A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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22 views

'dispose' vs 'dispose of' & « disposer » vs « disposer de »

[Source:] [D1.] dispose (v.) - (a) to arrange in order; (b) to lean toward or incline (typically used as a past participle). ... [D2.] dispose of (phrasal v.) - (a) to throw away or discard; (b) ...
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1answer
28 views

When and why did 'another' start being used as one word?

I assume the word came from a meshing together of 'other' with its indefinite article'. When (and why) did English speakers begin to use this version, instead of 'an other'? And why is it still ...
1
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1answer
31 views

How to trace Proto-language roots towards English and French?

TL;DR: What resources tie Proto-language roots (eg Proto-Indo-European), to English and French, especially if spelling has changed? I always heed linguistic pitfalls, but I always try to find some ...
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0answers
34 views

What else about Proto-Indo-European can improve my English and French? [closed]

Thanks to Etymonline.com, I only recently discovered the value and utility of recognising Proto-Indo-European (aka PIE) roots in connecting words and so strengthening vocabulary. While bewaring of ...
-1
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2answers
40 views

Why do DR MRS VANDERTRAMP require 'be' for the present perfect?

I already know (and so ask NOT about) that symbolised by the mnemonic DR MRS VANDERTRAMP, these especial 16 verbs require « être » (= to be) as the auxiliary verb, to form the passé composé (= present ...
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1answer
37 views

Latin's excrescent e- in English and French

I was reading Etymonline's entry on 'estate' which broaches the excrescent e- as follows. Please advise if I'm wrong, but I'll just refer to it as epenthesis in case the following involves the ...
1
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1answer
29 views

Predicate vs. Predicator

BACKGROUND According to Oxford Dictionaries Online: Predicator means "(In systemic grammar) a verb phrase considered as a constituent of clause structure, along with subject, object, and ...
0
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1answer
70 views

Phonemes: German vs. English

How many of the same phonemes in the German language are found in the English language? Same consonants? Vowels? Resources for this?
1
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0answers
43 views

Methods to dissect or parse long, difficult sentences

TL;DR: Only English and French can I manage and so ask for. Instead of repeating 'long, difficult' hereafter, denote it mazy. Mazy sentences still stifle my reading comprehension; so I was gladdened ...
0
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0answers
29 views

Morphological trees

I have drawn my trees for the words which I am working with. Is this the correct way of adding the affixes or could I draw it different. Of course, I can add the affixes in another order, but it ...
1
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2answers
59 views

Why are there presuppositions?

I am working with these two sentences: 1. Alex stopped playing the piano. What I concluded is that the sentence presupposes that Alex had previously played the piano. But why does the presupposition ...
0
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1answer
38 views

Thematic roles adjunct

I am a little confused when it comes to giving a theta role to some of my sentences. I got: James got a ball yesterday. where James has the role as BENEFICIARY. Got is the main predicate. a ball is ...
0
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3answers
94 views

“They told me that” which one is the direct and indirect object?

In the sentence "They told me that" or "They told me so" OR even much better sentence from one of the provisional answer "She taught me Spanish" Which one is the direct object? (My guess is "that" ...
0
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0answers
30 views

morphological trees [on hold]

I am studying linguistics and now I have to draw morph trees. I am following books and internet pages but I still feel very insecure. Could someone tell me if I am doing it right? I can send the ...
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1answer
64 views

How to understand etymology derived from obscure languages?

This ELU answer corroborates the helpfulness of etymology while heeding the Etymological Fallacy. Since I'm interested in French (which is derived from Latin), I can sometimes apply it to help ...
1
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0answers
36 views

Why does 'gauche' connote negativity in English and French?

gauche = {adjective} unsophisticated and socially awkward: 1. Why does gauche connote negativity? I read but won't replicate Etymonline here because it doesn't explain its negativity in English, ...
1
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2answers
91 views

Why aren't defective words perfected?

Since Académie française superintends French, a solution seems easier (at least to prescribe and enforce) in French; I exemplify with it. Yet I question the same for English. Why hasn't French ...
5
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3answers
985 views

What word did the English use before 'because'?

Looking at the origin of the word 'because' I find it evolved from the phrase 'by cause', which was influenced by the French par cause de ; 'by cause' appeared in Middle English. What word was in use ...
1
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2answers
115 views

Сoncept of an attribute usesd by Russian grammarians

Note: This is cross-posted on ELL.se at Сoncept of an attribute used by Russian grammarians. I need to know all the attributes in theese sentences and how they are expressed.The problem is that ...
0
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2answers
55 views

Sandhi [English]

I am wondering if the rule that dictates when to use "an" or "a" in sentences is Sandhi? If not, what is it? I'm trying to explain why we use "an" or "a" in English beyond the "An is for vowels, A is ...
1
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1answer
42 views

Relation between Hebrew 'סמפוניה' and English 'Symphony'

In the Mishna, it mentions a musical instrument called 'סמפוניה', transliterated 'Simp-O-nya'. This sounds rather like the English word symphony, which is a musical composition. What is the relation ...
0
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1answer
51 views

Conversational English corpus for download

I have a project which requires a corpus of conversational English in plain text (although I can perform some processing as needed). Since I am a student, I need to find a corpus that is free and ...
0
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2answers
35 views

What heads can an adverbial phrase have?

What heads can an adverbial phrase have? Consider the following examples: I'll go to bed [soon]_AdvP. I'll go to bed [in an hour]_AdvP. I'll go to bed [when I've finished my book]_AdvP. ...
2
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1answer
70 views

Is 'identity' a grammatical term?

Originally purposed for this ELL question, the following from this thread claims that which I've greyed. I ask about such a claim for English and French. [User 'RuthP' dated 2012 Dec 26:] That ...
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0answers
34 views

What is the type of adjective that denotes capability?

I have encountered a number of adjectives while programming that all have the same use case of describing capabilities of a noun. "Clonable", "serializable", "runnable", "hashable", "immutable", ...
0
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0answers
53 views

French letter closings in English?

When I first learned about the Closing Formula for French business letters, I had found them affected and foreign, especially since I haven't seen them in modern English (though I'm unversed in ...
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0answers
23 views

Position of 'notwithstanding' and « nonobstant »?

Hereafter, I ask only about English vs French (Alas, these two already trouble me enough!) Based on the etymology, I guess that notwithstanding and « nonobstant » are cognates? Am I right? If so, ...
1
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2answers
83 views

How is the dative case for help being used here?

Swiss-German has dative and accusative case-marking for its objects. In the sentence "I gave him the book," "him" must be marked as dative and "the book" must be marked as accusative. It's clear that ...
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1answer
48 views

Term for when sentences (or parts) are combined with “this means”, “meaning”, “that shows”, etc.?

Often sentences or parts of sentences are combined with verbs or pronoun + verb. However, they don't describe something of the content of the text, they just help to bring the parts or sentences in ...
22
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6answers
5k views

Why does English not have a version of (Swedish: heter, Icelandic: heiti, Spanish: llamo etc.)?

This is something that I think is present in most languages. If I were to present my self in English, I might say: My name is DisplayName. Where as in other languages I can both say: Mitt ...
0
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0answers
20 views

Researching extraposition in a syntactic treebank

I'm writing a paper on extraposition in English (and other right-branching discontinuities). I have found a lot of interesting theory on this but the instructions say that if possible concrete corpus ...
1
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1answer
88 views

How many of English words have Germanic roots, and how many have Romantic roots? (in percent)

So, I'm wondering how much of English words have Germanic roots, how many have Romantic roots and how many have Greek roots etc. In percent. Is there any such table?
2
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4answers
124 views

Is word order a method of implementing case in English language

I often read that English retains 'vestigal' case markers, particularly for the genitive, although some argue that 's is a clitic. Pronouns remain the largest source of marked words indicating the ...
1
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1answer
52 views

Do Persian Jews voice Hebrew ק?

I recently saw the Hebrew name יעקב transliterated into (American) English by Persian Jews as Yaghob. I find this curious (because the ע isn't transliterated, but that's a question for another time, ...
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2answers
37 views

I am searching for a rule on the use of was and were preceded by if [closed]

I was taught that in a "subjective phrase" such as one beginning with "If I," you should use were, not was. If true, I see it misused every day by many people and it is annoying. Please set me ...
0
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1answer
98 views

Why is “Shanghai” pronounced the way it is in English?

Most English-language news sources and people in America pronounce the name of the city (上海) with a long a sound as in "way" within the "shang (上)" syllable, but it's not pronounced that way in ...
2
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1answer
42 views

Are Spanish “que” clauses following “parece” complements or postponed subjects?

The Spanish equivalent of It seems that they hate each other is Parece que se odian. In both languages seem/parecer are one-place predicates (well, both can optionally accept a second argument with ...
0
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1answer
71 views

On donkey sentences: why is this formalization incorrect?

Part of the difficulty surrounding donkey sentences, to my understanding, is about how hard they are to translate to FOL in a matter that is consistent with other translations to FOL in english. Take ...
8
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2answers
152 views

Why “Kampuchea” → “Cambodia”?

Many place names in English are anglicizations/transliterations of their native names. Of those, many place names in Asia seem to have undergone a change over the past few decades: they've gone from a ...
8
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7answers
4k views

Is there a reason behind the phenomenon of English becoming more vulgar with time?

In the last few years I have noticed both with colleagues and from online discussions a tendency for English language writing and speech to become more and more vulgar. That is, I see explicatives ...
0
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0answers
50 views

Is there a term for this use of an indirect object?

I have noticed that some Americans from the mid-South will use indirect objects in their speech where standard English would use a prepositional phrase. Is there a name for this phenomenon? Is it ...
3
votes
5answers
342 views

English grammar: is it possible to automatically verify correctness

Is it possible to verify if sentence is grammatically correct automatically. E.g. for sentence Lemon yellow. verb (predicate) is missing or for sentence If it will rain, we will not go ...
0
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0answers
26 views

Frequency information of words within a given category

I am looking for some database or method with which I can get frequency information of words of a defined category. Example: amount of English animal names, fruits etc. that are known to a normal ...
1
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1answer
80 views

What are common non-lexical indicators of sarcasm expressed orally in English

I've been doing some anecdotal research into what indicates sarcasm in spoken form. My goal is to find indicators of sarcasm without relying on the meaning of the words and sentences themselves. ...
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1answer
71 views

Translation into Latin [closed]

I would like to translate the following phrase into Latin. Unto the Lion and the Lamb Please provide a translation into English. Using Google Translate I got the following: In Leo et Agnus but ...
0
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2answers
109 views

Would someone be able to identify this language and translate the text to english? [closed]

I just bought this bracelet at a random goodwill shop in Boston and it's beautiful, I would just like to make sure I'm not wearing something offensive or religiously significant.
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1answer
56 views

Is «plausible» a false friend between English and Spanish? [closed]

I'm a native Spanish speaker and today I was just wondering about this, if it's a case like bizarre and bizarro (which in Spanish means «generous» or «brave», not «weird»). I couldn't fully ...
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0answers
84 views

How many different syntax patterns exist in standard English ?

My command of the English language is quiet poor, I write by my feeling, and each sentence is just another chain element left behind not knowing how many Errors are within it. The feeling comes close ...
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0answers
75 views

Preposition vs. Subordinating Conjunction in English

The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (Huddleston & Pullum), which was published in 2002, expanded the scope of the part of speech "preposition" to such a great extent that a significant ...
-1
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2answers
52 views

Looking for word to lemma free database

I want to write a simple program in Java, which being fed with English texts will be able to generate word usage statisitcs (e.g. topmost frequently used words in English). For that purpose I need a ...