

From what I've read (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumental_case) applicative voice occurs when an oblique noun phrase becomes an argument of the verb when the verb takes some applicative ...
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1answer
230 views

Where did Latin and its descendants retain a case system most recently?

So we know that Latin nouns and adjectives inflect for case as well as person, number, and gender. Also we know that all the major modern Romance languages except Romanian no longer have a case ...
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97 views

Their class has more singers than (we/us) — possible syntactical derivations?

Forgive me if this is not the right sort of question to post here, but I was curious as to the derivation of the above sentence. (Apparently the correct choice is 'we'). Their class has more singers ...
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55 views

What is “contacting case”?

According to Wikipedia, the Bats language of Eastern Georgia has a case called "contacting", but no description is offered as to its function. I checked the Russian and Georgian versions of the page ...
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67 views

Is there any universal semantic coding for noun cases similar to verb aspectology?

I am aware of the argument/actant theories, but perhaps there is something like universal semantical coding for the nouns as well. For Argument concepts,you can see the relevant Wikipedia page for ...
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2answers
144 views

Is it okay that Ergative case be unmarked?

I found a language of Celebes island in Indonesia, its name is Mongondow (mog). It has a Phillipine's Alignment morphosyntactic which it has combination of Accusative and Ergative languages. The word ...
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2answers
203 views

Does the Finnish translative case exist in other languages?

The Finnish translative case expresses the concept of becoming or turning into something else. Does this case exist in other languages, or is it unique to Finnish? How is this concept most commonly ...
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3answers
165 views

Is there a name for the “case” that is a conflation of nominative and accusative?

In Indo-European languages, the neuter is often characterized by syncretism between nominative and accusative. There are other examples of syncretism and also historical change where the nominative ...
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1answer
335 views

Is there a language known to have developed a case system?

There are many languages which, having descended from a language with a complex case system, have lost or greatly simplified theirs: Bulgarian (Slavic), English (Germanic), most Romance languages etc. ...
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4answers
419 views

Declinable conjunctions

Duolingo states: “In German, conjunctions do not change with the case (i.e. they are not declinable).”1 I started to think of languages I know, and I don't remember any which would have this property. ...
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362 views

Are there any languages where the genitive case changes according to its object?

In forms like Claudio's house or Claudio's dogs, are there languages in which the Claudio's would change depending on gender and number of the houses or dogs?
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1answer
327 views

Why is the number of grammatical cases in Germanic and Romance languages decreasing?

There is a tendency in Germanic and Romance languages that the number of the grammatical cases is decreasing. The Indo-European proto-language should have 8 grammatical cases, in Latin we already ...
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1answer
133 views

Are there languages with PCC effects and a more developed person system?

The Person-Case Constraint (PCC) is a constraint on which arguments can co-occur in a construction such as a causative/applicative/ditransitive. It might cause a combination of persons to be ...
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1answer
1k views

What are the differences between inherent, lexical and structural case?

What are the differences between these three kinds of case? How do we know that they are real? I kind of understand that inherent and lexical case are idiomatic and lead to variation in case marking, ...
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2answers
224 views

In Polish, how do people say “Call <name>” when giving their phone a command? [closed]

In phones, you now can use speech to do VAD (Voice Activated Dialing). As in, "Call Bob". This works fine in isolating languages. I was told that in Polish (pl-PL), it is more natural to say "Call ...
8
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1answer
354 views

How do linguists distinguish between case endings and postpositions, especially in languages which have both and/or have no traditional grammar

In my attempt to learn Georgian, an agglutinative language of the South Caucasus, I have learned that it has both case endings and postpositions. I also have some familiarity with Korean and Japanese ...
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272 views

Thematic roles in some languages

I have a question about semantic roles in Latin and Russian. Latin Quibusdam […] sudor erumpit. someone. DAT.PL sweat. NOM.SG come out.PRES.3SG. ‘Some people start sweating.’ ...
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288 views

Are there any recent articles on the current state of Case theory?

Specifically I'm interested in the split between Structural Case and Morphological case. Structural Case has been part of Chomskyan syntactic theory since at least Government & Binding (GB). ...
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1answer
76 views

Case reassignment without change in number of cases

Most languages with cases seem to be either gaining or losing them diachronically (The Indo-European languages are an example of the latter, and the Uralic languages of the former). Manchu and Xibe (a ...
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4answers
414 views

Are there any papers etc analyzing Japanese as a language with noun cases rather than particles?

Japanese is often included in lists of agglutinating languages. Many (most?) agglutinating languages are analysed as having case systems. Of course cases and prepositions/postpositions fill the same ...