A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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98 views

always | never | “all the time” - what kind of words are these?

always never "all the time" They aren't 'expletives', but they express a non-expiry. What word would describe this type of word? Context : he never brings me flowers; he's always late; you criticise ...
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1answer
44 views

Term for modifying a word to create its opposite connotation

I'm interested in knowing if there is a specific term for the phenomenon (in English) where a word with a positive connotation can be modified to create a word or phrase with a negative connotation (...
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1answer
75 views

Distinguishing subjects in apposition

Consider the English sentence (from the Washinton Post): "Trump is wrong that Muslims don’t do our part." In the embedded clause, is the subject 'Muslims', or the implied 'we' in 'our'? In the ...
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1answer
50 views

Derivation of “glitzy” — does it have Yiddish roots?

In Leo Rosten's book, The Joys of Yiddish, he defines the Yiddish word for people from the Hungarian/Polish region of Galicia, as "Galitzianers"(McGraw Hill, 1968), pp. 122-23. In singular masculine ...
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1answer
38 views

List of Spaced Named Entities for English

I am writing a tokenizer for a small NLP project. After the first attempt (basically splitting at white spaces) didn't lead to good results at all, I am now starting from scratch. I would like to be ...
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2answers
56 views

Name of rule for whether compounds should be written with a space or not

What is the name of the rule that describes why some words are written together (e.g. "strawberry") and others apart (e.g. "street name")?
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0answers
65 views

Are “oivai ” and “always” related?

I know that the English "always" comes literally from "all ways". the Bavarian "oivai" sounds almost the same, means the same, but doesn't seem to be as straight forward. While "oi" means "all" and "...
2
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2answers
184 views

“used to” for past habitual: analysis

I teach ESL at the adult level. I am trying to analyze "used to" for past habitual, as in: My car used to malfunction a lot. Is "used to" an adverb-phrase meaning something like 'for a long time ...
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0answers
29 views

What are the restrictions on the use of “unless”? [on hold]

I have found a restriction on the use of "unless" which was difficult to explain to my students (advanced ESL). The student's sentence was I would have had to go to the bank unless you had lent me ...
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0answers
4 views

Is a structure with “past past perfect” possible? [migrated]

In the following example If I hadn't have been too nice, I would still have my wallet. is past past perfect a possible structure? If so, shouldn't it be "hadn't had been"?
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72 views

Syntactic status of 'than'

I'm not terribly familiar with the syntax of PPs, but I've noticed that a handful of them do not seem to satisfy any constituency tests, particularly 'than'. 'Than' is listed in dictionaries as both '...
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4answers
175 views

Are there minimal pairs between normal length and long vowels in English?

Are there minimal pairs between vowels of normal length such as a and vowels of long length such as aː?
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0answers
50 views

Is the Schwa in English rounded or unrounded?

Wikipedia says that in principle the Schwa sound can be both rounded and unrounded. Can it be both in English, or does English always does one or the other?
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1answer
35 views

Is there a programmatically accessible/structured (JSON, XML, etc) dictionary that includes IPA

Thus far I have the CMU Pronouncing Dictionary, which uses a custom set of phonemes represented in ASCII text. Just the words and pronunciations is nice, but it would be great to have actual IPA ...
2
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2answers
143 views

How many vowels and how many consonants did the Proto-Indo-European Language have?

I am interested in development paths of Russian and English sound systems. At present the situation is as follows: according to WALS, the consonant inventory of modern Russian is classed as "...
2
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1answer
82 views

Position of negation in an english sentence [closed]

This question is mainly aimed at native English speakers. Does the position of negation in a sentence matter? Does it have a feeling attached to it? Here is my point of view and an example: I have ...
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1answer
30 views

Looking for a list of English words that are morphologically similar, semantically different? [closed]

I need a list of English words that are morphologically similar, but when it comes to meaning, they should be completely different.
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1answer
80 views

Did 'the' in 'the which' mean anything?

I was advised to repost my original ELU question here. Did 'the' mean anything in the which, compared with the relative pronoun which? OED's entries for the which only redirect to definitions of '...
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0answers
15 views

What underlying semantic notions connect 'comeback' to 'joining' or 'restarting'?

[ repartee (n.) : ] 1640s, "quick remark," from French repartie "an answering blow or thrust" (originally a fencing term), noun use of fem. past participle of Old French repartir [See Wiktionary] ...
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0answers
14 views

Truth-neutral, truth-indifferent, & truth-committed verbs?

In English, I go to the store. is understood to mean It is true that I go to the store. Suppose I want to succinctly express I am indifferent to whether it is true or false that I ...
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5answers
109 views

Phonemic Transcription Ambiguity?

I recently learned the the flap [ɾ] letter is part of both the /t/ and /d/ phonemes. A common example is writer /ˈraɪtər/ and rider /ˈraɪdər/. If they're both pronounced [raɪɾər], then shouldn't the ...
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2answers
76 views

English stress, abstract analysis

I am reading introductory phonology by Bruce Hayes, in chapter 12 he proposed an abstract analysis for English stress.Based on his proposed a word like cassette has been through a process like below: ...
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1answer
44 views

“The bat broke the window” - double meaning in The Stuff of Thought

Some background: In Steven Pinker's book The Stuff of Thought, he critiques Radical Pragmatics (ch 3). In one instance, on pages 121-122, he describes a computer simulation of Radical Pragmatics by ...
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0answers
69 views

Where does the spelling <ea> and <ee> in English come from?

I am referring to <ea> as in "meat" and <ee> as in "meet". Apparently, <ea> comes from Middle English [ɛ] and <ee> comes from Middle English [e], which come from Old English ...
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1answer
62 views

Does this name's pronunciation match the spelling? [closed]

I want to use a unique name as my personal, yet it's spelling is very unclear to me. The pronunciation is "E m ai l" As in- E-end, M-me, AI-lie, L-live. Emphasized as word "agile". Is it correct to ...
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1answer
73 views

CGEL's argument on the constituent structure of certain sentences that involve 'as well as'

In CGEL on pp. 1316-1317, we find a discussion of two different uses of as well as: [70] i b. [Abstraction] [as well as impressionism] were Russian inventions.      &...
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3answers
218 views

Why does ISO 639-3 have many language codes for Arabic but only one for English?

ISO 639-3 has many language codes for Arabic, but only one for English. I'm an Arab who is familiar with multiple Arabic dialects. We do not call it anything but "لهجات" which is translated to "...
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1answer
72 views

What is the cause of difference between British and American pronunciation?

I think it's pretty clear how did evolve such differences as high way or parking lot, since these terms refer to the technology that didn't exist at the age of colonization. But how, in general, do ...
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0answers
16 views

Where can I find a translation for romanized (english texted) sanskrit into english?

I am trying to find a translator link to change romanized or english texted sanskrit (as in bollywood and other Indian songs and chants) into actual english so that I can understand what the song ...
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2answers
50 views

How verb tenses evolve

I have two questions on this topic. The firstmay be too general, but basically, I am curious as to how tenses evolve and whether tenses between languages can be used to help find out whether languages ...
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2answers
80 views

Weekday Abbreviations in multiple languages

I am working on designing a piece of software that must support multiple languages. There is a design scheme in English at the moment that displays weekdays using a single character (ie: "S M T W T F ...
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0answers
32 views

Incomplete sentences

I am looking for studies which looks at understanding and preference of incomplete sentences. For example, is there a higher workload for (in)complete sentences or even though the sentence might be ...
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0answers
52 views

Does Japanese have as many English-derived words as English has French-derived words?

According to current corpora and other tools used by language researchers, does the current vocabulary of Japanese already contain as many words borrowed/derived from English as the number of English ...
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0answers
54 views

If we disregard future tense for English, under which circumstances we could not?

Some linguists claim that English doesn't have a future tense, and some do for German as well. This opinion was voiced out here as well,as an answer to What is the present tense expressing future?. I ...
4
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1answer
73 views

What does it mean for a verb to be stative, really?

What makes a verb stative in English? I am not looking for various stativity tests, as these do not guarantee the verb really is stative. For example, no stativity test I have come across can account ...
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1answer
66 views

Sound correspondences in Germanic languages

I've noticed that in particular germanic languages have similar base words to english of which many times the only difference is that of the vowels. This would make sense seing as to how they are ...
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2answers
122 views

Other languages that borrow as promiscuously as English?

I've heard people say that the reason English is such a great language is that it's enriched itself by stealing so promiscuously from other languages. The image I get of English is that she's like the ...
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0answers
32 views

Corpus of tagged text (English newspapers or any tagged text)

I'm developing a system to extract tags from text (English) and currently I have no dataset to test the system and evaluate, could someone point me to a source (preferably a free one) thanks SO I ...
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0answers
43 views

What linguistic theory explains the simple/progressive distiction the best in Modern English?

What is the leading theory that provides an exact semantics to the simple/progressive distinction in Modern English?
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1answer
50 views

Simple/progressive as use/mention

After a few days of pondering I came to the conclusion (which is only my opinion) that the division of the simple and progressive forms in Modern English is akin to the use-mention distinction in ...
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2answers
84 views

What's a good source of information about how the structure of english sentences has evolved over time?

There is a lot of information about the evolution of English vocabulary since Anglo-Saxon times, but I am looking for examples of how English sentence construction has changed over time.
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3answers
100 views

Where is American English not chosen as the dialect of English taught as a second language? [closed]

Apart from countries where English is taught as a second language only to immigrants and indigenous peoples (eg Australia), where is American English not chosen as the dialect taught when teaching ...
4
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2answers
135 views

“Cloth” lexical set: Is there a complete description of the possible conditioning environments?

This question is about speakers without the cot-caught merger (so, speakers who pronounce words such as “lot,” “cot,” “swat" with a distinct vowel from words such as “thought,” “caught,” “water.”) I’...
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2answers
95 views

What's the term for the use of “this” in “there's this guy called John, who…”?

What's the term for the use of "this" in "there's this guy called John, who..."? Here, the "this" is used like an "a", not literally "this". I'm not sure if there's a term for this.
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0answers
19 views

suggest studies or books on: relationship between level of literacy and English conversations

I'm looking for books or articles or studies on the relationship between the level of literacy(I mean in the general sense, like illiterate, graduate, post-graduate...) and English conversations. How ...
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0answers
65 views

Can someone explain this sentence from Dartmouth's German page?

Was perusing the page (you can find it here), I came across the paragraph "That said, word order is a complex aspect of language, never wholly mastered by non-native speakers. What is the idea ...
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2answers
230 views

Syntax - difference between modifiers and complements in NPs?

Here are two NPs: their incredible story of the trip in space (complement) the noisy yellow airplanes that scared the children in the yard (post modifier) Why is it that certain nouns takes ...
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2answers
111 views

The drop/weakening of “h” sound in General American English

I noticed that the speakers with the General American accent occasionally weaken the "h" sound in words like "had" e.g. "You had this and that." becomes kind of like "You ad this and that." (I can't ...
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4answers
205 views

What are the state-of-the-art English syntax theories there are that can explain all the English syntax phenomena?

Both Dependency Grammar (DG) and Constituency Grammar (CG) are a tool to describe the syntax of any natural language in general. The language whose syntax is to be described in DG or CG doesn't have ...
4
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4answers
238 views

Are sound changes regular?

Are sound changes regular now or not? I mean it seems to me that it's accepted that sound change is pretty regular, because of how sound changes are treated in etymology/historical linguistics. I even ...