A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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36 views

Do we have a taxonomy other than part of speech?

I'm trying to create an educational system, and I would like to have more taxonomies than a simple part of speech. For example, I would like to be able to categorize words into: Tree => object ...
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1answer
33 views

Does '-ous' imply no interruption, and '-al' the possibility of interruption?

I already know that 'continuous' is stronger than continual, but that both derive from the same Latin etymon continuus. These answers on ELU evidence this difference, but does not explain the cause. ...
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1answer
53 views

What is the current status of (systemic) functional grammar/linguistics

I'm sorry if my questions may sound rudimentary, so please bear with me. :-) I'm thinking of delving deeper into functional grammar/linguistics (most probably systemic in particular), perhaps with ...
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28 views

“I started yelling” vs “I was yelling” - coincidence? [closed]

The two sentences have the same structure. Is this just a coincidence do they really have the same logical form?
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2answers
42 views

Said tags in Sentence detection

I am trying to apply NLP to fiction but I don't know how split dialog into sentences. Specifically how to split said tags. ex. "Awake? How long have been asleep?" asked teenagers at the same time. ...
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31 views

What resources explain the differences in morphology between English and French?

(TL;DR) Please recommend resources written in English and/or French that expose, discuss, and explain the differences in morphology and syntax (Are these the right terms?) required by English and ...
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107 views

Meta-operational grammar

On the bottom page 6 of this paper, the author starts describing Henri Adamczewski's meta-operational grammar theory. What the author says is complete Latin to me, a complete newbie. Can anyone of ...
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1answer
26 views

North American English: R Muscles and Linguistic Description

I speak North American English. When I pronounce "R", the fleshy part under my chin inside my jawbone tends to move up. When I stress the "R", it really moves up and back. I think the back of my ...
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2answers
73 views

What accent (for the English language) is most widely and easily understood?

I am making educational videos (in maths, science, etc.) that I plan to put on YouTube and perhaps elsewhere. I am hoping to reach as wide a global audience as possible. Obviously then, if there is ...
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44 views

Why does English have an upper case?

In English it seems that the upper case, to me, is slightly redundant. I'm not sure if maybe it was more important in earlier times and we just keep it because its a traditional part of English. ...
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23 views

What's the meaning of or/not in logical reasoning questions? [migrated]

I have a simple problem basically I am unable to understand the meaning of some questions involving or/not, and using comma with and. I have the following questions:- 1.Whats the meaning of, say , ...
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44 views

What these constructions are called, “have time”, “go to university”, etc

Suppose the following constructions have time, go to school, give lessons, give an example, take a shower spend time, expend energy, suffer damage, say prayers, ... What such constructions are ...
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44 views

Why was 'thwart' assigned to PIE *terkw- “to twist”?

thwart (adv.) [...] c. 1200, from a Scandinavian source, probably Old Norse þvert "across," originally neuter of thverr (adj.) "transverse, across," (cognate with Old English þweorh ...
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2answers
87 views

How Mistakes in Pronunciation Happen for native Germans speaking English

In German the sound of 'w' in the English word "wallet" does not exist. As a result, it is difficult for native German speakers to speak it any indeed many say "vallet" instead, which is the typical ...
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1answer
45 views

Measuring semantic complexity of a text

I do not have a linguistic background, but I am working on a research project that involves measuring the complexity of news. One of the metrics that I was interested in is the semantic complexity of ...
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1answer
31 views

Theory of Enunciative Operations and the present progressive

Please, take a look at this answer from English.SE. I have spent a lot of time trying to understand what the poster meant, but to no avail. His suggestion nicely deals with the cases of be, need and ...
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45 views

Epistemic modality and the present tense in English

In this paper by Astrid De Wit and Frank Brisard, a unified semantics for the English present tense is proposed. According to their view, the present tense is all about epistemic modality: the ...
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0answers
25 views

How common are indefinite pronouns in creole languages?

I understand that creole languages from all parts of the world share many disparate features. Amongst them, how common are third–person, singular, indefinite pronouns (like the French “on”) in creole ...
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2answers
148 views

Are American English and British English growing closer together or drifting further apart?

I'm mostly wondering about vocabulary (e.g. truck vs. lorry; apartment vs. flat) but I suppose I'd be interested to learn about pronunciation too. Intuitively I feel like this could go either way. ...
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1answer
49 views

Relation of Persian “Ke” and English “That” [closed]

First I should say I am not a linguist, but try to understand it to help my English. In my native language, Persian, we do much use "Ke" (که) which almost corresponds to "which, who, that" in ...
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19 views

After verbs, how does 'from' compare with 'of'?

(TL;DR) I've been plagued by the postverbal use of the preposition 'of'. After verbs, when describing attributes like origin or source, what are the differences between 'from' and 'of'? The verbs ...
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1answer
58 views

What's the etymology of 'of' after verbs?

(TL;DR) While reading about preposition of on OED (eg avail of, enquire of), I encountered OED's claim that the postverbal of originates from the genitive case, and from Old English. How can this ...
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2answers
78 views

How did “as” (in English) branch into many meanings that look unlinked?

How did as change semantically and ramify into all the meanings beneath? What underlying ideas or metaphors link them? Beneath, I chose only the broadest meanings from ODO, to see the "overall ...
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33 views

Felicity judgement for English sentence

I wanted to ask English speakers what they think of the following sentence. John left three years before Bill arrived. In fact Bill never arrived. Is this an acceptable sentence? If not, could you ...
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1answer
65 views

Etymology of “Haggard” has anything to do with Hagar in Islam?

A simple google search tells me that "Haggard" emerged in... ...mid 16th century (used in falconry): from French hagard ; perhaps related to hedge; later influenced by hag. However, on a ...
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38 views

Use of subjunctive in various languages

The subjunctive is most often used when expressing volition. Using English and Spanish as examples: The doctor recommends that you eat vegetables and fruits. El médico recomienda que comas ...
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49 views

How to parse 'in as much' and similar syntagmas?

[OED] inasmuch {adverb} = [Etymology:] originally 3 words in as much (in northern Middle English in als mikel), subsequently sometimes written as 2 words, in asmuch, and now (especially since ...
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2answers
57 views

Should common short words be left out of a concordance?

I'm writing a program which will be designed to take a text file, and parse all the words into a Concordance, e.g., a sort of dictionary list of all the words sorted in order, with a total count of ...
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1answer
53 views

If two verbs are in a row, is the first always an Auxiliary? [closed]

Consider the sentence: He has gone. This is one of the example auxiliary verb sentences from: "Radford, A. English syntax: An introduction, Cambridge University Press, 2004" has is an auxiliary ...
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40 views

How did 'of' 's figurative meanings evolve from 'away, away from'?

of (prep.) [⇐] Old English of, unstressed form of æf (prep., adv.) "away, away from" [...], from PIE *apo- "off, away" (see apo-). Primary sense in Old English still was "away," but shifted in ...
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1answer
47 views

What are the general ways adopted by most people to learn english syntax precisely?

Understanding english syntax mathematically—which demands strictness—is what I want to achieve. However, a wide range of choices I can make upon selecting a book covering related fields makes me ...
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35 views

How did the Old French 'vengier' produce, in its cognates, so many valencies?

avenge (v.) [←] late 14c., from Anglo-French avenger, Old French avengier, from a- "to" (see ad-) + vengier "take revenge" (Modern French venger) [continued below] revenge (v.) [←] ...
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33 views

'penance' vs 'penitence'

penance (n.) [←] late 13c., "religious discipline or self-mortification as a token of repentance and as atonement for some sin," from Anglo-French penaunce, Old French peneance (12c.), from ...
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1answer
131 views

English words with the /ɔ/ vowel sound

I'm looking for English words with the /ɔ/ vowel sound... suggestions? If folks could give me their list of open back counterparts to /o/, I would appreciate it! American English preferred but other ...
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6answers
136 views

Natural vs. “Forced” language learning

Would the "natural" way of learning a language (the way we learn our mother tongue) be better even for acquiring second (and third, etc.) languages? What I mean is: The "natural" way to learn a ...
3
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1answer
146 views

Etymology of 'but', from West Germanic to Old English

but (adv., prep.) [<--] Old English butan, buton "unless, except; without, outside," from West Germanic * be-utan, a compound of * be- "by" (see by) + * utana "out, outside; from ...
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39 views

Vowel-Backing in English?

Has anybody heard of vowel-backing in English? In East-Central Alabama, USA, I have observed forms such as: suckint ['sOkh Inˀ] for "second" butter ['bOD ɚ] for "better" woonda ['wUnd ә] for ...
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1answer
29 views

Metaphor and metonymy in proverbs

I have a question about metonymy and metaphors in English proverbs below: An apple a day, keeps doctors away. Meaning: Fruit is an important part of a healthy diet Beggars can't be choosers. ...
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35 views

Question type corpus

I'm looking for a corpus that contains questions and question types. Like in this article, but they didn't attach any link to their corpus. http://polibits.gelbukh.com/2009_40/40_01.pdf
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63 views

Why were prefixes repeated as postverbal prepositions?

French: s'abstenir de    Spanish: abstenerse de    English: abstain [from] (v.) [<--] late 14c., "to withhold oneself," from Old French abstenir (14c.), earlier astenir (13c.) "hold ...
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2answers
230 views

The verb BE as function word or content word

I'm reading a book on America accent and there's a page with exercises. Exercice: Circle the function words in the following sentences: The sky is blue. ... ... The answers are provided at the ...
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2answers
73 views

The sound /Ur/ in English

I read in a book that there is a stressed version as well as an unstressed version of the sound "ər" The stressed one usually look like "ɜr" in dictionaries: hurt /'hɜrt/ her /'hɜr/ and the ...
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1answer
58 views

What are the possible impetuses for loss of Middle English shwa?

I'm wondering what some possible catalysts/ reasons for loss of final -e /ǝ/ in Middle English might have been (For instance, OE /tɑlu/ > ME /taːlǝ/ > MnE tale /teɪl/). I'm wondering because to my ...
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3answers
70 views

Why do some scientific possessives have trailing “s” and others don't?

I debated names of scientific terms with my friend, and we both discovered that some of them have the trailing letter "s" while others don't. Here are some examples: Mobius strip, Fourier series, ...
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1answer
28 views

Did the English 'confer' evolve from the Middle French « conférer » ?

[Etymonline :] 1530s, from Middle French conférer (14c.) "to give, converse, compare," from Latin conferre "to bring together," figuratively "to compare; consult, deliberate, talk over," from com- ...
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1answer
47 views

handling ambiguity in parses

Given a sentence from http://home.uchicago.edu/~bartels/papers/Bartels-Johnson-2015-Cognition.pdf: We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two ...
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29 views

How to identify mentions in a text?

I am looking for rule-based methods or any other methods to identify all mentions in a text. I have found several libraries that give coreferences but no exact options for only mentions. What I want ...
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2answers
90 views

Is there a comprehensive list of all (or many) phonological rules (specifically allophonic) of the English language available anywhere online?

It would be very helpful to have for a programming project I'm working on involving grapheme-to-phoneme translation. I've been able to find many rules for phonemes but not too many for allophones.
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1answer
60 views

Which English phonemes are the easiest to distinguish from each other?

I work as a literacy tutor in a preschool and part of my job is to help students develop phonological awareness by teaching them how to identify rhymes and alliteration. To make it as easy as possible ...
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1answer
142 views

Biggest freely available English corpus?

Any help on finding the biggest freely available English corpus that can be used on research? So far I have found OANC with 15 M words.