A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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145 views

Are there minimal pairs between normal length and long vowels in English?

Are there minimal pairs between vowels of normal length such as a and vowels of long length such as aː?
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0answers
33 views

Is the Schwa in English rounded or unrounded?

Wikipedia says that in principle the Schwa sound can be both rounded and unrounded. Can it be both in English, or does English always does one or the other?
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1answer
87 views

In what language was this following scripture written? What does it mean?

I was having a chat with someone and I was wondering whether this text (that seems to regard the White Ship incident) were written in some form of English, or possibly in Latin or French. Sorry for ...
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26 views

research on idioms

Hello dear colleagues, One of my requirements on final semestar of my BA in linguistic is to create a research proposal on idioms, implicit vs explicit learning in SLA, therefore I read alot of ...
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1answer
26 views

Is there a programmatically accessible/structured (JSON, XML, etc) dictionary that includes IPA

Thus far I have the CMU Pronouncing Dictionary, which uses a custom set of phonemes represented in ASCII text. Just the words and pronunciations is nice, but it would be great to have actual IPA ...
2
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2answers
126 views

How many vowels and how many consonants did the Proto-Indo-European Language have?

I am interested in development paths of Russian and English sound systems. At present the situation is as follows: according to WALS, the consonant inventory of modern Russian is classed as ...
2
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1answer
79 views

Position of negation in an english sentence [closed]

This question is mainly aimed at native English speakers. Does the position of negation in a sentence matter? Does it have a feeling attached to it? Here is my point of view and an example: I have ...
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0answers
2 views

Which of these sentences are grammatically correct? [migrated]

I have a problem about deciding a linguistics problem: I have a sentence: This is the place where I met you. Then: This is the place the I met you. And: This is the place that I met you at. Do I ...
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1answer
30 views

Looking for a list of English words that are morphologically similar, semantically different? [closed]

I need a list of English words that are morphologically similar, but when it comes to meaning, they should be completely different.
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1answer
76 views

Did 'the' in 'the which' mean anything?

I was advised to repost my original ELU question here. Did 'the' mean anything in the which, compared with the relative pronoun which? OED's entries for the which only redirect to definitions of ...
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0answers
14 views

What underlying semantic notions connect 'comeback' to 'joining' or 'restarting'?

[ repartee (n.) : ] 1640s, "quick remark," from French repartie "an answering blow or thrust" (originally a fencing term), noun use of fem. past participle of Old French repartir [See ...
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0answers
11 views

Truth-neutral, truth-indifferent, & truth-committed verbs?

In English, I go to the store. is understood to mean It is true that I go to the store. Suppose I want to succinctly express I am indifferent to whether it is true or false that I ...
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5answers
108 views

Phonemic Transcription Ambiguity?

I recently learned the the flap [ɾ] letter is part of both the /t/ and /d/ phonemes. A common example is writer /ˈraɪtər/ and rider /ˈraɪdər/. If they're both pronounced [raɪɾər], then shouldn't the ...
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2answers
63 views

English stress, abstract analysis

I am reading introductory phonology by Bruce Hayes, in chapter 12 he proposed an abstract analysis for English stress.Based on his proposed a word like cassette has been through a process like below: ...
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1answer
43 views

“The bat broke the window” - double meaning in The Stuff of Thought

Some background: In Steven Pinker's book The Stuff of Thought, he critiques Radical Pragmatics (ch 3). In one instance, on pages 121-122, he describes a computer simulation of Radical Pragmatics by ...
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0answers
68 views

Where does the spelling <ea> and <ee> in English come from?

I am referring to <ea> as in "meat" and <ee> as in "meet". Apparently, <ea> comes from Middle English [ɛ] and <ee> comes from Middle English [e], which come from Old English ...
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1answer
58 views

Does this name's pronunciation match the spelling? [closed]

I want to use a unique name as my personal, yet it's spelling is very unclear to me. The pronunciation is "E m ai l" As in- E-end, M-me, AI-lie, L-live. Emphasized as word "agile". Is it correct to ...
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1answer
73 views

CGEL's argument on the constituent structure of certain sentences that involve 'as well as'

In CGEL on pp. 1316-1317, we find a discussion of two different uses of as well as: [70] i b. [Abstraction] [as well as impressionism] were Russian inventions. ...
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3answers
203 views

Why does ISO 639-3 have many language codes for Arabic but only one for English?

ISO 639-3 has many language codes for Arabic, but only one for English. I'm an Arab who is familiar with multiple Arabic dialects. We do not call it anything but "لهجات" which is translated to ...
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1answer
71 views

What is the cause of difference between British and American pronunciation?

I think it's pretty clear how did evolve such differences as high way or parking lot, since these terms refer to the technology that didn't exist at the age of colonization. But how, in general, do ...
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0answers
15 views

Where can I find a translation for romanized (english texted) sanskrit into english?

I am trying to find a translator link to change romanized or english texted sanskrit (as in bollywood and other Indian songs and chants) into actual english so that I can understand what the song ...
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2answers
50 views

How verb tenses evolve

I have two questions on this topic. The firstmay be too general, but basically, I am curious as to how tenses evolve and whether tenses between languages can be used to help find out whether languages ...
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2answers
78 views

Weekday Abbreviations in multiple languages

I am working on designing a piece of software that must support multiple languages. There is a design scheme in English at the moment that displays weekdays using a single character (ie: "S M T W T F ...
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0answers
32 views

Incomplete sentences

I am looking for studies which looks at understanding and preference of incomplete sentences. For example, is there a higher workload for (in)complete sentences or even though the sentence might be ...
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0answers
49 views

Does Japanese have as many English-derived words as English has French-derived words?

According to current corpora and other tools used by language researchers, does the current vocabulary of Japanese already contain as many words borrowed/derived from English as the number of English ...
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0answers
53 views

If we disregard future tense for English, under which circumstances we could not?

Some linguists claim that English doesn't have a future tense, and some do for German as well. This opinion was voiced out here as well,as an answer to What is the present tense expressing future?. I ...
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1answer
72 views

What does it mean for a verb to be stative, really?

What makes a verb stative in English? I am not looking for various stativity tests, as these do not guarantee the verb really is stative. For example, no stativity test I have come across can account ...
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1answer
63 views

Sound correspondences in Germanic languages

I've noticed that in particular germanic languages have similar base words to english of which many times the only difference is that of the vowels. This would make sense seing as to how they are ...
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2answers
120 views

Other languages that borrow as promiscuously as English?

I've heard people say that the reason English is such a great language is that it's enriched itself by stealing so promiscuously from other languages. The image I get of English is that she's like the ...
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0answers
31 views

Corpus of tagged text (English newspapers or any tagged text)

I'm developing a system to extract tags from text (English) and currently I have no dataset to test the system and evaluate, could someone point me to a source (preferably a free one) thanks SO I ...
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0answers
43 views

What linguistic theory explains the simple/progressive distiction the best in Modern English?

What is the leading theory that provides an exact semantics to the simple/progressive distinction in Modern English?
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1answer
49 views

Simple/progressive as use/mention

After a few days of pondering I came to the conclusion (which is only my opinion) that the division of the simple and progressive forms in Modern English is akin to the use-mention distinction in ...
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2answers
83 views

What's a good source of information about how the structure of english sentences has evolved over time?

There is a lot of information about the evolution of English vocabulary since Anglo-Saxon times, but I am looking for examples of how English sentence construction has changed over time.
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3answers
98 views

Where is American English not chosen as the dialect of English taught as a second language? [closed]

Apart from countries where English is taught as a second language only to immigrants and indigenous peoples (eg Australia), where is American English not chosen as the dialect taught when teaching ...
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2answers
134 views

“Cloth” lexical set: Is there a complete description of the possible conditioning environments?

This question is about speakers without the cot-caught merger (so, speakers who pronounce words such as “lot,” “cot,” “swat" with a distinct vowel from words such as “thought,” “caught,” “water.”) ...
2
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2answers
94 views

What's the term for the use of “this” in “there's this guy called John, who…”?

What's the term for the use of "this" in "there's this guy called John, who..."? Here, the "this" is used like an "a", not literally "this". I'm not sure if there's a term for this.
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19 views

suggest studies or books on: relationship between level of literacy and English conversations

I'm looking for books or articles or studies on the relationship between the level of literacy(I mean in the general sense, like illiterate, graduate, post-graduate...) and English conversations. How ...
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0answers
62 views

Can someone explain this sentence from Dartmouth's German page?

Was perusing the page (you can find it here), I came across the paragraph "That said, word order is a complex aspect of language, never wholly mastered by non-native speakers. What is the idea ...
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2answers
159 views

Syntax - difference between modifiers and complements in NPs?

Here are two NPs: their incredible story of the trip in space (complement) the noisy yellow airplanes that scared the children in the yard (post modifier) Why is it that certain nouns takes ...
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2answers
105 views

The drop/weakening of “h” sound in General American English

I noticed that the speakers with the General American accent occasionally weaken the "h" sound in words like "had" e.g. "You had this and that." becomes kind of like "You ad this and that." (I can't ...
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4answers
203 views

What are the state-of-the-art English syntax theories there are that can explain all the English syntax phenomena?

Both Dependency Grammar (DG) and Constituency Grammar (CG) are a tool to describe the syntax of any natural language in general. The language whose syntax is to be described in DG or CG doesn't have ...
4
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4answers
232 views

Are sound changes regular?

Are sound changes regular now or not? I mean it seems to me that it's accepted that sound change is pretty regular, because of how sound changes are treated in etymology/historical linguistics. I even ...
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2answers
142 views

Is 'unless' semantically equivalent to the (English conjunction) exclusive 'or'?

Preface: I question this here because the author is a full-time linguist. Source: The semantics of "unless" by Brian Buccola BA (Classics, Mathematics) PhD (Linguistics) Bonus question: If ...
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0answers
33 views

colloquial English corpus with time expressions

I'm looking for a colloquial English corpus that has time expressions marked in it. I don't need the time expressions to be coded in any special way, just that they be marked so I can find them. All ...
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1answer
57 views

How did 'of' absorb so many meanings?

[OED:] The primary sense was ‘away’, ‘away from’, a sense now obsolete, except in so far as it is retained under the spelling off (see off adv., prep., n.1, and adj.). All the existing uses of of ...
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1answer
93 views

Are British and American English two different dialects?

I'm facing a difficulty in understanding what exactly is a dialect. I've read many definitions, but I need an example in order to understand them. Can we say that British English and American English ...
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0answers
51 views

Phonemic inventory of Supraregional Irish English vs. RP - vowel in FACE

Here's a question about English accent comparison. It's about the differences in phonemic inventory of Irish Supraregional compared to RP. Is the Irish English vowel in the lexical set FACE /e:/ a ...
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0answers
50 views

How many meaningful English phrases can be created using 4 or fewer words?

Prompted by this exchange on Information Security Stack Exchange, regarding whether a passphrase consisting of 4 English words might be easier or harder to crack than a password of 8 random ...
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0answers
45 views

Automatically turn a question into a statement?

What's a practical way to programmatically convert questions into statements with placeholders? For example: in: 'Who is the president of the Argentina?' out: ['The president of Argentina is ____.', ...
2
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4answers
86 views

Formal test determining whether a verb is stative

Is there a formal test determining whether a verb is stative? For example, the following predicate looks stative, but it's not: It's Valentine's Day. I have the chocolate, but I'm still missing ...