A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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How did 'but' evolve from Old English?

but (adv., prep.) [<--] Old English butan, buton "unless, except; without, outside," from West Germanic * be-utan, a compound of * be- "by" (see by) + * utana "out, outside; from without," ...
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16 views

linguisti analysis : help needed

I have a big problem dividing this little text into clauses using this conventional signs: ||...|| = clause | ... | = functional components/ groups [...] = embedded Prepositional phrase [[ ... ]] = ...
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27 views

How did the Old French 'vengier' produce, in its cognates, so many valencies?

avenge (v.) [←] late 14c., from Anglo-French avenger, Old French avengier, from a- "to" (see ad-) + vengier "take revenge" (Modern French venger) [continued below] revenge (v.) [←] ...
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17 views

'penance' vs 'penitence'

penance (n.) [←] late 13c., "religious discipline or self-mortification as a token of repentance and as atonement for some sin," from Anglo-French penaunce, Old French peneance (12c.), from ...
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1answer
83 views

English words with the /ɔ/ vowel sound

I'm looking for English words with the /ɔ/ vowel sound... suggestions? If folks could give me their list of open back counterparts to /o/, I would appreciate it! American English preferred but other ...
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6answers
103 views

Natural vs. “Forced” language learning

Would the "natural" way of learning a language (the way we learn our mother tongue) be better even for acquiring second (and third, etc.) languages? What I mean is: The "natural" way to learn a ...
3
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1answer
123 views

Etymology of 'but', from West Germanic to Old English

but (adv., prep.) [<--] Old English butan, buton "unless, except; without, outside," from West Germanic * be-utan, a compound of * be- "by" (see by) + * utana "out, outside; from ...
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35 views

Vowel-Backing in English?

Has anybody heard of vowel-backing in English? In East-Central Alabama, USA, I have observed forms such as: suckint ['sOkh Inˀ] for "second" butter ['bOD ɚ] for "better" woonda ['wUnd ә] for ...
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1answer
27 views

Metaphor and metonymy in proverbs

I have a question about metonymy and metaphors in English proverbs below: An apple a day, keeps doctors away. Meaning: Fruit is an important part of a healthy diet Beggars can't be choosers. ...
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1answer
31 views

Question type corpus

I'm looking for a corpus that contains questions and question types. Like in this article, but they didn't attach any link to their corpus. http://polibits.gelbukh.com/2009_40/40_01.pdf
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45 views

Why were prefixes repeated as postverbal prepositions?

abstain [from] (v.) [<--] late 14c., "to withhold oneself," from Old French abstenir (14c.), earlier astenir (13c.) "hold (oneself) back, refrain, abstain (from), practice abstinence," ...
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2answers
142 views

The verb BE as function word or content word

I'm reading a book on America accent and there's a page with exercises. Exercice: Circle the function words in the following sentences: The sky is blue. ... ... The answers are provided at the ...
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2answers
72 views

The sound /Ur/ in English

I read in a book that there is a stressed version as well as an unstressed version of the sound "ər" The stressed one usually look like "ɜr" in dictionaries: hurt /'hɜrt/ her /'hɜr/ and the ...
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1answer
53 views

What are the possible impetuses for loss of Middle English shwa?

I'm wondering what some possible catalysts/ reasons for loss of final -e /ǝ/ in Middle English might have been (For instance, OE /tɑlu/ > ME /taːlǝ/ > MnE tale /teɪl/). I'm wondering because to my ...
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3answers
66 views

Why do some scientific possessives have trailing “s” and others don't?

I debated names of scientific terms with my friend, and we both discovered that some of them have the trailing letter "s" while others don't. Here are some examples: Mobius strip, Fourier series, ...
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1answer
20 views

Did the English 'confer' evolve from the Middle French « conférer » ?

[Etymonline :] 1530s, from Middle French conférer (14c.) "to give, converse, compare," from Latin conferre "to bring together," figuratively "to compare; consult, deliberate, talk over," from com- ...
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1answer
45 views

handling ambiguity in parses

Given a sentence from http://home.uchicago.edu/~bartels/papers/Bartels-Johnson-2015-Cognition.pdf: We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two ...
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26 views

How to identify mentions in a text?

I am looking for rule-based methods or any other methods to identify all mentions in a text. I have found several libraries that give coreferences but no exact options for only mentions. What I want ...
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2answers
81 views

Is there a comprehensive list of all (or many) phonological rules (specifically allophonic) of the English language available anywhere online?

It would be very helpful to have for a programming project I'm working on involving grapheme-to-phoneme translation. I've been able to find many rules for phonemes but not too many for allophones.
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1answer
57 views

Which English phonemes are the easiest to distinguish from each other?

I work as a literacy tutor in a preschool and part of my job is to help students develop phonological awareness by teaching them how to identify rhymes and alliteration. To make it as easy as possible ...
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1answer
95 views

Biggest freely available English corpus?

Any help on finding the biggest freely available English corpus that can be used on research? So far I have found OANC with 15 M words.
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0answers
48 views

Proper vs. common nouns: Are there more differences, esp. in grammar, than capital letter and simpler plural?

Proper nouns in English have a capital starting letter and the plural is simpler (e.g. -y ending gets -ys instead of -ies). Are there any other differences? Especially when analysing/parsing the ...
2
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1answer
71 views

“come” in “become” (English) vs “venir” in “devenir” (French)

In both French and English, the word for become (devenir) includes the word for come (venir), even though the etymologies and words are very different. Why might this be?
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3answers
105 views

How does 'unless' mean 'or' or 'if not'? [closed]

Source: p 139, Introduction to Logic (2 ed, 2010) by Harry J. Gensler. [1.] Translate “unless” as “or.” ...     [eg: A unless B =  B unless A = Either A or B]. [2.] “Unless” is also ...
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1answer
69 views

How did 'piety = piété' and 'pity = pitié' diverge and evolve?

This Quora question motivated this. Do the Etymonline entries below imply that the connotation changed in Old French (and so even before English)? I pose the question also for the equivalent French ...
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36 views

Truth conditions of generics

What are the truth conditions for generics? Why are they (at least in English) expressed by the simple forms of verbs, and why do they always behave as statives? Are generics more fundamental ...
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1answer
61 views

In case of Derivational nouns, what is the difference between affix polysemy and affix homonymy?

For derivational nouns, if we look at various properties of affixes, I understand they exhibit both affix polysemy and affix homonymy. By polysemy I understand that the the same affix is used in ...
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22 views

'reason that' (English) vs 'reason for which' (French)

I already know of the redundancy of reason why, which I ask NOT about. Please advise if I erred, but does the following (by Prof John Lawler) support the rightness of reason that? 1. He didn't ...
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1answer
59 views

How did 'sensuality' evolve to connote lechery? Does 'sensualité'?

Is the French feminine noun sensualité asexual? The English noun is sexual. Why? I heed the Etymological Fallacy. But what are some right ways of interpreting the dchotomy, to make it feel reasonable ...
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1answer
47 views

'scorn': How can a human have horns?

I'm trying to understand both the etymology of 'scorn', (which derives from) that of the Old French 'escarn'. So I'm trying to understand both. [Etymonline for 'scorn (n.)' :] c. 1200, a ...
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2answers
140 views

Oddity with the English perfect

Consider the sentence: She is believed to be the best female golfer alive. From this the listener infers: Some people believe that she is the best female golfer alive. Now, take a look at ...
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10 views

What terms define words that may or may not be evaluative?

Source: ... How to Reason and Argue, by Prof W Sinnott-Armstrong [At the 7 min 49 s juncture of Lec 2-8, for which Coursera neglects to provide a transcription]: It may seem to be an ...
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1answer
38 views

Etmology of Old French 'entreprendre' : How did 'between' evolve into 'under' ?

enterprise (n.) early 15c., "an undertaking," formerly also enterprize, from Old French enterprise "an undertaking," noun use of fem. past participle of entreprendre "UNDERtake, take in hand" ...
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4answers
167 views

Is the English perfect really monosemous?

The perfect in English has many faces: (1) I have done my homework. (2) I had already done my homework by then. (3) If I had done my homework yesterday, I would come with you. (4) ...
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29 views

'dispose' vs 'dispose of' & « disposer » vs « disposer de »

[Source:] [D1.] dispose (v.) - (a) to arrange in order; (b) to lean toward or incline (typically used as a past participle). ... [D2.] dispose of (phrasal v.) - (a) to throw away or discard; (b) ...
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1answer
44 views

When and why did 'another' start being used as one word?

I assume the word came from a meshing together of 'other' with its indefinite article'. When (and why) did English speakers begin to use this version, instead of 'an other'? And why is it still ...
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1answer
84 views

How to trace Proto-language roots towards English and French?

TL;DR: What resources tie Proto-language roots (eg Proto-Indo-European), to English and French, especially if spelling has changed? I always heed linguistic pitfalls, but I always try to find some ...
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2answers
56 views

Why do DR MRS VANDERTRAMP require 'be' for the present perfect?

I already know (and so ask NOT about) that symbolised by the mnemonic DR MRS VANDERTRAMP, these especial 16 verbs require « être » (= to be) as the auxiliary verb, to form the passé composé (= present ...
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1answer
83 views

Latin's excrescent e- in English and French

I was reading Etymonline's entry on 'estate' which broaches the excrescent e- as follows. Please advise if I'm wrong, but I'll just refer to it as epenthesis in case the following involves the ...
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1answer
150 views

Predicate vs. Predicator

BACKGROUND According to Oxford Dictionaries Online: Predicator means "(In systemic grammar) a verb phrase considered as a constituent of clause structure, along with subject, object, and ...
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1answer
132 views

Phonemes: German vs. English

How many of the same phonemes in the German language are found in the English language? Same consonants? Vowels? Resources for this?
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0answers
54 views

Methods to dissect or parse long, difficult sentences

TL;DR: Only English and French can I manage and so ask for. Instead of repeating 'long, difficult' hereafter, denote it mazy. Mazy sentences still stifle my reading comprehension; so I was gladdened ...
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2answers
61 views

Why are there presuppositions?

I am working with these two sentences: 1. Alex stopped playing the piano. What I concluded is that the sentence presupposes that Alex had previously played the piano. But why does the presupposition ...
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1answer
59 views

Thematic roles adjunct

I am a little confused when it comes to giving a theta role to some of my sentences. I got: James got a ball yesterday. where James has the role as BENEFICIARY. Got is the main predicate. a ball is ...
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3answers
102 views

“They told me that” which one is the direct and indirect object?

In the sentence "They told me that" or "They told me so" OR even much better sentence from one of the provisional answer "She taught me Spanish" Which one is the direct object? (My guess is "that" ...
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1answer
69 views

How to understand etymology derived from obscure languages?

This ELU answer corroborates the helpfulness of etymology while heeding the Etymological Fallacy. Since I'm interested in French (which is derived from Latin), I can sometimes apply it to help ...
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50 views

Why does 'gauche' connote negativity in English and French?

gauche = {adjective} unsophisticated and socially awkward: 1. Why does gauche connote negativity? I read but won't replicate Etymonline here because it doesn't explain its negativity in English, ...
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2answers
142 views

Why aren't defective words perfected?

Since Académie française superintends French, a solution seems easier (at least to prescribe and enforce) in French; I exemplify with it. Yet I question the same for English. Why hasn't French ...
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3answers
1k views

What word did the English use before 'because'?

Looking at the origin of the word 'because' I find it evolved from the phrase 'by cause', which was influenced by the French par cause de ; 'by cause' appeared in Middle English. What word was in use ...
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2answers
128 views

Сoncept of an attribute usesd by Russian grammarians

Note: This is cross-posted on ELL.se at Сoncept of an attribute used by Russian grammarians. I need to know all the attributes in theese sentences and how they are expressed.The problem is that ...