A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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Translation from english to romance languages

Does anyone know how to explain the fact that, some english sentences like "Are you sure this water's sanitary?" are translated into definite articles both in French (L'eau) and in Spanish (el agua)? ...
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33 views

Here be dragons - Analysis [on hold]

'Here be dragons' is the translation of the latin 'Hic sunt dragones'. Why using an infinitive in English? Does it correspond to a specific use of the mode?
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52 views

Why do some scientific possessives have trailing “s” and others don't?

I debated names of scientific terms with my friend, and we both discovered that some of them have the trailing letter "s" while others don't. Here are some examples: Mobius strip, Fourier series, ...
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8 views

How do you explicitly name a stack of blocks? [migrated]

The structure follows strict rules: Therefore, it can't be: A collection of blocks. A list of blocks. A pile of blocks. Also, a table of blocks makes no sense since a table relates to rows and ...
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19 views

Did the English 'confer' evolve from the Middle French « conférer » ?

[Etymonline :] 1530s, from Middle French conférer (14c.) "to give, converse, compare," from Latin conferre "to bring together," figuratively "to compare; consult, deliberate, talk over," from com- ...
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38 views

handling ambiguity in parses

Given a sentence from http://home.uchicago.edu/~bartels/papers/Bartels-Johnson-2015-Cognition.pdf: We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two ...
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21 views

How to identify mentions in a text?

I am looking for rule-based methods or any other methods to identify all mentions in a text. I have found several libraries that give coreferences but no exact options for only mentions. What I want ...
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2answers
64 views

Is there a comprehensive list of all (or many) phonological rules (specifically allophonic) of the English language available anywhere online?

It would be very helpful to have for a programming project I'm working on involving grapheme-to-phoneme translation. I've been able to find many rules for phonemes but not too many for allophones.
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1answer
55 views

Which English phonemes are the easiest to distinguish from each other?

I work as a literacy tutor in a preschool and part of my job is to help students develop phonological awareness by teaching them how to identify rhymes and alliteration. To make it as easy as possible ...
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1answer
68 views

Biggest freely available English corpus?

Any help on finding the biggest freely available English corpus that can be used on research? So far I have found OANC with 15 M words.
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46 views

Proper vs. common nouns: Are there more differences, esp. in grammar, than capital letter and simpler plural?

Proper nouns in English have a capital starting letter and the plural is simpler (e.g. -y ending gets -ys instead of -ies). Are there any other differences? Especially when analysing/parsing the ...
2
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1answer
69 views

“come” in “become” (English) vs “venir” in “devenir” (French)

In both French and English, the word for become (devenir) includes the word for come (venir), even though the etymologies and words are very different. Why might this be?
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52 views

How does the etymology of 'unless' relate to its modern definitions?

I ask NOT for a formal proof of:  A unless B =  A if not B =  Either A or B . Instead, I wish to know how unless evolved, especially to mean any of these modern definitions? Etymonline and OED don't ...
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3answers
96 views

How does 'unless' mean 'or' or 'if not'? [closed]

Source: p 139, Introduction to Logic (2 ed, 2010) by Harry J. Gensler. [1.] Translate “unless” as “or.” ...     [eg: A unless B =  B unless A = Either A or B]. [2.] “Unless” is also ...
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65 views

How did 'piety = piété' and 'pity = pitié' diverge and evolve?

This Quora question motivated this. Do the Etymonline entries below imply that the connotation changed in Old French (and so even before English)? I pose the question also for the equivalent French ...
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35 views

Truth conditions of generics

What are the truth conditions for generics? Why are they (at least in English) expressed by the simple forms of verbs, and why do they always behave as statives? Are generics more fundamental ...
2
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35 views

Dissimilation: 'taper' from 'papyrus' [migrated]

I was researching the etymology of taper {verb} which motivated this question. Observe that Etymonline's entry for the verb just rechannels to that for the noun: taper (n.) Old English tapur, ...
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1answer
40 views

In case of Derivational nouns, what is the difference between affix polysemy and affix homonymy?

For derivational nouns, if we look at various properties of affixes, I understand they exhibit both affix polysemy and affix homonymy. By polysemy I understand that the the same affix is used in ...
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19 views

'reason that' (English) vs 'reason for which' (French)

I already know of the redundancy of reason why, which I ask NOT about. Please advise if I erred, but does the following (by Prof John Lawler) support the rightness of reason that? 1. He didn't ...
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1answer
49 views

How did 'sensuality' evolve to connote lechery? Does 'sensualité'?

Is the French feminine noun sensualité asexual? The English noun is sexual. Why? I heed the Etymological Fallacy. But what are some right ways of interpreting the dchotomy, to make it feel reasonable ...
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1answer
44 views

'scorn': How can a human have horns?

I'm trying to understand both the etymology of 'scorn', (which derives from) that of the Old French 'escarn'. So I'm trying to understand both. [Etymonline for 'scorn (n.)' :] c. 1200, a ...
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2answers
136 views

Oddity with the English perfect

Consider the sentence: She is believed to be the best female golfer alive. From this the listener infers: Some people believe that she is the best female golfer alive. Now, take a look at ...
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10 views

What terms define words that may or may not be evaluative?

Source: ... How to Reason and Argue, by Prof W Sinnott-Armstrong [At the 7 min 49 s juncture of Lec 2-8, for which Coursera neglects to provide a transcription]: It may seem to be an ...
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34 views

Etmology of Old French 'entreprendre' : How did 'between' evolve into 'under' ?

enterprise (n.) early 15c., "an undertaking," formerly also enterprize, from Old French enterprise "an undertaking," noun use of fem. past participle of entreprendre "UNDERtake, take in hand" ...
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1answer
121 views

Is the English perfect really monosemous?

The perfect in English has many faces: (1) I have done my homework. (2) I had already done my homework by then. (3) If I had done my homework yesterday, I would come with you. (4) ...
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28 views

'dispose' vs 'dispose of' & « disposer » vs « disposer de »

[Source:] [D1.] dispose (v.) - (a) to arrange in order; (b) to lean toward or incline (typically used as a past participle). ... [D2.] dispose of (phrasal v.) - (a) to throw away or discard; (b) ...
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43 views

When and why did 'another' start being used as one word?

I assume the word came from a meshing together of 'other' with its indefinite article'. When (and why) did English speakers begin to use this version, instead of 'an other'? And why is it still ...
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1answer
73 views

How to trace Proto-language roots towards English and French?

TL;DR: What resources tie Proto-language roots (eg Proto-Indo-European), to English and French, especially if spelling has changed? I always heed linguistic pitfalls, but I always try to find some ...
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2answers
48 views

Why do DR MRS VANDERTRAMP require 'be' for the present perfect?

I already know (and so ask NOT about) that symbolised by the mnemonic DR MRS VANDERTRAMP, these especial 16 verbs require « être » (= to be) as the auxiliary verb, to form the passé composé (= present ...
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1answer
79 views

Latin's excrescent e- in English and French

I was reading Etymonline's entry on 'estate' which broaches the excrescent e- as follows. Please advise if I'm wrong, but I'll just refer to it as epenthesis in case the following involves the ...
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1answer
72 views

Predicate vs. Predicator

BACKGROUND According to Oxford Dictionaries Online: Predicator means "(In systemic grammar) a verb phrase considered as a constituent of clause structure, along with subject, object, and ...
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1answer
111 views

Phonemes: German vs. English

How many of the same phonemes in the German language are found in the English language? Same consonants? Vowels? Resources for this?
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48 views

Methods to dissect or parse long, difficult sentences

TL;DR: Only English and French can I manage and so ask for. Instead of repeating 'long, difficult' hereafter, denote it mazy. Mazy sentences still stifle my reading comprehension; so I was gladdened ...
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2answers
61 views

Why are there presuppositions?

I am working with these two sentences: 1. Alex stopped playing the piano. What I concluded is that the sentence presupposes that Alex had previously played the piano. But why does the presupposition ...
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1answer
50 views

Thematic roles adjunct

I am a little confused when it comes to giving a theta role to some of my sentences. I got: James got a ball yesterday. where James has the role as BENEFICIARY. Got is the main predicate. a ball is ...
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100 views

“They told me that” which one is the direct and indirect object?

In the sentence "They told me that" or "They told me so" OR even much better sentence from one of the provisional answer "She taught me Spanish" Which one is the direct object? (My guess is "that" ...
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68 views

How to understand etymology derived from obscure languages?

This ELU answer corroborates the helpfulness of etymology while heeding the Etymological Fallacy. Since I'm interested in French (which is derived from Latin), I can sometimes apply it to help ...
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46 views

Why does 'gauche' connote negativity in English and French?

gauche = {adjective} unsophisticated and socially awkward: 1. Why does gauche connote negativity? I read but won't replicate Etymonline here because it doesn't explain its negativity in English, ...
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2answers
112 views

Why aren't defective words perfected?

Since Académie française superintends French, a solution seems easier (at least to prescribe and enforce) in French; I exemplify with it. Yet I question the same for English. Why hasn't French ...
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3answers
996 views

What word did the English use before 'because'?

Looking at the origin of the word 'because' I find it evolved from the phrase 'by cause', which was influenced by the French par cause de ; 'by cause' appeared in Middle English. What word was in use ...
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124 views

Сoncept of an attribute usesd by Russian grammarians

Note: This is cross-posted on ELL.se at Сoncept of an attribute used by Russian grammarians. I need to know all the attributes in theese sentences and how they are expressed.The problem is that ...
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62 views

Sandhi [English]

I am wondering if the rule that dictates when to use "an" or "a" in sentences is Sandhi? If not, what is it? I'm trying to explain why we use "an" or "a" in English beyond the "An is for vowels, A is ...
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1answer
43 views

Relation between Hebrew 'סמפוניה' and English 'Symphony'

In the Mishna, it mentions a musical instrument called 'סמפוניה', transliterated 'Simp-O-nya'. This sounds rather like the English word symphony, which is a musical composition. What is the relation ...
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1answer
67 views

Conversational English corpus for download

I have a project which requires a corpus of conversational English in plain text (although I can perform some processing as needed). Since I am a student, I need to find a corpus that is free and ...
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2answers
45 views

What heads can an adverbial phrase have?

What heads can an adverbial phrase have? Consider the following examples: I'll go to bed [soon]_AdvP. I'll go to bed [in an hour]_AdvP. I'll go to bed [when I've finished my book]_AdvP. ...
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108 views

Is 'identity' a grammatical term?

Originally purposed for this ELL question, the following from this thread claims that which I've greyed. I ask about such a claim for English and French. [User 'RuthP' dated 2012 Dec 26:] That ...
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What is the type of adjective that denotes capability?

I have encountered a number of adjectives while programming that all have the same use case of describing capabilities of a noun. "Clonable", "serializable", "runnable", "hashable", "immutable", ...
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61 views

French letter closings in English?

When I first learned about the Closing Formula for French business letters, I had found them affected and foreign, especially since I haven't seen them in modern English (though I'm unversed in ...
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Position of 'notwithstanding' and « nonobstant »?

Hereafter, I ask only about English vs French (Alas, these two already trouble me enough!) Based on the etymology, I guess that notwithstanding and « nonobstant » are cognates? Am I right? If so, ...
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90 views

How is the dative case for help being used here?

Swiss-German has dative and accusative case-marking for its objects. In the sentence "I gave him the book," "him" must be marked as dative and "the book" must be marked as accusative. It's clear that ...