A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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Can someone explain this sentence from Dartmouth's German page?

Was perusing the page (you can find it here), I came across the paragraph "That said, word order is a complex aspect of language, never wholly mastered by non-native speakers. What is the idea ...
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22 views

phonetic transcription of english prefixes and suffixes [on hold]

I'm looking at the pronunciation of English words in British and American. And I've realised that though many dictionaries include inflected forms, they don't provide any pronunciation information. ...
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2answers
47 views

Syntax - difference between modifiers and complements in NPs?

Here are two NPs: their incredible story of the trip in space (complement) the noisy yellow airplanes that scared the children in the yard (post modifier) Why is it that certain nouns takes ...
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2answers
55 views

The drop/weakening of “h” sound in General American English

I noticed that the speakers with the General American accent occasionally weaken the "h" sound in words like "had" e.g. "You had this and that." becomes kind of like "You ad this and that." (I can't ...
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4answers
164 views

What are the state-of-the-art English syntax theories there are that can explain all the English syntax phenomena?

Both Dependency Grammar (DG) and Constituency Grammar (CG) are a tool to describe the syntax of any natural language in general. The language whose syntax is to be described in DG or CG doesn't have ...
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1answer
66 views

Examples of English words that were replaced and became obsolete? [on hold]

I have an example in Hebrew, so you can understand what I'm looking for. the English word "taxi" was used in Israel for a long time, because there was no word meaning taxi in Hebrew. a Hebrew word for ...
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4answers
131 views

Are sound changes regular?

Are sound changes regular now or not? I mean it seems to me that it's accepted that sound change is pretty regular, because of how sound changes are treated in etymology/historical linguistics. I even ...
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2answers
126 views

Is 'unless' semantically equivalent to the (English conjunction) exclusive 'or'?

Preface: I question this here because the author is a full-time linguist. Source: The semantics of "unless" by Brian Buccola BA (Classics, Mathematics) PhD (Linguistics) Bonus question: If ...
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26 views

colloquial English corpus with time expressions

I'm looking for a colloquial English corpus that has time expressions marked in it. I don't need the time expressions to be coded in any special way, just that they be marked so I can find them. All ...
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1answer
48 views

How did 'of' absorb so many meanings?

[OED:] The primary sense was ‘away’, ‘away from’, a sense now obsolete, except in so far as it is retained under the spelling off (see off adv., prep., n.1, and adj.). All the existing uses of of ...
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1answer
78 views

Are British and American English two different dialects?

I'm facing a difficulty in understanding what exactly is a dialect. I've read many definitions, but I need an example in order to understand them. Can we say that British English and American English ...
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40 views

Phonemic inventory of Supraregional Irish English vs. RP - vowel in FACE

Here's a question about English accent comparison. It's about the differences in phonemic inventory of Irish Supraregional compared to RP. Is the Irish English vowel in the lexical set FACE /e:/ a ...
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33 views

How many meaningful English phrases can be created using 4 or fewer words?

Prompted by this exchange on Information Security Stack Exchange, regarding whether a passphrase consisting of 4 English words might be easier or harder to crack than a password of 8 random ...
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34 views

Automatically turn a question into a statement?

What's a practical way to programmatically convert questions into statements with placeholders? For example: in: 'Who is the president of the Argentina?' out: ['The president of Argentina is ____.', ...
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4answers
45 views

Formal test determining whether a verb is stative

Is there a formal test determining whether a verb is stative? For example, the following predicate looks stative, but it's not: It's Valentine's Day. I have the chocolate, but I'm still missing ...
4
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3answers
184 views

Verner's Law and 'ge-'

Verner's Law says that voiceless fricatives, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing. The Germanic prefix 'ge-' as in German 'genug' or English 'enough' ...
4
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1answer
231 views

Voiced “th” in “thank you”?

I have a friend, a native English speaker from Boston, MA, USA (I believe he is mostly Irish American), who is absolutely adamant that the first sound in "thank you" is voiced, rather than voiceless. ...
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2answers
59 views

How is the English noun 'system' a 'base'?

Source: An Introduction to Language (10 ed, 2014) by V Fromkin, R Rodman, N Hyams. I already read this. [p 578:] root = The morpheme that remains when all affixes are stripped from a complex word, ...
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0answers
52 views

N-gram translations from Spanish to English

I have a large list of n-grams for spoken Spanish. I wish to establish for each n-grams whether or not it represents something idiomatic (phrasal verb, idiom etc.) or not. For example, these are ...
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1answer
53 views

Help with an ambiguous English syntax tree (studying for a final)

Sorry if this is the wrong stackexchange site for this question. I'm studying for a final for my english linguistics class and going through example sentences that we should be able to draw syntax ...
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2answers
68 views

What is the underlying meaning of the English 'of'? [closed]

TL;DR: What is the semantic field or the big picture behind the English 'of'? I seek an explanation like this which exposes the underlying semantic field of ‘tally’. Addendum: of (as a ...
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2answers
92 views

Losing a non-native accent of English [closed]

I realize this question has been done to death in other contexts, but I have already exhausted the possibilities covered in similar threads all across the web. I am a fluent (I hold the Certificate of ...
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4answers
133 views

How many of all possible English words are actually in use (have meaning)?

If we consider that there are phonological observations as to what is an English word and what probably isn't, one could come up with a dictionary of "all possible" English words, i.e. all words that ...
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4answers
106 views

Grammatical Aspect and Lexical Aspect

This is my first question here. I normally participate in ELU. This question was posted yesterday http://english.stackexchange.com/q/289903/129806. The OP asks why They build a house next to mine. ...
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1answer
143 views

Why are German and Dutch preschool TV shows so unintelligible to English speakers?

I understand that English has a whole lot of Romance and Latin influence whereas Dutch has less and German has very little. This is the main reason why English is so different compared to its mainland ...
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33 views

How often can the words in a sentence be rearranged to form different but similarly likely setentence

I have a conjecture that given a particular (multi)set of words without knowledge of ordering, then one ordering is normally much more likely than any others. Its not always true, Show me flights ...
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2answers
77 views

When transliterating English words to Korean, why does the first F become a ㅎ?

Most Korean words and sounds do not have an equivalent English form (Example: 한글 -> Hanguel, 서울 -> Seoul) and vice versa, so I believe some kind of standard is in place for transliteration. However, I ...
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2answers
83 views

For a toddler who has just begun to speak, is Hindi easier to speak as compared to English?

Hindi is my native language. I can write English well, and can speak English to some reasonable extent. In order to teach the toddler English, I have been speaking English to her ever since she was ...
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1answer
41 views

Arbitrariness and coinages [closed]

What is the relationship between arbitrariness, as a property of language, and coinages? Because coinages are compound not-arbitrary words, do they not correspond to the particular property of ...
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1answer
80 views

Beginner to Dutch language: should I translate Dutch to English or to German?

I am a fluent English speaker (lvl C2) and a decent German speaker (lvl B2 and fully prepared for C1). I recently started following a Dutch course for beginners. My fear is that I will eventually ...
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2answers
115 views

Characteristics of Theoretical Linguistics [closed]

I've been asked by my professor to do a research about the characteristics of Theoretical Linguistics, and now I'm stuck. What are these characteristics that makes theoretical linguistics a ...
3
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2answers
106 views

Detailed “quality” of /ð/

I've been learning and using English since I was 10. I have always been more or less aware of the /θ/ sound, but it wasn't until I got interested in IPA notation, when I realized English contrasts /ð/ ...
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2answers
74 views

A literal response to satire [closed]

Taking satire literally happens quite often, sometimes it's comical. Example: Jim (Satirically) : "This play-area is dangerous! We should arm ourselves!" Jane (Literally) : "Don't worry Jim, ...
3
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1answer
186 views

V-to-I lowering and split IP hypothesis

English is I-lowering language, but on split IP hypothesis([AgrP [TP [VP]]]), verbs move to the head of TP: V-raising. /John often kissed Mary./ On unsplit IP(IP[VP]), [+tense] which the head of IP ...
2
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1answer
79 views

How to automatically determine good Charades words?

I want to automatically create a list of words for Charades (in German or English), where one person has to describe, draw or show by pantomime a certain word to the others. Humans can intuitively ...
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2answers
93 views

Heads, classifiers

I'm really struggling to 'get' two things on my linguistics course right now, which is heads of phrases and classifiers. I understand that a head determines the nature of a phrase, but I just can't ...
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1answer
53 views

Is English of neutral or accusative alignment in verbal person marking?

On WALS' chapter on verbal person marking alignment, it classifies English as having accusative alignment. Later on it discusses a 'restricted' alignment split between first and second person and ...
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1answer
209 views

How come I cannot get my “oral” English to a native speaker level after 25 years of trying?

I was born in Russia and moved to the US at the adolescent and prepubescent age of 12. Before my relocation to the US I had never really been exposed to the English language at large, and after my ...
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3answers
117 views

Why does inflection in any language sound so natural? [closed]

I saw this video and realised that all mentioned Old English plurals sound pretty natural for me, even though I'm native Czech speaker. Also in German I think inflection seems to follow some universal ...
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0answers
105 views

Are any dialects of English known to have a partial meet-meat merger?

For many dialects of English (including my own) multiple historical lexical sets are merged into one "FLEECE" set (this diaphoneme can be represented with IPA /iː/). I've read about the basics of the ...
2
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2answers
89 views

Irregular penultimate stress in English words from classical sources

Wikipedia says about stress in Latinate English words: In words of three or more syllables, stress falls either on the penult or the antepenult (third from the end), according to these criteria: ...
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0answers
15 views

Is there any OED-as-directed-graph research?

Say, I want to know what a "dog" is, so I read the definition for dog in the OED. But, of course, it contains a list of words too so I set out to read the definitions for those as well. This forms a ...
2
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1answer
59 views

How is the 'to' in English infinitive forms called formally?

If I have a construction using an infinitive form such as in: "I want to go" or "What is to be thought of that?" What is the formal name for the part of speech that 'to' represents? 'To' is part of ...
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2answers
39 views

Why are the elements at the ends of these sentences stressed?

Examples: They can conquer who believe they CAN. (auxiliary verb) Yes, it IS. (verb in tag question) He never grew UP. (preposition) I actually got these examples from a book. Thank you!!!
3
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1answer
117 views

“oo” in “poor”, “door” and “doom”

These three words (as well as many other, these are just examples) are all spelled with double "o", so I guess all of them were pronounced with long /oː/ before the Great Vowel Shift. Is that correct? ...
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2answers
161 views

How did the name for st Peter become to be rendered as “Peter” in English, and why is not rendered as “stone” or “rock”

As I understand it, in the original bible passage, Jesus says to Peter "And I tell you that you are Petros, and on this petra I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it" And ...
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0answers
35 views

Theories/Models to explain the language evolution? [closed]

I'd like to read about the language evolution and the models related to it such as the Schneider's Model. Any help? :)
2
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2answers
216 views

The grammatical subject, the logical subject, and something new

I'm no linguist and I'm unaware of the recent development in linguistics, let alone all the past developments, but I know some of the past developments at the very least, so I'm asking this question ...
2
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2answers
85 views

What language differs in the most aspects from English? [closed]

By aspects I mean things like grammar, punctuation, pronunciation, etc. I want to learn a language but I deliberately want it to be as different to English as possible while still being a reasonably ...
3
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2answers
182 views

Was the change in spelling from “cw” to “qu” in English associated with any difference in pronunciation?

I always thought that "cw" in Old English represented /kw/, and the same for modern English "qu", and that the change from one to the other was purely orthographic, since the "qu" digraph was more ...