A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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How to translate a scientific term to Vietnamese?

What is the guide, in general, for translating scientific terms from English to other language? I know, of course, that we need a person who have good competence on the field containing that word. ...
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21 views

Is this tree diagram correct?

the sentence is: Lucy reported that scientists wonder if the medicine will work /Users/tcalnitsky/Desktop/assignment2.jpg
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1answer
17 views

acoustic features for english phonems

in this following paper , if we go to page no- 126 we will find a table with all acoustic features of all german Phonemes. ...
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1answer
53 views

why can't quotative “be like” be fronted?

Consider the following data (spoken American English): John said "I'll come." John was like "I'll come." What John said was: "I'll come." ?What John was like was: "I'll come." Does anyone have an ...
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3answers
56 views

What's the difference between [ɚ], [ɹ̩], and [əɹ]?

I've seen the "-er" sound in English (like in butter) transcribed in all three of the above ways, but I've heard there are subtle differences between them. What are these differences, if there are ...
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22 views

IPA Close Transcription of B.E. Rhotic Vowels

In dialects of British English, there are non-rhoticized where American English has rhoticized vowels. For example, "Tarzan" might be realized as [ˈtʰɑɹˌzæ̃n] (TAR-zahn) in American English, but as ...
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1answer
66 views

What is the term for pairs of words with converse meanings such as (gave<>got) and (bought<>sold)?

I'm seriously struggling to identify a name for the relationship between such words. They are transactional terms,of which there are two parts. They may even show tense. John gave me an apple. I ...
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25 views

Formal definition of English grammar

I saw on a related question some mentions of a formal grammar definition for English. It is mentioning there a definition called English Resource Grammar. Perhaps anyone here would know about loosely ...
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31 views

Stanford NLP parsers and idioms that have common semantic meaning

I have parsed the following sentence in the Stanford CoreNLP demo page and the Stanford parser demo page. Although both result in a parse that can imply purpose semantics (hinging on the advcl and the ...
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1answer
40 views

singular part of speech for multi-word units and expressions?

Part of speech assignment provides a pos to a word. In many pos systems this can occasionally produce errors due multi-word expressions of one form or another. When 'we' look at the text, we may see ...
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57 views

Did German or English form of infinitive appear first?

German and English languages have a common root but an innumerable amount of differences. One of them is how infinitive is formed. In English we have to+verb: "to stand" in German we have a verb ...
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1answer
40 views

Time annotated corpus: plain text english corpus

I am working on how entities take a new sense over time. I am trying to find out a large english corpus (free to download) which should have the time annotation of the origin of the text. I suppose ...
3
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1answer
80 views

Is the Ampersands a Letter in the Latin Alphabet?

My understanding is that, until fairly recently, recitation of the English alphabet was often suffixed by saying "and per se and", roughly translating to "and, by itself, '&'". This suggests that ...
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105 views

Given a verb get a noun that corresponds to subject or object

I have verbs and I would like to find their corresponding noun for either subject or object. e.g. run:subject -> runner kill:subject -> killer kill:object -> dead I also would have groups of them ...
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22 views

adjective features - similar to beth Levin's verb classes?

Beth Levin published research on verb classes/alternations - is there similar for the adjective category of words? I can see references to countable/uncountable, gradable,absolute, of quantity/quality ...
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2answers
165 views

dear, ear, fear, gear, hear, near … why are bear/pear pronounced differently?

Some of you have helped me and my mum, so thank you for that. In class last week we were looking at pronunciation ... and something caught me out. Why are some words spelt very similar to multiple ...
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1answer
51 views

How can I improve my writing fluency in English? [closed]

So this is a problem I've been struggling with for quite some time now. English is a second language for me despite the fact that I've spend a lot of my childhood years in Australia (grades 1 through ...
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127 views

Are there other words that behave like “weather” in English?

I have been looking at how nouns behave with determiners and plurals and such. So things like mass, count, and collective nouns. One oddball that I have found is "weather", and I am wondering if there ...
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1answer
96 views

Meaning of the root “ject”

What does the root "ject" mean? It occurs in words such as "subject", "object", "project", "injection", "surjection", "bijection". As far as I know these words came to English from French and, in ...
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168 views

Where does English need a lot more effort to say the same thing than another language?

There are a few hunter gatherer languages like Pirahã that basically only have words for the numbers 'one' and 'two'. Sometimes speakers of those languages can say four by saying 'two-two' or maybe ...
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0answers
37 views

What phonetic features are commonly used in forensic speaker identification and verification?

Speaker verification is the task of estimating how likely it is that two speech recordings come from the same speaker, while speaker identification tries to match a speech recording with one of a ...
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1answer
55 views

What metrics can be used to rate the complexity of an english sentence?

I want to rate a sentence by its complexity in the sense of: Rating of 1: A very simple sentence which is just S+V+O, example: "I eat bananas." Rating of 10: An uterly complex sentence with lots of ...
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30 views

Is there a source that lists English Loanwords into Mandarin Chinese?

Is there a source(database, dataset, etc.) that lists English Loanwords into Mandarin Chinese?
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108 views

NP + “had better” + Infinitive V

It just occurred to me that this construction is very peculiar. Pronoun: I had better get going. NP: The cat had better be home. Expletive: There had better be food on the table. ...
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1answer
83 views

What were allophone rules for [r] in Old English and Middle English?

I gather that [r] (trill) was realized as [ɹ] in different dialects of Old English and Middle English, but when [r] was used, was it an allophone? In other words, did [r] vary predictably with [ɹ] ...
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1answer
117 views

How did one pronounce an 'r' in Old English?

I'm wondering how the rhotic consonant was pronounced by the ancient Anglo-Saxons. Was it pronounced as an alveolar like Modern English or more like the trill Scots use in certain words? Were there ...
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1answer
38 views

small clauses - are they always ellipted/ellided/gapped?

My son Josh and I have come across the terms "gapping" and "ellipsis". Well, I always thought ellipsis was"..." and meant you were reporting information with omissions - but it seems it may also mean ...
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2answers
177 views

English verbs - how many types/classifications?

I've been looking at English to help my teen out, readying for college. Didn't realise how little I knew. In this specific case, I'm stuck with the large number of types of verb - finite/infinite, ...
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1answer
89 views

Why is October the tenth month even though Octo means eight?

And it's not only that! Novem is Latin for nine, and Decem is ten, and yet the months are eleventh and twelfth respectively. What's the origin of that? Why are the months called the way the are ...
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1answer
78 views

Have the spelling systems of lingua francas historically been less phonetic than those of native languages?

Lingua francas exist because they allow people with different native languages to communicate, with an emphasis on flexibility to the detriment of rigor. Were a lingua franca's spelling made strictly ...
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1answer
79 views

Subject/Complement Agreement. How to describe problem with “The thing is the objects.”

In http://ell.stackexchange.com/questions/29140/is-or-are-the-only-thing-that-i-want-you-to-hit-right-now-is-are-the-books/29170#29170, I provided the following, problematic, wording (especially bold ...
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3answers
171 views

Do native speakers of different languages make different mistakes in English?

Do native speakers of different languages make different mistakes when speaking in English? For example, do native speakers of Japanese make different mistakes than native speakers of Russian when ...
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1answer
93 views

Are there any words that have changed usage/meaning multiple times (multiple semantic shifts) from 1850s to present time [closed]

I am interested in semantic shift undergone by words, and I am aware of classic examples like 'gay', which has shifted in meaning since the 1900s. However, are there any words that have actually ...
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1answer
192 views

Ergative Verbs and some discussion about them

I know what ergative verb is - Consider the following sentences - I opened the door. The door was opened (by me). The door opened. The verb open is a transitive verb in sentence #1, ...
3
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1answer
90 views

Which English phonemes can be distinguished via lip-reading?

Is there a comprehensive list about which phonemes in the English language can be distinguished via lip-reading and which can't?
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2answers
126 views

“Those who” vs “Them who”

I have asked this question in ELL site, but as I haven't received any answer from grammatical point of view, I am asking the same question here. Please help. I pity those who lost their money in ...
5
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1answer
56 views

What's a good minimal pair to highlight interrogative prosody in English?

I want to show my students how intonation contours in Praat can help identify English interrogatives. An obvious example is "He's coming." vs "He's coming?" -- but perhaps those of you more familiar ...
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1answer
83 views

Term: Prejudicial Inability to Understand

Is there a term for, supposed, inability to understand someone due to racial prejudice? For example many people think foreigners can't speak their language, so when a foreigner does speak their ...
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1answer
107 views

What name should be given to this allophone of /tʃ/?

I am a native English speaker, but when I make the sound which should be /tʃ/, I have been told that I begin it by placing the tip of my tongue briefly between my teeth, as if I was going to start a ...
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2answers
79 views

IPA for English: British or US standard?

I often see IPA representations of words (e.g in Wikipedia) that render the American accent of English (instead of British). Is there any agreement on which English accent IPA should render or does it ...
2
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2answers
109 views

Are languages that can derive more meaning from context more advanced?

In English, the meaning of pronouns (the antecedents) are understood from context. And, this allows for a more abbreviated and fluid means to communicate. However, even when the antecedents are ...
2
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2answers
142 views

“He left the room angry” Is this a resultative adjunct?

He entered the room drunk. He left the room angry. I have heard that both drunk and angry are the examples of what is called resultative adjuncts. Is this correct? What does the term mean?
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73 views

determine if noun is person or person's name

How can I determine if a noun is the name of a person based on other words in the sentence? For example, I was able to determine that a noun is a place by it following ' to ' or ' from '. Are there ...
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4answers
118 views

Why might English be considered easy to learn and why might it be considered difficult?

I have heard claims of English being both very easy and very difficult to learn for L2 learners (in adulthood). Is it that the English writing system is difficult to learn while the language itself ...
3
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67 views

Is there any corpus for idioms?

I'm looking for a corpus for English (American, GB, Australian) idioms. Preferably created manually, because I already have two, but they are rather small and were built semi-automatically.
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2answers
80 views

Hebrew to English connection through linguistics?

On the website, "Edenics- Where Language Began" it is mentioned that the Hebrew word 'zinoot'(fornication) a Zayin-mem word have influenced the English sin". Since the z and the s are closely ...
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2answers
159 views

Noise Removal -Text classification

I am doing a text classification task. My text is questions and answers in a community question answering website. I want to extract tags from the title , existing tags, and BODY of the questions and ...
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2answers
328 views

need to understand infinitive

What is the easiest way to understand what an infinitive is? How do I know which verb in which sentence is an infinitive? For example, let us take this website: Infinitive This is the example I am ...
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40 views

Is “Proper English” a Classist Construct? [duplicate]

In a recent item largely addressing using dialect in writing, author Elizabeth Bear asserted the following: ...standard or "proper" English is a social construct intended as a measure of class ...
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1answer
206 views

Why is it correct to say “Honey, I'm home”, but “Miel, soy casa” is not?

Inspired by the picture below (thanks to brainlesstaless), when I got home I called to my wife: "Miel, soy casa". After a short pause, she started laughing. I know in Spanish this sentence makes no ...