A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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17 views

What is the type of adjective that denotes capability?

I have encountered a number of adjectives while programming that all have the same use case of describing capabilities of a noun. "Clonable", "serializable", "runnable", "hashable", "immutable", ...
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30 views

French letter closings in English?

When I first learned about the Closing Formula for French business letters, I had found them affected and foreign, especially since I haven't seen them in modern English (though I'm unversed in ...
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0answers
12 views

Position of 'notwithstanding' and « nonobstant »?

Hereafter, I ask only about English vs French (Alas, these two already trouble me enough!) Based on the etymology, I guess that notwithstanding and « nonobstant » are cognates? Am I right? If so, ...
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1answer
34 views

How is the dative case for help being used here?

Swiss-German has dative and accusative case-marking for its objects. In the sentence "I gave him the book," "him" must be marked as dative and "the book" must be marked as accusative. It's clear that ...
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0answers
11 views

Should I always use the -ised ending for UK english and the -ized for US? [migrated]

Realized vs realised, randomized vs randomised etc. Is it true that the former is always correct in US and the latter in UK english? Is there a list of english-speaking nations that use the former or ...
0
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1answer
37 views

Term for when sentences (or parts) are combined with “this means”, “meaning”, “that shows”, etc.?

Often sentences or parts of sentences are combined with verbs or pronoun + verb. However, they don't describe something of the content of the text, they just help to bring the parts or sentences in ...
22
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7answers
5k views

Why does English not have a version of (Swedish: heter, Icelandic: heiti, Spanish: llamo etc.)?

This is something that I think is present in most languages. If I were to present my self in English, I might say: My name is DisplayName. Where as in other languages I can both say: Mitt ...
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0answers
19 views

Researching extraposition in a syntactic treebank

I'm writing a paper on extraposition in English (and other right-branching discontinuities). I have found a lot of interesting theory on this but the instructions say that if possible concrete corpus ...
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1answer
71 views

How many of English words have Germanic roots, and how many have Romantic roots? (in percent)

So, I'm wondering how much of English words have Germanic roots, how many have Romantic roots and how many have Greek roots etc. In percent. Is there any such table?
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0answers
17 views

It is a lot of particles “of” [migrated]

My native language is russian, and I'm trying to translate RU>EN some techical text. I've found one thing: a lot of "of". Let's look: "Определение цветов данного набора паллитр" > "Determination of ...
2
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4answers
116 views

Is word order a method of implementing case in English language

I often read that English retains 'vestigal' case markers, particularly for the genitive, although some argue that 's is a clitic. Pronouns remain the largest source of marked words indicating the ...
1
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1answer
47 views

Do Persian Jews voice Hebrew ק?

I recently saw the Hebrew name יעקב transliterated into (American) English by Persian Jews as Yaghob. I find this curious (because the ע isn't transliterated, but that's a question for another time, ...
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2answers
33 views

I am searching for a rule on the use of was and were preceded by if [closed]

I was taught that in a "subjective phrase" such as one beginning with "If I," you should use were, not was. If true, I see it misused every day by many people and it is annoying. Please set me ...
0
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1answer
89 views

Why is “Shanghai” pronounced the way it is in English?

Most English-language news sources and people in America pronounce the name of the city (上海) with a long a sound as in "way" within the "shang (上)" syllable, but it's not pronounced that way in ...
2
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1answer
33 views

Are Spanish “que” clauses following “parece” complements or postponed subjects?

The Spanish equivalent of It seems that they hate each other is Parece que se odian. In both languages seem/parecer are one-place predicates (well, both can optionally accept a second argument with ...
0
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1answer
58 views

On donkey sentences: why is this formalization incorrect?

Part of the difficulty surrounding donkey sentences, to my understanding, is about how hard they are to translate to FOL in a matter that is consistent with other translations to FOL in english. Take ...
8
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2answers
131 views

Why “Kampuchea” → “Cambodia”?

Many place names in English are anglicizations/transliterations of their native names. Of those, many place names in Asia seem to have undergone a change over the past few decades: they've gone from a ...
8
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7answers
4k views

Is there a reason behind the phenomenon of English becoming more vulgar with time?

In the last few years I have noticed both with colleagues and from online discussions a tendency for English language writing and speech to become more and more vulgar. That is, I see explicatives ...
0
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0answers
49 views

Is there a term for this use of an indirect object?

I have noticed that some Americans from the mid-South will use indirect objects in their speech where standard English would use a prepositional phrase. Is there a name for this phenomenon? Is it ...
2
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5answers
280 views

English grammar: is it possible to automatically verify correctness

Is it possible to verify if sentence is grammatically correct automatically. E.g. for sentence Lemon yellow. verb (predicate) is missing or for sentence If it will rain, we will not go ...
0
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0answers
26 views

Frequency information of words within a given category

I am looking for some database or method with which I can get frequency information of words of a defined category. Example: amount of English animal names, fruits etc. that are known to a normal ...
1
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1answer
50 views

What are common non-lexical indicators of sarcasm expressed orally in English

I've been doing some anecdotal research into what indicates sarcasm in spoken form. My goal is to find indicators of sarcasm without relying on the meaning of the words and sentences themselves. ...
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1answer
56 views

Translation into Latin [closed]

I would like to translate the following phrase into Latin. Unto the Lion and the Lamb Please provide a translation into English. Using Google Translate I got the following: In Leo et Agnus but ...
0
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2answers
95 views

Would someone be able to identify this language and translate the text to english? [closed]

I just bought this bracelet at a random goodwill shop in Boston and it's beautiful, I would just like to make sure I'm not wearing something offensive or religiously significant.
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1answer
54 views

Is «plausible» a false friend between English and Spanish? [closed]

I'm a native Spanish speaker and today I was just wondering about this, if it's a case like bizarre and bizarro (which in Spanish means «generous» or «brave», not «weird»). I couldn't fully ...
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0answers
66 views

How many different syntax patterns exist in standard English ?

My command of the English language is quiet poor, I write by my feeling, and each sentence is just another chain element left behind not knowing how many Errors are within it. The feeling comes close ...
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0answers
66 views

Preposition vs. Subordinating Conjunction in English

The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (Huddleston & Pullum), which was published in 2002, expanded the scope of the part of speech "preposition" to such a great extent that a significant ...
-1
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2answers
46 views

Looking for word to lemma free database

I want to write a simple program in Java, which being fed with English texts will be able to generate word usage statisitcs (e.g. topmost frequently used words in English). For that purpose I need a ...
5
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4answers
1k views

Ei (egg in German) and eye; Auge (eye in German) and egg

Is it known if there was some weird flipping of [Ei (egg in German) and eye] with [Auge(eye in German) and egg] that happened historically or do you think the apparent similarities are coincidence?
2
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2answers
71 views

Other than Scottish rolled “r” and North American rhotacised vowels, are there any differences across “r” sounds in English dialects?

I'm wondering about subtle differences in /r/ sounds across varieties of English. By subtle I mean I want to ignore the obvious large differences such as the trilled "r" in Scottish English and the ...
0
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2answers
42 views

Can't understand the meaning of a sentence [closed]

I'm translating the following video from English to Russian: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sjCclg_TU0o - it's an interview with John Cusack. I can't get what's the meaning of what he said on 3:20 - ...
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3answers
88 views

Mandative construction verb form problem

A question asked on another forum concerned the use of different verb forms in the subordinate clause in the following "mandative" sentences: It's important that you do not be late It's ...
3
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3answers
148 views

Why are infinitive complements analysed as separate clauses?

Why is the sentence John wants to read. normally analysed as consisting of 2 clauses? (John wants, PRO to read) I understand the idea of PRO but why must to read be a completely different ...
0
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1answer
70 views

Size of phonemic inventory of individual speakers across different accents and dialects of English

This started out as a trivially simple question: How many phonemes are there in the different dialects and accents of English? I just needed a simple reference for a point about the teaching of ...
1
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0answers
34 views

Lexical density

I'm trying to work out the lexical density of a spoken text. My problem is with contractions that include a primary auxiliary verb as a main lexical verb. E.g. She's intelligent. From what I ...
1
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2answers
203 views

Does sample text exist that includes most sounds represented by the International Phonetic Alphabet?

My understanding of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is that it aims to provide a set of letter-based values that represent and map to fundamental sounds present in human languages. My ...
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1answer
74 views

What features distinguish the true diphthongs of English?

How are the true diphthongs of English distinguished from each other and other vowels with traditional distinctive features theory?
1
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1answer
107 views

How to translate a scientific term to Vietnamese?

What is the guide, in general, for translating scientific terms from English to other language? I know, of course, that we need a person who have good competence on the field containing that word. ...
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1answer
103 views

Is this tree diagram correct? [closed]

the sentence is: Lucy reported that scientists wonder if the medicine will work /Users/tcalnitsky/Desktop/assignment2.jpg
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1answer
48 views

acoustic features for english phonems

in this following paper , if we go to page no- 126 we will find a table with all acoustic features of all german Phonemes. ...
4
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1answer
77 views

why can't quotative “be like” be fronted?

Consider the following data (spoken American English): John said "I'll come." John was like "I'll come." What John said was: "I'll come." ?What John was like was: "I'll come." Does anyone have an ...
3
votes
3answers
109 views

What's the difference between [ɚ], [ɹ̩], and [əɹ]?

I've seen the "-er" sound in English (like in butter) transcribed in all three of the above ways, but I've heard there are subtle differences between them. What are these differences, if there are ...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

What is the term for pairs of words with converse meanings such as (gave<>got) and (bought<>sold)?

I'm seriously struggling to identify a name for the relationship between such words. They are transactional terms,of which there are two parts. They may even show tense. John gave me an apple. I ...
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0answers
36 views

Formal definition of English grammar

I saw on a related question some mentions of a formal grammar definition for English. It is mentioning there a definition called English Resource Grammar. Perhaps anyone here would know about loosely ...
3
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0answers
63 views

Stanford NLP parsers and idioms that have common semantic meaning

I have parsed the following sentence in the Stanford CoreNLP demo page and the Stanford parser demo page. Although both result in a parse that can imply purpose semantics (hinging on the advcl and the ...
3
votes
2answers
76 views

singular part of speech for multi-word units and expressions?

Part of speech assignment provides a pos to a word. In many pos systems this can occasionally produce errors due multi-word expressions of one form or another. When 'we' look at the text, we may see ...
0
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0answers
73 views

Did German or English form of infinitive appear first?

German and English languages have a common root but an innumerable amount of differences. One of them is how infinitive is formed. In English we have to+verb: "to stand" in German we have a verb ...
1
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1answer
73 views

Time annotated corpus: plain text english corpus

I am working on how entities take a new sense over time. I am trying to find out a large english corpus (free to download) which should have the time annotation of the origin of the text. I suppose ...
3
votes
1answer
93 views

Is the Ampersands a Letter in the Latin Alphabet?

My understanding is that, until fairly recently, recitation of the English alphabet was often suffixed by saying "and per se and", roughly translating to "and, by itself, '&'". This suggests that ...
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3answers
165 views

Given a verb get a noun that corresponds to subject or object

I have verbs and I would like to find their corresponding noun for either subject or object. e.g. run:subject -> runner kill:subject -> killer kill:object -> dead I also would have groups of them ...