A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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Problems for English speakers in learning Italian

Ciao a tutti! I am writing a thesis about the problems english speakers have in learning Italian. I know there are grammar issues, pronunciation, phonetic, etc. But I would like to know if there are ...
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2answers
67 views

Why is the word “Puyallup” difficult for most English speakers to pronounce?

Why linguistically the word of the city of Puyallup is difficult for non Seattleites to pronounce? It only contains sounds found in English.
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19 views

How do I distinguish between traits and states using NLP?

In an English sentence: Harry was displeased. – displeased is a state Harry was benevolent. – benevolent is a trait Given an adjective, how can I distinguish between a trait and a state? ...
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1answer
51 views

Is there any comprehensive list of all the possible syntactic combinations of English sentences?

In constituent analysis, we break down sentences into their main parts of speech (Det., N, Adj, V, etc.). English sentences have recursive syntactic patterns. For example, a simple sentence in English ...
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56 views

When did the concept of constituent movement arise?

As far back as the mid 1700s, William Ward considered the following phrase in An Essay on Grammar applied to the English Language. the flowers which a lady sitting on the seat in a garden views with ...
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1answer
55 views

/s/ or /z/ in ending of [long vowel] + “se” or “s” [closed]

Are there any rules regarding the pronunciation of "se" or "s" in the ending [long vowel] + "se" or "s"? /z/: tease, browse /s/: lease, house English pronunciation pod in the reference just lists ...
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1answer
24 views

In which order should I teach grapho-phonemics relationships in English? [closed]

In which order should I teach grapho-phonemics relationships in English to 5-6 years old children ? Is there any research available on this topic ? Should I teach close phonemes together or with some ...
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1answer
102 views

What do ESL speakers think of English spelling reform? [closed]

English is unique in that out of the ten most widely spoken languages it has no governing academy and its writing system is the most irregular. What are the thoughts of ESL speakers on spelling ...
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2answers
68 views

Do English and French share the same international phonetic symbol?

[e] and [ε] are pronounced almost the same in English. But there is obvious difference between them in french , french [e] sounds like ‘ay’ in english ‘bay’, really close to the first English letter “...
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3answers
110 views

Has English caused any Languages to undergo Sound Change or Grammar Change?

French historically has caused the presence of several unique sounds in English that would not have been present otherwise. For example the "dʒ" sound in "garage". Similarly, I believe I've read ...
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2answers
82 views

English verbs with more than one past tense [closed]

In English, there are verbs that have two valid past participles. An example for such a verb would be sow which has the two forms sowed and sown. Are there English verbs that have more than one valid ...
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22 views

Open corpora for modern English

I need a corpus of modern English, with part-of-speech tags, in order to train language models, specifically a part-of-speech tagger. The domain I am doing this in is the Hansard, the transcript of ...
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59 views

Analyses of English word formation processes?

I'm looking for analyses of the word stock of English which look at which word formation process accounts for what percentage of the word stock. When I say "word formation," I would include here ...
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4answers
93 views

How unusual is the English J sound?

I came to my attention that the English "J" sound ( jet, joy, jump ) does not seem to exist in German, French, Spanish, or Finnish. While the "ch" sound exists in many of these languages, the "j" ...
3
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1answer
98 views

Why does English use different prepositions for different units of time?

Why do we say at six o'clock, on Monday, in 1996? Is there a deeper logic here than simply "that's how the English language works?"
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1answer
83 views

Why did “exempli gratia” (e.g.) and “id est” (i.e.) become widespread in English, but not in other languages?

Usage of the abbreviations "e.g." and "i.e." is very common in English, but not so much in other language. In Dutch they are used sometimes, but they are recent imports due to a lot of exposure to ...
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1answer
48 views

To be or not to be - you got to be somewhere to be something or you are where you are? [closed]

I wonder, in Spanish we have to different words for to be (location) and to be (description) from my point of view, as a natural Spanish speaker tho I've spoken English all my life, just not as much, ...
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1answer
47 views

Does the Perfect in addition to its perfect meaning also denotes perfective / imperfective / either meaning (in English and Spanish)?

Just to note that I'm well aware as to the difference between the perfect and perfective aspects. Up until recently I though that the Perfect aspect can denote (in addition to its perfect aspect ...
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3answers
130 views

What part of speech is “as their native”?

In the sentence: The number of people who speak English as their native language will decline. what part of speech is as their native?
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2answers
111 views

always | never | “all the time” - what kind of words are these?

always never "all the time" They aren't 'expletives', but they express a non-expiry. What word would describe this type of word? Context : he never brings me flowers; he's always late; you criticise ...
2
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1answer
50 views

Term for modifying a word to create its opposite connotation

I'm interested in knowing if there is a specific term for the phenomenon (in English) where a word with a positive connotation can be modified to create a word or phrase with a negative connotation (...
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1answer
86 views

Distinguishing subjects in apposition

Consider the English sentence (from the Washinton Post): "Trump is wrong that Muslims don’t do our part." In the embedded clause, is the subject 'Muslims', or the implied 'we' in 'our'? In the ...
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1answer
58 views

Derivation of “glitzy” — does it have Yiddish roots? [closed]

In Leo Rosten's book, The Joys of Yiddish, he defines the Yiddish word for people from the Hungarian/Polish region of Galicia, as "Galitzianers"(McGraw Hill, 1968), pp. 122-23. In singular masculine ...
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1answer
40 views

List of Spaced Named Entities for English

I am writing a tokenizer for a small NLP project. After the first attempt (basically splitting at white spaces) didn't lead to good results at all, I am now starting from scratch. I would like to be ...
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2answers
70 views

Name of rule for whether compounds should be written with a space or not

What is the name of the rule that describes why some words are written together (e.g. "strawberry") and others apart (e.g. "street name")?
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66 views

Are “oivai ” and “always” related?

I know that the English "always" comes literally from "all ways". the Bavarian "oivai" sounds almost the same, means the same, but doesn't seem to be as straight forward. While "oi" means "all" and "...
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2answers
186 views

“used to” for past habitual: analysis

I teach ESL at the adult level. I am trying to analyze "used to" for past habitual, as in: My car used to malfunction a lot. Is "used to" an adverb-phrase meaning something like 'for a long time ...
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29 views

What are the restrictions on the use of “unless”? [closed]

I have found a restriction on the use of "unless" which was difficult to explain to my students (advanced ESL). The student's sentence was I would have had to go to the bank unless you had lent me ...
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2answers
99 views

Syntactic status of 'than'

I'm not terribly familiar with the syntax of PPs, but I've noticed that a handful of them do not seem to satisfy any constituency tests, particularly 'than'. 'Than' is listed in dictionaries as both '...
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4answers
180 views

Are there minimal pairs between normal length and long vowels in English?

Are there minimal pairs between vowels of normal length such as a and vowels of long length such as aː?
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0answers
52 views

Is the Schwa in English rounded or unrounded?

Wikipedia says that in principle the Schwa sound can be both rounded and unrounded. Can it be both in English, or does English always does one or the other?
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1answer
35 views

Is there a programmatically accessible/structured (JSON, XML, etc) dictionary that includes IPA

Thus far I have the CMU Pronouncing Dictionary, which uses a custom set of phonemes represented in ASCII text. Just the words and pronunciations is nice, but it would be great to have actual IPA ...
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2answers
152 views

How many vowels and how many consonants did the Proto-Indo-European Language have?

I am interested in development paths of Russian and English sound systems. At present the situation is as follows: according to WALS, the consonant inventory of modern Russian is classed as "...
2
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1answer
82 views

Position of negation in an english sentence [closed]

This question is mainly aimed at native English speakers. Does the position of negation in a sentence matter? Does it have a feeling attached to it? Here is my point of view and an example: I have ...
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1answer
31 views

Looking for a list of English words that are morphologically similar, semantically different? [closed]

I need a list of English words that are morphologically similar, but when it comes to meaning, they should be completely different.
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1answer
96 views

Did 'the' in 'the which' mean anything?

I was advised to repost my original ELU question here. Did 'the' mean anything in the which, compared with the relative pronoun which? OED's entries for the which only redirect to definitions of '...
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15 views

What underlying semantic notions connect 'comeback' to 'joining' or 'restarting'?

[ repartee (n.) : ] 1640s, "quick remark," from French repartie "an answering blow or thrust" (originally a fencing term), noun use of fem. past participle of Old French repartir [See Wiktionary] ...
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1answer
647 views

Do the words “angst” and “anxiety” share a common root?

The English word angst, taken from German Angst, seems to ultimately originate from Proto-Germanic *angustiz. This word has descendants in many Germanic languages, including, but not limited to, ...
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16 views

Truth-neutral, truth-indifferent, & truth-committed verbs?

In English, I go to the store. is understood to mean It is true that I go to the store. Suppose I want to succinctly express I am indifferent to whether it is true or false that I ...
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5answers
112 views

Phonemic Transcription Ambiguity?

I recently learned the the flap [ɾ] letter is part of both the /t/ and /d/ phonemes. A common example is writer /ˈraɪtər/ and rider /ˈraɪdər/. If they're both pronounced [raɪɾər], then shouldn't the ...
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2answers
78 views

English stress, abstract analysis

I am reading introductory phonology by Bruce Hayes, in chapter 12 he proposed an abstract analysis for English stress.Based on his proposed a word like cassette has been through a process like below: ...
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1answer
47 views

“The bat broke the window” - double meaning in The Stuff of Thought

Some background: In Steven Pinker's book The Stuff of Thought, he critiques Radical Pragmatics (ch 3). In one instance, on pages 121-122, he describes a computer simulation of Radical Pragmatics by ...
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70 views

Where does the spelling <ea> and <ee> in English come from?

I am referring to <ea> as in "meat" and <ee> as in "meet". Apparently, <ea> comes from Middle English [ɛ] and <ee> comes from Middle English [e], which come from Old English ...
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1answer
64 views

Does this name's pronunciation match the spelling? [closed]

I want to use a unique name as my personal, yet it's spelling is very unclear to me. The pronunciation is "E m ai l" As in- E-end, M-me, AI-lie, L-live. Emphasized as word "agile". Is it correct to ...
1
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1answer
74 views

CGEL's argument on the constituent structure of certain sentences that involve 'as well as'

In CGEL on pp. 1316-1317, we find a discussion of two different uses of as well as: [70] i b. [Abstraction] [as well as impressionism] were Russian inventions.      &...
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3answers
245 views

Why does ISO 639-3 have many language codes for Arabic but only one for English?

ISO 639-3 has many language codes for Arabic, but only one for English. I'm an Arab who is familiar with multiple Arabic dialects. We do not call it anything but "لهجات" which is translated to "...
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1answer
74 views

What is the cause of difference between British and American pronunciation?

I think it's pretty clear how did evolve such differences as high way or parking lot, since these terms refer to the technology that didn't exist at the age of colonization. But how, in general, do ...
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16 views

Where can I find a translation for romanized (english texted) sanskrit into english?

I am trying to find a translator link to change romanized or english texted sanskrit (as in bollywood and other Indian songs and chants) into actual english so that I can understand what the song ...
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2answers
54 views

How verb tenses evolve

I have two questions on this topic. The firstmay be too general, but basically, I am curious as to how tenses evolve and whether tenses between languages can be used to help find out whether languages ...
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2answers
85 views

Weekday Abbreviations in multiple languages

I am working on designing a piece of software that must support multiple languages. There is a design scheme in English at the moment that displays weekdays using a single character (ie: "S M T W T F ...