a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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1answer
26 views

Examples of discrete place-of-articulation changes

Most sound changes that involve consonantal place of articulation are gradual changes between two POAs that are contiguous: for example, a velar gets gradually fronted until it becomes a palatal. What ...
2
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3answers
106 views

Are there languages with consonant clusters that include consonants that never occur alone?

In the languages I know more about I can't think of any cases of consonant phoneme clusters that are not made up entirely of consonant phonemes which also occur on their own in the language. But I'm ...
3
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1answer
76 views

Consonantal innovations in Hungarian

The Hungarian language seems to have many phonetic features uncommon in other Uralic languages- for example, phonemic voicing in its stops and sibilants and the presence of a labiodental fricative ...
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1answer
35 views

“Rate” or “score” a word by various parameters

I’m working on a small project which involves a large list of words (single words, no sentence) and I would love to have a way to “rate” or “score” each word by some parameters. Right now I have two ...
2
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1answer
186 views

Languages with a three-way distinction between voiced, aspirated, and unaspirated stops

I thought I had asked this question here previously but it turns out that I asked about ejectives rather than aspirated stops. So this time I would like to ask whether there are languages that have a ...
5
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1answer
87 views

Does the initial part of voiced consonants always have a low pitch?

The spectral graphs in the accepted answer of "What is the difference between voiced and voiceless stop consonants?" shows that in English, the initial part (before the stop release) of voiced stop ...
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0answers
129 views

What ocurrs when a non-strident consonant becomes strident in English?

What is happening when a sound in RP English usage is non-strident [ð] is replaced by a strident sound [v]? For instance, the word 'Father'.
3
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2answers
102 views

What is the phonological process whereby a speaker uses [ʊ] as a replacement for [l]?

What is the phonological process whereby a speaker would use [ʊ] as a replacement for [l]? Some examples off the top of my head; [lɪtl] -> [lɪtʊ], [gɪgl] -> [gɪgʊ], [twɪŋkl] -> [twɪŋkʊ]
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0answers
79 views

Does [t] become [g] due to anticipatory assimilation?

In this particular rule [t] -> [g]/_ V [+velar] (because of anticipatory assimilation) I'm unsure of how to actually write this in the most efficient way. I want to know that if [t] changes to [g] ...
2
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0answers
136 views

Are nasals stop consonants?

Nasals: I must answer the question but I am not sure how to understand it... The question is: why nasals both can and cannot be treated as stop consonants? I thought that nasals cannot be stop ...
3
votes
1answer
166 views

Can a syllable be open before a lenghtened consonant?

This thread (related to this problem) can be split into two questions, the first one being restricted to Ancient Greek, the second one being more general. (1) Let's be, by example, two syllables, the ...
4
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1answer
184 views

geminate or long consonants in Ancient Greek?

I can't decide whether Ancient Greek had "geminate" or "long" consonants. In other words did γλῶττα stand for [glˈɔːt̪.t̪a] or for [glˈɔː.t̪ːa] ? The difference between geminate and long consonants is ...
3
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0answers
104 views

What is the difference between an ejective consonant and a sequence of consonant + glottal stop?

Is it just the simultaneousness? Also - can a sequence of say uvular stop and glottal stop become - diachronically - an uvular ejective? Thanks :))
0
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0answers
157 views

What is the consonant equivalent of Well's lexical sets for English vowels?

In Accents of English (1982), John C. Wells came up with a useful notation for English vowels that allows easy comparison of the pronunciation of English vowels in varieties of this language. This ...
2
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0answers
406 views

How can I distinguish different consonants in Praat/acoustic analysis?

How can I distinguish different consonants based on acoustic information/spectrographic analysis such as in Praat? Is there a list of acoustic cues for different consonants like there is for average ...
3
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0answers
94 views

Are click sounds accompanied by specific formant transitions?

Is it possible to identify click sounds like [‖ ʘ !] by formant transitions in the surrounding vowels? I know stops and fricatives have that feature. I'm just wondering how the five (main) click ...
2
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1answer
100 views

Is [ɹ] +ATR or -ATR or is that even relevant?

Has there been any investigation into the ATR quality of the central alveolar approximant [ɹ]? It is very vowel-like and I have this theory that it could simply be the result of an advanced tongue ...
6
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3answers
282 views

Is there use of a trilled “L” sound in any language? Is a trilled “L” even possible?

I've seen nothing on a trilled "L" sound anywhere. I've tried producing the trilled "L" sound and I can get something that seems similar. Is it possible to trill an "L" and if so are there any ...
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2answers
174 views

Does any language contrast more than two trills?

Last night I was thinking about the trill sounds and how most languages I know about have just one, though they vary in which one they have. Most common seems to be the alveolar trill /r/, as in ...
4
votes
2answers
280 views

Understanding Voiced Consonants

I've been having some trouble understanding how is it that what differentiates, for example, /p/ from /b/, is the vibration of the vocal chords, present in /b/, but not in /p/. From what I have read ...
4
votes
3answers
4k views

Why are consonants distinguished differently than vowels?

Consonants are distinguished normally by features like place of articulation, manner of articulation, voiced/voiceless, etc. while vowels are usually distingusihed by stuff like tongue's position and ...
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1answer
230 views

Is the consonant [b] always voiced across languages? What about [p]?

Is the consonant [b] always voiced across languages? What about [p] being voiceless? Similarly, is [k] always voiceless across languages? Basically, I am taking what I know in English and wondering ...
4
votes
1answer
152 views

Change of B > W in casual speech

I am exploring the phonological system of Kyrgyz Language. In casual speech people tend to change b > w when b occurs between two vowels or preceeds l, r, y and followed by vowel. Are there other ...
6
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0answers
129 views

Do we have the scientific theory why the click consonants were developed?

Do we have a scientific theory explaining why the click consonants were developed, and why they are used almost exclusivly in praerie regions? I've watched a BBC documentary about the evolution of ...
7
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1answer
376 views

Consonant length-differences by prominence

In a language I am studying I have just noticed a significant but subtle difference in the length of [f] segments in tonic versus atonic syllables (an ~50ms difference which is statistically ...
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3answers
1k views

Where did Spanish get its /x/? Arabic influence?

Most Romance languages don't have /x/ (like the j in hijo), nor did Latin. Where did Spanish /x/ come from? Internal development, Arabic influence, or something else? Since Moroccan Arabic also has ...
2
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2answers
370 views

What caused some IE languages to have consonant inventory sizes different from PIE?

The WALS chapter on consonant inventories shows that the distribution of inventory sizes across languages follows a normal curve, with average size inventories (22 ± 3 consonants) being the most ...
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1answer
238 views

Systematic means of transcribing words to vowel/consontant patterns

Looking for a systematic online step-by-step process to codify English words into vowel/consontant patterns (CVC, CVCe, CVVC, etc.) and the correct sound (long-vowel, short-vowel, blend, diagraph, ...
7
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3answers
2k views

Can you give me some tips on how to pronounce ejective consonants?

I'll be going back to the Republic of Georgia pretty soon and will try to learn the famously difficult language but last time I was there I couldn't distinguish or reproduce the ejectives. Everybody ...