A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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Truth-neutral, truth-indifferent, & truth-committed verbs?

In English, I go to the store. is understood to mean It is true that I go to the store. Suppose I want to succinctly express I am indifferent to whether it is true or false that I ...
2
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5answers
98 views

Phonemic Transcription Ambiguity?

I recently learned the the flap [ɾ] letter is part of both the /t/ and /d/ phonemes. A common example is writer /ˈraɪtər/ and rider /ˈraɪdər/. If they're both pronounced [raɪɾər], then shouldn't the ...
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2answers
54 views

English stress, abstract analysis

I am reading introductory phonology by Bruce Hayes, in chapter 12 he proposed an abstract analysis for English stress.Based on his proposed a word like cassette has been through a process like below: ...
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1answer
37 views

“The bat broke the window” - double meaning in The Stuff of Thought

Some background: In Steven Pinker's book The Stuff of Thought, he critiques Radical Pragmatics (ch 3). In one instance, on pages 121-122, he describes a computer simulation of Radical Pragmatics by ...
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0answers
63 views

Where does the spelling <ea> and <ee> in English come from?

I am referring to <ea> as in "meat" and <ee> as in "meet". Apparently, <ea> comes from Middle English [ɛ] and <ee> comes from Middle English [e], which come from Old English ...
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1answer
54 views

Does this name's pronunciation match the spelling? [closed]

I want to use a unique name as my personal, yet it's spelling is very unclear to me. The pronunciation is "E m ai l" As in- E-end, M-me, AI-lie, L-live. Emphasized as word "agile". Is it correct to ...
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1answer
73 views

CGEL's argument on the constituent structure of certain sentences that involve 'as well as'

In CGEL on pp. 1316-1317, we find a discussion of two different uses of as well as: [70] i b. [Abstraction] [as well as impressionism] were Russian inventions. ...
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3answers
188 views

Why does ISO 639-3 have many language codes for Arabic but only one for English?

ISO 639-3 has many language codes for Arabic, but only one for English. I'm an Arab who is familiar with multiple Arabic dialects. We do not call it anything but "لهجات" which is translated to ...
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1answer
67 views

What is the cause of difference between British and American pronunciation?

I think it's pretty clear how did evolve such differences as high way or parking lot, since these terms refer to the technology that didn't exist at the age of colonization. But how, in general, do ...
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0answers
14 views

Where can I find a translation for romanized (english texted) sanskrit into english?

I am trying to find a translator link to change romanized or english texted sanskrit (as in bollywood and other Indian songs and chants) into actual english so that I can understand what the song ...
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2answers
46 views

How verb tenses evolve

I have two questions on this topic. The firstmay be too general, but basically, I am curious as to how tenses evolve and whether tenses between languages can be used to help find out whether languages ...
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0answers
33 views

Pattern of double letter use within words

In english, there are many words in which a letter is repeated once directly after itself (e.g. paraLLel, coMMander, coRRegated). I am a native english speaker and I have found it fairly easy to know ...
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2answers
70 views

Weekday Abbreviations in multiple languages

I am working on designing a piece of software that must support multiple languages. There is a design scheme in English at the moment that displays weekdays using a single character (ie: "S M T W T F ...
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0answers
32 views

Incomplete sentences

I am looking for studies which looks at understanding and preference of incomplete sentences. For example, is there a higher workload for (in)complete sentences or even though the sentence might be ...
1
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0answers
47 views

Does Japanese have as many English-derived words as English has French-derived words?

According to current corpora and other tools used by language researchers, does the current vocabulary of Japanese already contain as many words borrowed/derived from English as the number of English ...
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0answers
50 views

If we disregard future tense for English, under which circumstances we could not?

Some linguists claim that English doesn't have a future tense, and some do for German as well. This opinion was voiced out here as well,as an answer to What is the present tense expressing future?. I ...
4
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1answer
67 views

What does it mean for a verb to be stative, really?

What makes a verb stative in English? I am not looking for various stativity tests, as these do not guarantee the verb really is stative. For example, no stativity test I have come across can account ...
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1answer
60 views

Sound correspondences in Germanic languages

I've noticed that in particular germanic languages have similar base words to english of which many times the only difference is that of the vowels. This would make sense seing as to how they are ...
2
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2answers
112 views

Other languages that borrow as promiscuously as English?

I've heard people say that the reason English is such a great language is that it's enriched itself by stealing so promiscuously from other languages. The image I get of English is that she's like the ...
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0answers
30 views

Corpus of tagged text (English newspapers or any tagged text)

I'm developing a system to extract tags from text (English) and currently I have no dataset to test the system and evaluate, could someone point me to a source (preferably a free one) thanks SO I ...
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0answers
42 views

What linguistic theory explains the simple/progressive distiction the best in Modern English?

What is the leading theory that provides an exact semantics to the simple/progressive distinction in Modern English?
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1answer
49 views

Simple/progressive as use/mention

After a few days of pondering I came to the conclusion (which is only my opinion) that the division of the simple and progressive forms in Modern English is akin to the use-mention distinction in ...
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1answer
71 views

What's a good source of information about how the structure of english sentences has evolved over time?

There is a lot of information about the evolution of English vocabulary since Anglo-Saxon times, but I am looking for examples of how English sentence construction has changed over time.
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3answers
93 views

Where is American English not chosen as the dialect of English taught as a second language? [closed]

Apart from countries where English is taught as a second language only to immigrants and indigenous peoples (eg Australia), where is American English not chosen as the dialect taught when teaching ...
4
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2answers
133 views

“Cloth” lexical set: Is there a complete description of the possible conditioning environments?

This question is about speakers without the cot-caught merger (so, speakers who pronounce words such as “lot,” “cot,” “swat" with a distinct vowel from words such as “thought,” “caught,” “water.”) ...
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2answers
92 views

What's the term for the use of “this” in “there's this guy called John, who…”?

What's the term for the use of "this" in "there's this guy called John, who..."? Here, the "this" is used like an "a", not literally "this". I'm not sure if there's a term for this.
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19 views

suggest studies or books on: relationship between level of literacy and English conversations

I'm looking for books or articles or studies on the relationship between the level of literacy(I mean in the general sense, like illiterate, graduate, post-graduate...) and English conversations. How ...
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0answers
60 views

Can someone explain this sentence from Dartmouth's German page?

Was perusing the page (you can find it here), I came across the paragraph "That said, word order is a complex aspect of language, never wholly mastered by non-native speakers. What is the idea ...
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2answers
107 views

Syntax - difference between modifiers and complements in NPs?

Here are two NPs: their incredible story of the trip in space (complement) the noisy yellow airplanes that scared the children in the yard (post modifier) Why is it that certain nouns takes ...
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2answers
99 views

The drop/weakening of “h” sound in General American English

I noticed that the speakers with the General American accent occasionally weaken the "h" sound in words like "had" e.g. "You had this and that." becomes kind of like "You ad this and that." (I can't ...
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4answers
193 views

What are the state-of-the-art English syntax theories there are that can explain all the English syntax phenomena?

Both Dependency Grammar (DG) and Constituency Grammar (CG) are a tool to describe the syntax of any natural language in general. The language whose syntax is to be described in DG or CG doesn't have ...
4
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4answers
167 views

Are sound changes regular?

Are sound changes regular now or not? I mean it seems to me that it's accepted that sound change is pretty regular, because of how sound changes are treated in etymology/historical linguistics. I even ...
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2answers
138 views

Is 'unless' semantically equivalent to the (English conjunction) exclusive 'or'?

Preface: I question this here because the author is a full-time linguist. Source: The semantics of "unless" by Brian Buccola BA (Classics, Mathematics) PhD (Linguistics) Bonus question: If ...
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0answers
31 views

colloquial English corpus with time expressions

I'm looking for a colloquial English corpus that has time expressions marked in it. I don't need the time expressions to be coded in any special way, just that they be marked so I can find them. All ...
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1answer
55 views

How did 'of' absorb so many meanings?

[OED:] The primary sense was ‘away’, ‘away from’, a sense now obsolete, except in so far as it is retained under the spelling off (see off adv., prep., n.1, and adj.). All the existing uses of of ...
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1answer
90 views

Are British and American English two different dialects?

I'm facing a difficulty in understanding what exactly is a dialect. I've read many definitions, but I need an example in order to understand them. Can we say that British English and American English ...
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0answers
51 views

Phonemic inventory of Supraregional Irish English vs. RP - vowel in FACE

Here's a question about English accent comparison. It's about the differences in phonemic inventory of Irish Supraregional compared to RP. Is the Irish English vowel in the lexical set FACE /e:/ a ...
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0answers
49 views

How many meaningful English phrases can be created using 4 or fewer words?

Prompted by this exchange on Information Security Stack Exchange, regarding whether a passphrase consisting of 4 English words might be easier or harder to crack than a password of 8 random ...
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0answers
43 views

Automatically turn a question into a statement?

What's a practical way to programmatically convert questions into statements with placeholders? For example: in: 'Who is the president of the Argentina?' out: ['The president of Argentina is ____.', ...
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4answers
79 views

Formal test determining whether a verb is stative

Is there a formal test determining whether a verb is stative? For example, the following predicate looks stative, but it's not: It's Valentine's Day. I have the chocolate, but I'm still missing ...
4
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3answers
197 views

Verner's Law and 'ge-'

Verner's Law says that voiceless fricatives, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing. The Germanic prefix 'ge-' as in German 'genug' or English 'enough' ...
4
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2answers
290 views

Voiced “th” in “thank you”?

I have a friend, a native English speaker from Boston, MA, USA (I believe he is mostly Irish American), who is absolutely adamant that the first sound in "thank you" is voiced, rather than voiceless. ...
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2answers
62 views

How is the English noun 'system' a 'base'?

Source: An Introduction to Language (10 ed, 2014) by V Fromkin, R Rodman, N Hyams. I already read this. [p 578:] root = The morpheme that remains when all affixes are stripped from a complex word, ...
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0answers
55 views

N-gram translations from Spanish to English

I have a large list of n-grams for spoken Spanish. I wish to establish for each n-grams whether or not it represents something idiomatic (phrasal verb, idiom etc.) or not. For example, these are ...
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1answer
60 views

Help with an ambiguous English syntax tree (studying for a final)

Sorry if this is the wrong stackexchange site for this question. I'm studying for a final for my english linguistics class and going through example sentences that we should be able to draw syntax ...
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2answers
79 views

What is the underlying meaning of the English 'of'? [closed]

TL;DR: What is the semantic field or the big picture behind the English 'of'? I seek an explanation like this which exposes the underlying semantic field of ‘tally’. Addendum: of (as a ...
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2answers
100 views

Losing a non-native accent of English [closed]

I realize this question has been done to death in other contexts, but I have already exhausted the possibilities covered in similar threads all across the web. I am a fluent (I hold the Certificate of ...
2
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4answers
150 views

How many of all possible English words are actually in use (have meaning)?

If we consider that there are phonological observations as to what is an English word and what probably isn't, one could come up with a dictionary of "all possible" English words, i.e. all words that ...
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4answers
140 views

Grammatical Aspect and Lexical Aspect

This is my first question here. I normally participate in ELU. This question was posted yesterday http://english.stackexchange.com/q/289903/129806. The OP asks why They build a house next to mine. ...
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1answer
165 views

Why are German and Dutch preschool TV shows so unintelligible to English speakers?

I understand that English has a whole lot of Romance and Latin influence whereas Dutch has less and German has very little. This is the main reason why English is so different compared to its mainland ...