A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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75 views

Why is “Shanghai” pronounced the way it is in English?

Most English-language news sources and people in America pronounce the name of the city (上海) with a long a sound as in "way" within the "shang (上)" syllable, but it's not pronounced that way in ...
2
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1answer
30 views

Are Spanish “que” clauses following “parece” complements or postponed subjects?

The Spanish equivalent of It seems that they hate each other is Parece que se odian. In both languages seem/parecer are one-place predicates (well, both can optionally accept a second argument with ...
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0answers
22 views

What “kind” of writing is The Fixation of Belief essay by Charles Sanders Pierce?

I happened by this essay a couple of years ago, now. I've been trying to find things written in a similar style since. However, I'm not terribly familiar with writing or linguistic analysis, ...
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1answer
51 views

On donkey sentences: why is this formalization incorrect?

Part of the difficulty surrounding donkey sentences, to my understanding, is about how hard they are to translate to FOL in a matter that is consistent with other translations to FOL in english. Take ...
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2answers
119 views

Why “Kampuchea” → “Cambodia”?

Many place names in English are anglicizations/transliterations of their native names. Of those, many place names in Asia seem to have undergone a change over the past few decades: they've gone from a ...
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7answers
4k views

Is there a reason behind the phenomenon of English becoming more vulgar with time?

In the last few years I have noticed both with colleagues and from online discussions a tendency for English language writing and speech to become more and more vulgar. That is, I see explicatives ...
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0answers
48 views

Is there a term for this use of an indirect object?

I have noticed that some Americans from the mid-South will use indirect objects in their speech where standard English would use a prepositional phrase. Is there a name for this phenomenon? Is it ...
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5answers
225 views

English grammar: is it possible to automatically verify correctness

Is it possible to verify if sentence is grammatically correct automatically. E.g. for sentence Lemon yellow. verb (predicate) is missing or for sentence If it will rain, we will not go ...
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0answers
25 views

Frequency information of words within a given category

I am looking for some database or method with which I can get frequency information of words of a defined category. Example: amount of English animal names, fruits etc. that are known to a normal ...
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1answer
37 views

What are common non-lexical indicators of sarcasm expressed orally in English

I've been doing some anecdotal research into what indicates sarcasm in spoken form. My goal is to find indicators of sarcasm without relying on the meaning of the words and sentences themselves. ...
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1answer
43 views

Translation into Latin [closed]

I would like to translate the following phrase into Latin. Unto the Lion and the Lamb Please provide a translation into English. Using Google Translate I got the following: In Leo et Agnus but ...
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2answers
88 views

Would someone be able to identify this language and translate the text to english? [closed]

I just bought this bracelet at a random goodwill shop in Boston and it's beautiful, I would just like to make sure I'm not wearing something offensive or religiously significant.
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1answer
53 views

Is «plausible» a false friend between English and Spanish? [closed]

I'm a native Spanish speaker and today I was just wondering about this, if it's a case like bizarre and bizarro (which in Spanish means «generous» or «brave», not «weird»). I couldn't fully ...
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0answers
63 views

How many different syntax patterns exist in standard English ?

My command of the English language is quiet poor, I write by my feeling, and each sentence is just another chain element left behind not knowing how many Errors are within it. The feeling comes close ...
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0answers
63 views

Preposition vs. Subordinating Conjunction in English

The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (Huddleston & Pullum), which was published in 2002, expanded the scope of the part of speech "preposition" to such a great extent that a significant ...
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2answers
42 views

Looking for word to lemma free database

I want to write a simple program in Java, which being fed with English texts will be able to generate word usage statisitcs (e.g. topmost frequently used words in English). For that purpose I need a ...
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4answers
1k views

Ei (egg in German) and eye; Auge (eye in German) and egg

Is it known if there was some weird flipping of [Ei (egg in German) and eye] with [Auge(eye in German) and egg] that happened historically or do you think the apparent similarities are coincidence?
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2answers
67 views

Other than Scottish rolled “r” and North American rhotacised vowels, are there any differences across “r” sounds in English dialects?

I'm wondering about subtle differences in /r/ sounds across varieties of English. By subtle I mean I want to ignore the obvious large differences such as the trilled "r" in Scottish English and the ...
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2answers
42 views

Can't understand the meaning of a sentence [closed]

I'm translating the following video from English to Russian: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sjCclg_TU0o - it's an interview with John Cusack. I can't get what's the meaning of what he said on 3:20 - ...
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3answers
82 views

Mandative construction verb form problem

A question asked on another forum concerned the use of different verb forms in the subordinate clause in the following "mandative" sentences: It's important that you do not be late It's ...
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3answers
139 views

Why are infinitive complements analysed as separate clauses?

Why is the sentence John wants to read. normally analysed as consisting of 2 clauses? (John wants, PRO to read) I understand the idea of PRO but why must to read be a completely different ...
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1answer
64 views

Size of phonemic inventory of individual speakers across different accents and dialects of English

This started out as a trivially simple question: How many phonemes are there in the different dialects and accents of English? I just needed a simple reference for a point about the teaching of ...
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0answers
32 views

Lexical density

I'm trying to work out the lexical density of a spoken text. My problem is with contractions that include a primary auxiliary verb as a main lexical verb. E.g. She's intelligent. From what I ...
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2answers
170 views

Does sample text exist that includes most sounds represented by the International Phonetic Alphabet?

My understanding of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is that it aims to provide a set of letter-based values that represent and map to fundamental sounds present in human languages. My ...
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1answer
59 views

What features distinguish the true diphthongs of English?

How are the true diphthongs of English distinguished from each other and other vowels with traditional distinctive features theory?
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1answer
100 views

How to translate a scientific term to Vietnamese?

What is the guide, in general, for translating scientific terms from English to other language? I know, of course, that we need a person who have good competence on the field containing that word. ...
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1answer
98 views

Is this tree diagram correct? [closed]

the sentence is: Lucy reported that scientists wonder if the medicine will work /Users/tcalnitsky/Desktop/assignment2.jpg
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1answer
44 views

acoustic features for english phonems

in this following paper , if we go to page no- 126 we will find a table with all acoustic features of all german Phonemes. ...
3
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1answer
75 views

why can't quotative “be like” be fronted?

Consider the following data (spoken American English): John said "I'll come." John was like "I'll come." What John said was: "I'll come." ?What John was like was: "I'll come." Does anyone have an ...
3
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3answers
101 views

What's the difference between [ɚ], [ɹ̩], and [əɹ]?

I've seen the "-er" sound in English (like in butter) transcribed in all three of the above ways, but I've heard there are subtle differences between them. What are these differences, if there are ...
2
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1answer
74 views

What is the term for pairs of words with converse meanings such as (gave<>got) and (bought<>sold)?

I'm seriously struggling to identify a name for the relationship between such words. They are transactional terms,of which there are two parts. They may even show tense. John gave me an apple. I ...
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0answers
34 views

Formal definition of English grammar

I saw on a related question some mentions of a formal grammar definition for English. It is mentioning there a definition called English Resource Grammar. Perhaps anyone here would know about loosely ...
3
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0answers
53 views

Stanford NLP parsers and idioms that have common semantic meaning

I have parsed the following sentence in the Stanford CoreNLP demo page and the Stanford parser demo page. Although both result in a parse that can imply purpose semantics (hinging on the advcl and the ...
3
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1answer
69 views

singular part of speech for multi-word units and expressions?

Part of speech assignment provides a pos to a word. In many pos systems this can occasionally produce errors due multi-word expressions of one form or another. When 'we' look at the text, we may see ...
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70 views

Did German or English form of infinitive appear first?

German and English languages have a common root but an innumerable amount of differences. One of them is how infinitive is formed. In English we have to+verb: "to stand" in German we have a verb ...
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1answer
70 views

Time annotated corpus: plain text english corpus

I am working on how entities take a new sense over time. I am trying to find out a large english corpus (free to download) which should have the time annotation of the origin of the text. I suppose ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

Is the Ampersands a Letter in the Latin Alphabet?

My understanding is that, until fairly recently, recitation of the English alphabet was often suffixed by saying "and per se and", roughly translating to "and, by itself, '&'". This suggests that ...
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3answers
150 views

Given a verb get a noun that corresponds to subject or object

I have verbs and I would like to find their corresponding noun for either subject or object. e.g. run:subject -> runner kill:subject -> killer kill:object -> dead I also would have groups of them ...
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0answers
31 views

adjective features - similar to beth Levin's verb classes?

Beth Levin published research on verb classes/alternations - is there similar for the adjective category of words? I can see references to countable/uncountable, gradable,absolute, of quantity/quality ...
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2answers
349 views

dear, ear, fear, gear, hear, near … why are bear/pear pronounced differently?

Some of you have helped me and my mum, so thank you for that. In class last week we were looking at pronunciation ... and something caught me out. Why are some words spelt very similar to multiple ...
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1answer
77 views

How can I improve my writing fluency in English? [closed]

So this is a problem I've been struggling with for quite some time now. English is a second language for me despite the fact that I've spend a lot of my childhood years in Australia (grades 1 through ...
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0answers
136 views

Are there other words that behave like “weather” in English?

I have been looking at how nouns behave with determiners and plurals and such. So things like mass, count, and collective nouns. One oddball that I have found is "weather", and I am wondering if there ...
0
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1answer
119 views

Meaning of the root “ject”

What does the root "ject" mean? It occurs in words such as "subject", "object", "project", "injection", "surjection", "bijection". As far as I know these words came to English from French and, in ...
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1answer
195 views

Where does English need a lot more effort to say the same thing than another language?

There are a few hunter gatherer languages like Pirahã that basically only have words for the numbers 'one' and 'two'. Sometimes speakers of those languages can say four by saying 'two-two' or maybe ...
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0answers
47 views

What phonetic features are commonly used in forensic speaker identification and verification?

Speaker verification is the task of estimating how likely it is that two speech recordings come from the same speaker, while speaker identification tries to match a speech recording with one of a ...
1
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1answer
59 views

What metrics can be used to rate the complexity of an english sentence?

I want to rate a sentence by its complexity in the sense of: Rating of 1: A very simple sentence which is just S+V+O, example: "I eat bananas." Rating of 10: An uterly complex sentence with lots of ...
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0answers
38 views

Is there a source that lists English Loanwords into Mandarin Chinese?

Is there a source(database, dataset, etc.) that lists English Loanwords into Mandarin Chinese?
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2answers
135 views

NP + “had better” + Infinitive V

It just occurred to me that this construction is very peculiar. Pronoun: I had better get going. NP: The cat had better be home. Expletive: There had better be food on the table. ...
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1answer
87 views

What were allophone rules for [r] in Old English and Middle English?

I gather that [r] (trill) was realized as [ɹ] in different dialects of Old English and Middle English, but when [r] was used, was it an allophone? In other words, did [r] vary predictably with [ɹ] ...
4
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1answer
159 views

How did one pronounce an 'r' in Old English?

I'm wondering how the rhotic consonant was pronounced by the ancient Anglo-Saxons. Was it pronounced as an alveolar like Modern English or more like the trill Scots use in certain words? Were there ...