A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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Are American English and British English growing closer together or drifting further apart?

I'm mostly wondering about vocabulary (e.g. truck vs. lorry; apartment vs. flat) but I suppose I'd be interested to learn about pronunciation too. Intuitively I feel like this could go either way. ...
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1answer
42 views

Relation of Persian “Ke” and English “That” [on hold]

First I should say I am not a linguist, but try to understand it to help my English. In my native language, Persian, we do much use "Ke" (که) which almost corresponds to "which, who, that" in ...
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15 views

After verbs, how does 'from' compare with 'of'?

(TL;DR) I've been plagued by the postverbal use of the preposition 'of'. After verbs, when describing attributes like origin or source, what are the differences between 'from' and 'of'? The verbs ...
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1answer
50 views

What's the etymology of 'of' after verbs?

(TL;DR) While reading about preposition of on OED (eg avail of, enquire of), I encountered OED's claim that the postverbal of originates from the genitive case, and from Old English. How can this ...
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2answers
70 views

How did “as” (in English) branch into many meanings that look unlinked?

How did as change semantically and ramify into all the meanings beneath? What underlying ideas or metaphors link them? Beneath, I chose only the broadest meanings from ODO, to see the "overall ...
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26 views

Felicity judgement for English sentence

I wanted to ask English speakers what they think of the following sentence. John left three years before Bill arrived. In fact Bill never arrived. Is this an acceptable sentence? If not, could you ...
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43 views

Etymology of “Haggard” has anything to do with Hagar in Islam?

A simple google search tells me that "Haggard" emerged in... ...mid 16th century (used in falconry): from French hagard ; perhaps related to hedge; later influenced by hag. However, on a ...
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1answer
35 views

Use of subjunctive in various languages

The subjunctive is most often used when expressing volition. Using English and Spanish as examples: The doctor recommends that you eat vegetables and fruits. El médico recomienda que comas ...
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1answer
38 views

How to parse 'in as much' and similar syntagmas?

[OED] inasmuch {adverb} = [Etymology:] originally 3 words in as much (in northern Middle English in als mikel), subsequently sometimes written as 2 words, in asmuch, and now (especially since ...
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2answers
53 views

Should common short words be left out of a concordance?

I'm writing a program which will be designed to take a text file, and parse all the words into a Concordance, e.g., a sort of dictionary list of all the words sorted in order, with a total count of ...
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1answer
44 views

If two verbs are in a row, is the first always an Auxiliary? [closed]

Consider the sentence: He has gone. This is one of the example auxiliary verb sentences from: "Radford, A. English syntax: An introduction, Cambridge University Press, 2004" has is an auxiliary ...
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27 views

How did 'of' 's figurative meanings evolve from 'away, away from'?

of (prep.) [⇐] Old English of, unstressed form of æf (prep., adv.) "away, away from" [...], from PIE *apo- "off, away" (see apo-). Primary sense in Old English still was "away," but shifted in ...
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1answer
44 views

What are the general ways adopted by most people to learn english syntax precisely?

Understanding english syntax mathematically—which demands strictness—is what I want to achieve. However, a wide range of choices I can make upon selecting a book covering related fields makes me ...
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45 views

How did 'but' evolve from Old English?

but (adv., prep.) [<--] Old English butan, buton "unless, except; without, outside," from West Germanic * be-utan, a compound of * be- "by" (see by) + * utana "out, outside; from without," ...
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1answer
37 views

linguisti analysis : help needed

I have a big problem dividing this little text into clauses using this conventional signs: ||...|| = clause | ... | = functional components/ groups [...] = embedded Prepositional phrase [[ ... ]] = ...
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33 views

How did the Old French 'vengier' produce, in its cognates, so many valencies?

avenge (v.) [←] late 14c., from Anglo-French avenger, Old French avengier, from a- "to" (see ad-) + vengier "take revenge" (Modern French venger) [continued below] revenge (v.) [←] ...
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26 views

'penance' vs 'penitence'

penance (n.) [←] late 13c., "religious discipline or self-mortification as a token of repentance and as atonement for some sin," from Anglo-French penaunce, Old French peneance (12c.), from ...
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1answer
126 views

English words with the /ɔ/ vowel sound

I'm looking for English words with the /ɔ/ vowel sound... suggestions? If folks could give me their list of open back counterparts to /o/, I would appreciate it! American English preferred but other ...
2
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6answers
130 views

Natural vs. “Forced” language learning

Would the "natural" way of learning a language (the way we learn our mother tongue) be better even for acquiring second (and third, etc.) languages? What I mean is: The "natural" way to learn a ...
3
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1answer
143 views

Etymology of 'but', from West Germanic to Old English

but (adv., prep.) [<--] Old English butan, buton "unless, except; without, outside," from West Germanic * be-utan, a compound of * be- "by" (see by) + * utana "out, outside; from ...
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38 views

Vowel-Backing in English?

Has anybody heard of vowel-backing in English? In East-Central Alabama, USA, I have observed forms such as: suckint ['sOkh Inˀ] for "second" butter ['bOD ɚ] for "better" woonda ['wUnd ә] for ...
2
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1answer
28 views

Metaphor and metonymy in proverbs

I have a question about metonymy and metaphors in English proverbs below: An apple a day, keeps doctors away. Meaning: Fruit is an important part of a healthy diet Beggars can't be choosers. ...
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1answer
33 views

Question type corpus

I'm looking for a corpus that contains questions and question types. Like in this article, but they didn't attach any link to their corpus. http://polibits.gelbukh.com/2009_40/40_01.pdf
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62 views

Why were prefixes repeated as postverbal prepositions?

French: s'abstenir de    Spanish: abstenerse de    English: abstain [from] (v.) [<--] late 14c., "to withhold oneself," from Old French abstenir (14c.), earlier astenir (13c.) "hold ...
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2answers
164 views

The verb BE as function word or content word

I'm reading a book on America accent and there's a page with exercises. Exercice: Circle the function words in the following sentences: The sky is blue. ... ... The answers are provided at the ...
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2answers
73 views

The sound /Ur/ in English

I read in a book that there is a stressed version as well as an unstressed version of the sound "ər" The stressed one usually look like "ɜr" in dictionaries: hurt /'hɜrt/ her /'hɜr/ and the ...
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1answer
57 views

What are the possible impetuses for loss of Middle English shwa?

I'm wondering what some possible catalysts/ reasons for loss of final -e /ǝ/ in Middle English might have been (For instance, OE /tɑlu/ > ME /taːlǝ/ > MnE tale /teɪl/). I'm wondering because to my ...
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3answers
67 views

Why do some scientific possessives have trailing “s” and others don't?

I debated names of scientific terms with my friend, and we both discovered that some of them have the trailing letter "s" while others don't. Here are some examples: Mobius strip, Fourier series, ...
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1answer
21 views

Did the English 'confer' evolve from the Middle French « conférer » ?

[Etymonline :] 1530s, from Middle French conférer (14c.) "to give, converse, compare," from Latin conferre "to bring together," figuratively "to compare; consult, deliberate, talk over," from com- ...
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1answer
46 views

handling ambiguity in parses

Given a sentence from http://home.uchicago.edu/~bartels/papers/Bartels-Johnson-2015-Cognition.pdf: We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two ...
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26 views

How to identify mentions in a text?

I am looking for rule-based methods or any other methods to identify all mentions in a text. I have found several libraries that give coreferences but no exact options for only mentions. What I want ...
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2answers
85 views

Is there a comprehensive list of all (or many) phonological rules (specifically allophonic) of the English language available anywhere online?

It would be very helpful to have for a programming project I'm working on involving grapheme-to-phoneme translation. I've been able to find many rules for phonemes but not too many for allophones.
2
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1answer
59 views

Which English phonemes are the easiest to distinguish from each other?

I work as a literacy tutor in a preschool and part of my job is to help students develop phonological awareness by teaching them how to identify rhymes and alliteration. To make it as easy as possible ...
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1answer
118 views

Biggest freely available English corpus?

Any help on finding the biggest freely available English corpus that can be used on research? So far I have found OANC with 15 M words.
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50 views

Proper vs. common nouns: Are there more differences, esp. in grammar, than capital letter and simpler plural?

Proper nouns in English have a capital starting letter and the plural is simpler (e.g. -y ending gets -ys instead of -ies). Are there any other differences? Especially when analysing/parsing the ...
2
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1answer
74 views

“come” in “become” (English) vs “venir” in “devenir” (French)

In both French and English, the word for become (devenir) includes the word for come (venir), even though the etymologies and words are very different. Why might this be?
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3answers
112 views

How does 'unless' mean 'or' or 'if not'? [closed]

Source: p 139, Introduction to Logic (2 ed, 2010) by Harry J. Gensler. [1.] Translate “unless” as “or.” ...     [eg: A unless B =  B unless A = Either A or B]. [2.] “Unless” is also ...
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1answer
95 views

How did 'piety = piété' and 'pity = pitié' diverge and evolve?

This Quora question motivated this. Do the Etymonline entries below imply that the connotation changed in Old French (and so even before English)? I pose the question also for the equivalent French ...
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36 views

Truth conditions of generics

What are the truth conditions for generics? Why are they (at least in English) expressed by the simple forms of verbs, and why do they always behave as statives? Are generics more fundamental ...
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1answer
69 views

In case of Derivational nouns, what is the difference between affix polysemy and affix homonymy?

For derivational nouns, if we look at various properties of affixes, I understand they exhibit both affix polysemy and affix homonymy. By polysemy I understand that the the same affix is used in ...
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25 views

'reason that' (English) vs 'reason for which' (French)

I already know of the redundancy of reason why, which I ask NOT about. Please advise if I erred, but does the following (by Prof John Lawler) support the rightness of reason that? 1. He didn't ...
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1answer
76 views

How did 'sensuality' evolve to connote lechery? Does 'sensualité'?

Is the French feminine noun sensualité asexual? The English noun is sexual. Why? I heed the Etymological Fallacy. But what are some right ways of interpreting the dchotomy, to make it feel reasonable ...
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1answer
50 views

'scorn': How can a human have horns?

I'm trying to understand both the etymology of 'scorn', (which derives from) that of the Old French 'escarn'. So I'm trying to understand both. [Etymonline for 'scorn (n.)' :] c. 1200, a ...
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2answers
140 views

Oddity with the English perfect

Consider the sentence: She is believed to be the best female golfer alive. From this the listener infers: Some people believe that she is the best female golfer alive. Now, take a look at ...
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10 views

What terms define words that may or may not be evaluative?

Source: ... How to Reason and Argue, by Prof W Sinnott-Armstrong [At the 7 min 49 s juncture of Lec 2-8, for which Coursera neglects to provide a transcription]: It may seem to be an ...
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1answer
42 views

Etmology of Old French 'entreprendre' : How did 'between' evolve into 'under' ?

enterprise (n.) early 15c., "an undertaking," formerly also enterprize, from Old French enterprise "an undertaking," noun use of fem. past participle of entreprendre "UNDERtake, take in hand" ...
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4answers
167 views

Is the English perfect really monosemous?

The perfect in English has many faces: (1) I have done my homework. (2) I had already done my homework by then. (3) If I had done my homework yesterday, I would come with you. (4) ...
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0answers
31 views

'dispose' vs 'dispose of' & « disposer » vs « disposer de »

[Source:] [D1.] dispose (v.) - (a) to arrange in order; (b) to lean toward or incline (typically used as a past participle). ... [D2.] dispose of (phrasal v.) - (a) to throw away or discard; (b) ...
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1answer
44 views

When and why did 'another' start being used as one word?

I assume the word came from a meshing together of 'other' with its indefinite article'. When (and why) did English speakers begin to use this version, instead of 'an other'? And why is it still ...
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1answer
85 views

How to trace Proto-language roots towards English and French?

TL;DR: What resources tie Proto-language roots (eg Proto-Indo-European), to English and French, especially if spelling has changed? I always heed linguistic pitfalls, but I always try to find some ...