A body of rules, features, or generalizations which reliably differentiate between grammatical and ungrammatical constructions.

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What rules govern when to use і, та, й or и in Ukrainian? [on hold]

Google translate translates і vs та vs й vs и as and vs and vs and vs and.
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31 views

accusative being used to express an origin?

I read in Plutarch (Demosthenes.1) the phrase ὑπάρξαι ‘τὰν πόλιν εὐδόκιμον‘ (~ to be born in ‘a famous city’). (τὰν πόλιν εὐδόκιμον being a quote from (pseudo-?)Euripides' ode to Alcibiades, cf ...
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13 views

What's the best way to combine systemic functional grammar and historical linguistics?

One last question, ladies and gentlemen, sorry about that. What's the best way to combine SFL/SFG and historical linguistics? I've just thought of diachronic genre analysis as being an interesting ...
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14 views

underinvestigated areas in systemic functional grammar/linguistics?

Second question, or rather a bit of a 'cluster' of questions. :-) Are there any underinvestigated areas in systemic functional grammar/linguistics? I specifically mean areas that may merit a special ...
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1answer
18 views

current state of affairs in (systemic) functional grammar/linguistics?

Based on jknappen's recommendation, I'm splitting my previous post into three separate questions. :-) Here goes the first one, then. What is the state of affairs in (systemic) functional ...
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1answer
52 views

What is the current status of (systemic) functional grammar/linguistics

I'm sorry if my questions may sound rudimentary, so please bear with me. :-) I'm thinking of delving deeper into functional grammar/linguistics (most probably systemic in particular), perhaps with ...
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3answers
87 views

What are good linguistic arguments for keeping heterographic homophones?

While having a discussion with a friend who oft malapropriates their/there/they're, and to/too/two, he maintains the position that he has a: "disbelief that the current system is the best one" ...
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94 views

What is to verbs as pronouns are to nouns?

"Mr. Hemmingway, do you write books?" "I do." "Did Mr. Hemmingway write this book?" "He did." Just as the pronoun "he" or "I" stands in place of the noun "Mr. Hemmingway", so the verb "do" or "did" ...
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17 views

Whereto learn Athabascan grammar

I want to try and understand Athabascan grammar, but I don't know very much about it, and, because of this I also don't know what kind of athabascan language I want to learn. I have looked on ...
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3answers
325 views

Is “sentence” a useful and/or clearly-defined term in linguistics

Further to comments against Do complex sentences always need a conjunction? as recently asked on ELU (and Complex sentence without a subordinating conjunction? here on Linguistics), I'd like to know ...
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38 views

Does corpus linguistics research confirm/disconfirm Bolinger principle?

I remember learning about Bolinger's principle (basically, when there is a verb complement situation like "I like [verb complement]" or "I want to [verb complement]", gerunds are preferred to express ...
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230 views

The verb BE as function word or content word

I'm reading a book on America accent and there's a page with exercises. Exercice: Circle the function words in the following sentences: The sky is blue. ... ... The answers are provided at the ...
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1answer
73 views

How many gaps should a sentence have to be solvable but not too easy?

At the moment I am coding an automatic cloze generator on Text on the following way: Use a summarizer to find relevant sentences in a text based on frequency Use Pos Tagging on the remaining ...
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0answers
40 views

Classical Greek vs. Colwell's Rule vs. Subset Proposition [closed]

Question: In Classical Greek, how is identification of Subject / Predicate Nominatives, (and Definite-ness), accomplished in constructs consisting of "Untagged/Anarthrous Nominatives w/tagged ...
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3answers
70 views

Why do some scientific possessives have trailing “s” and others don't?

I debated names of scientific terms with my friend, and we both discovered that some of them have the trailing letter "s" while others don't. Here are some examples: Mobius strip, Fourier series, ...
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54 views

Ek gaan or Ek sal [closed]

I know 'Ek sal' means I will. Does Ek gaan mean I will too? Ek gaan dit beslis nie so aanvaar nie en ek is besig om regshulp in te win.
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51 views

Proper vs. common nouns: Are there more differences, esp. in grammar, than capital letter and simpler plural?

Proper nouns in English have a capital starting letter and the plural is simpler (e.g. -y ending gets -ys instead of -ies). Are there any other differences? Especially when analysing/parsing the ...
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0answers
28 views

'reason that' (English) vs 'reason for which' (French)

I already know of the redundancy of reason why, which I ask NOT about. Please advise if I erred, but does the following (by Prof John Lawler) support the rightness of reason that? 1. He didn't ...
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2answers
184 views

How similar are Spanish and French?

I know that Spanish and French both belong to the Romance branch and they are very alike. But what I want to make clear is that how similar they are. I mean that if I have mastered one of them, how ...
3
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0answers
51 views

Inside-outside algorithm (PCFG learning) and binarization

I am implementing the Inside-outside algorithm to estimate the parameters of a PCFG based on the train corpus. One observation (on existing implementations) is that, the grammar is converted into ...
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1answer
60 views

Opinions on Principles and Parameters Theory [closed]

I'm curious about your opinions on Principles and Parameters Theory. Do you consider it possible or rather you think that it is impossible that our grammar was structured that way. I appreciate any ...
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2answers
61 views

Why are there presuppositions?

I am working with these two sentences: 1. Alex stopped playing the piano. What I concluded is that the sentence presupposes that Alex had previously played the piano. But why does the presupposition ...
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3answers
109 views

“They told me that” which one is the direct and indirect object?

In the sentence "They told me that" or "They told me so" OR even much better sentence from one of the provisional answer "She taught me Spanish" Which one is the direct object? (My guess is "that" ...
3
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1answer
138 views

Why is the misconception that “Chinese has no grammar” so widespread?

Of course, Chinese indeed has its own grammar. But I had heard the claim many times, even from some native Chinese speakers. How did this misconception arise? Why even some native Chinese speakers ...
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2answers
134 views

Сoncept of an attribute usesd by Russian grammarians

Note: This is cross-posted on ELL.se at Сoncept of an attribute used by Russian grammarians. I need to know all the attributes in theese sentences and how they are expressed.The problem is that ...
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3answers
115 views

What' s the hardest language to learn? [closed]

What's the hardest language to learn???
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3answers
249 views

What is the relationship between lambda calculus and logical form?

I was first introduced to lambda calculus as a way to use syntax to compose the semantic value of a phrase from the semantic values of the components of that phrase. Lambda calculus does more than ...
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2answers
144 views

How to represent a dative verb in first order logic?

I understand that the representation of an intransitive verb, V in lambda calculus would be lambda x. V(x), where x is the subject. How do I represent an intransitive verb followed by a ...
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1answer
75 views

Term for when sentences (or parts) are combined with “this means”, “meaning”, “that shows”, etc.?

Often sentences or parts of sentences are combined with verbs or pronoun + verb. However, they don't describe something of the content of the text, they just help to bring the parts or sentences in ...
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47 views

How do PCFG parsers actually work?

I'm new to NLP. I have a few doubts about PCFG parser (NLTK). My understanding is that PCFG parser will return most probable parse tree. So if I'm parsing one sentence with PCFG parser, I'll be ...
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2answers
81 views

Where can I find formal grammars?

Where can I find formal grammars? By 'formal grammar' I mean 'a mathematically precise set of rules that generate all (or at least a significant portion of) the grammatical sentences of a language.' ...
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2answers
72 views

Trying to understand why adjectives do not refer

[Question rewritten and retitled, now that I have a better understanding of what I didn't understand, due to comments] This is probably information I could find on the Internet elsewhere, but I am ...
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6answers
308 views

Which comes first? Grammar or language?

I always have the impression grammar is just a tool to help studying and learning a language, i.e. it is a scientific tool invented for a language after the language has existed. But to think of it ...
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1answer
55 views

Are Spanish “que” clauses following “parece” complements or postponed subjects?

The Spanish equivalent of It seems that they hate each other is Parece que se odian. In both languages seem/parecer are one-place predicates (well, both can optionally accept a second argument with ...
2
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1answer
223 views

How can a Language or a Dialect be incorrect or inferior than some other one?

The question is that can one say that a Language or a Dialect is grammatically incorrect? What if I say, Sanskrit is grammatically incorrect modern Hindi This doesn't make sense. We cannot ...
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2answers
92 views

Is the use of abbreviation and ellipsis as codified as the basic syntax of a language?

I had a style discussion on another SE site. Part of the discussion boiled down to whether the following sentence is appropriate: It was a bird. It had a black head and wings with a golden ...
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65 views

What are the most promising research directions for natural language generation?

I have just discovered Natural Language Generation, which seems like a very interesting field. The idea of taking something like highly-structured database records and transforming them into natural ...
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0answers
46 views

Is there an order of difficulty for MSA?

Has an order of grammatical difficulty for Modern Standard Arabic been discovered (or proposed) similar to that found for L2 learners of English?
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37 views

Is the social relationship between listener and referent grammatically realized in japanese or korean?

I know that the social relationship between speaker, listener and referent are grammatically realized in japanese and korean. I know there are different levels for the relation between ...
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1answer
56 views

Which languages marks grammatically for social relationships?

Which languages apart from Japanese, Korean and Javanese encode systematically the relationships between speaker, hearer and referent by means of grammar markers and special sets of vocabulary?
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5answers
409 views

English grammar: is it possible to automatically verify correctness

Is it possible to verify if sentence is grammatically correct automatically. E.g. for sentence Lemon yellow. verb (predicate) is missing or for sentence If it will rain, we will not go ...
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2answers
86 views

Book suggestions for linguistics for Computer Science people

I am asked to do some NLP tasks on a language which is agglutinative. I am finding these terms difficult to understand since my background is different. I am looking for some nice books that give a ...
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147 views

Why did English change so rapidly between the late 1600s and the early 1700s?

I am currently reading the King James Version of the Bible and am slowly getting used to the text-—English is my second language. I then wondered with what ease would I be able to understand the ...
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1answer
5k views

Drawing tree diagrams of ambiguous sentences generated by a CFG

Suppose I have the following CFG rules: S -> NP VP NP -> (D) NOM VP -> V (NP) (NP) NOM -> N NOM -> NOM PP VP -> VP PP PP -> P NP X -> X+ CONJ X How should I draw the tree ...
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3answers
168 views

What are some grammatical features found only in modern languages?

By modern language I mean a language spoken since less than two thousands years. By grammatical feature I mean for example passive voice, which doesn't exist in PIE but is found in its descendants
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1answer
77 views

Is a sentence, composed of mainclause and subclause, represented by one or two syntax-trees?

I read, that one sentence can have different syntax-trees what is considered a phrase is dependent on the grammar used there are a lot of grammars, basically divided into two groups: ...
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136 views

How many different syntax patterns exist in standard English ?

My command of the English language is quiet poor, I write by my feeling, and each sentence is just another chain element left behind not knowing how many Errors are within it. The feeling comes close ...
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1answer
106 views

Why do time adverbials like “yesterday” have a different distribution than adverbials like “always?”

Consider these two sentences below, which employ some kind of temporal adverbial / adjunct. (I) Yesterday John won the Turkey Raffle. (II) John always wins the Turkey Raffle. My question is, why ...
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8answers
298 views

What's the use of Grammar?

There's a question that bothered me for a long time when I am learning another language. English is not my first language, so when I was being taught, they told me all these grammars like like the ...
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0answers
43 views

Which grammar framework the terms “predicate/ complement/ adjunct” belong to?

From wiki, there're a number of grammar frameworks. Which framework the terms "predicate/ complement/ adjunct" belong to?