A body of rules, features, or generalizations which reliably differentiate between grammatical and ungrammatical constructions.

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47 views

How is category theory applied in linguistics?

I am learning monoidal category applied in quantum information and quantum field theory, and several references say that monoidal category is somehow related to linguistics via Hopf algebra of quantum ...
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96 views

Besides logics, what mathematical tools are used in the study of linguistics?

I learned of connections between linguistics and category theory when I'm learning the application of category theory in quantum field theory. Being aware that axiomatic set theory (logics) is ...
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3answers
109 views

Has English caused any Languages to undergo Sound Change or Grammar Change?

French historically has caused the presence of several unique sounds in English that would not have been present otherwise. For example the "dʒ" sound in "garage". Similarly, I believe I've read ...
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13 views

Is “there's a myriad of combinations” grammatically acceptable? [migrated]

(I don't know if this is the right place to ask this; if it's not please let me know.) So I'm a PA & I’ve been having an argument with my boss over the following: I was under the impression that ...
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3answers
130 views

What part of speech is “as their native”?

In the sentence: The number of people who speak English as their native language will decline. what part of speech is as their native?
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1answer
95 views

What do you call a verb that requires another verb?

I know that verbs are sometimes called "transitive" and I think that means the can take a direct object. I'm learning Mandarin and there seems to be some verbs that can only take other verbs. For ...
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1answer
113 views

Giving grammar without useless symbols / ε-productions

I hope some people here are firm with computational linguistics, since I couldn't find any question here about this topic yet. Question 1 As the title says, I'm trying to give an equivalent ...
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1answer
42 views

Analytic grammar and characters in Chinese

Is there any relationship (either one implies the other, for example) between the usage of characters and analytic grammar. By analytic grammar I mostly refer to the lack of conjugations, and hence ...
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2answers
186 views

“used to” for past habitual: analysis

I teach ESL at the adult level. I am trying to analyze "used to" for past habitual, as in: My car used to malfunction a lot. Is "used to" an adverb-phrase meaning something like 'for a long time ...
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4answers
105 views

Languages that have morphological distinction between independent clauses with implicit subjects and independent clauses with explicit subjects?

Many languages permit an independent clause to lack an explicit subject (known as null-subject languages). Consider the following sentences taken from Spanish. Tú eres mi amiga. (You are my friend). ...
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48 views

Must subjectless infinitives exhibit subject control when used as complements(traditionally direct objects) of other verbs?

In English, the answer will be yes in most cases, but one thesis cast doubt on this. The author provided an example taken from BNC: My mother helped [PRO] to cater for the funeral tea, which were ...
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2answers
101 views

What decides the language family of a language the most structure/grammar or the vocabulary?

My assumed premise: Indo-European language classification is broad. We can always find two languages of this family which are grammatically so different, and also the languages grammatically similar. ...
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1answer
65 views

Are all grammar formalisms either dependency or constituency grammars?

Can a grammar formalism be something that's neither a dependency grammar nor a constituency grammar?
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40 views

Tenses/Voices that show whether something is finite or not

Are there any languages which have a tense or voice that shows whether something is finite. For this example only I will indicate in the present tense that something is finitely true by adding an "-...
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0answers
73 views

What is the process to form nouns from Phoenician verbs?

What is the process to form nouns from Phoenician verbs? I would like to find a nominal form of the Phoenician verb "𐤍𐤑𐤓" (nun-tsade-resh, spelled left-to-right) ("NṠR"/"naṡar") (corresponding to ...
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0answers
57 views

Conditional IF vs. non-conditional IF

Using regular expressions, I'm trying to detect conditional clauses in sentences. In cases where the sentences starts with the conditional clause and the comma is correctly present (e.g., "If I see a ...
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1answer
71 views

Does Swedish always had common and neuter genders?

Exactly as stated in the title. I wonder if it always been that way or it is some modern concept to enforce gender equality?
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1answer
166 views

How can PSG describe the vertical dimension of sentence structure? [closed]

PSG (phrase structure grammar) describes the horizontal dimension of sentence structure with strings, sequences of sentence parts, in a way we are all familiar with. We know that nominal expressions, ...
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39 views

What is the subject of the sentence?

My colleagues and I differ on what the subject is in the following sentence. About 500 cm3 of the Herschelite was hydrated at 80% RH. I think "500 cm3" is the subject of the sentence that governs ...
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58 views

If we disregard future tense for English, under which circumstances we could not?

Some linguists claim that English doesn't have a future tense, and some do for German as well. This opinion was voiced out here as well,as an answer to What is the present tense expressing future?. I ...
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1answer
40 views

What's a good source to say if a word is masculine or feminine in Sanskrit?

I trying to write a few verses and knowing the gender might change the meaning. A good source to Sanskrit grammar would also be accepted!
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1answer
112 views

Most regular and irregular languages

I would like to know which natural languages are grammatically the most regular and irregular. There are several titbit articles on the web but none are definitive or explanatory. By regular, I want ...
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4answers
206 views

What are the state-of-the-art English syntax theories there are that can explain all the English syntax phenomena?

Both Dependency Grammar (DG) and Constituency Grammar (CG) are a tool to describe the syntax of any natural language in general. The language whose syntax is to be described in DG or CG doesn't have ...
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2answers
102 views

Will my child learn incorrect grammar from me?

I'm not a native English speaker so my grammar isn't perfect. I make some of mistakes especially when I'm speaking fast. I would like my child to have the cognitive advantage that comes from being ...
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1answer
88 views

Can we form a statement in english with verb without noun

I am working on NLP project, I saw during processing of large number of documents that there is always a noun either before or after a verb and both are strongly related. I just need to verify my ...
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1answer
66 views

How should I organize my grammar?

So I'm doing a grammar for my conlang (constructed language). My conlang is a very verb-heavy/polysynthetic language. E.g. subordinate clauses are marked on the verb. To create a conditional clause -...
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1answer
33 views

Asking for analysis of sentences [closed]

Could you tell me what the difference nominal WH clause and nominal relative clause is ? For example, nominal WH clause : no one knows what caused the accident. Nominal Relative clause: You call ...
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2answers
60 views

Difference between grammar and syntax? [duplicate]

Is grammar the way words are formed and the way "correct English" is achieved and syntax just sentence types? And does grammar rule over syntax i.e. do we need correct grammar to create a sentence ...
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1answer
56 views

Could anyone explain this grammar question for me? [closed]

According to the grammar rule i have learned up to now, in Arabic people use the feminine form of adjective to describe plural noun (more than two).For instance,دفاتر كشيرة(many books),here we use ...
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3answers
91 views

Treatment of or collective term for constructions with no*, some*, any*, every*

Many languages have a little subsystem that uses a combination of particles of no*, some*, any*, every* or similar to create related question and negation words. This is what the system roughly ...
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1answer
79 views

Logic disambiguation in composed sentences with negative predicates and “or” conjunction

Today, I've attended a psychological test for the master thesis of a friend of mine. The target is children and adults. So don't scare if you see in the following lines that I speak about animals. I ...
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72 views

Does standardisation restrain naturally occurring grammar change?

Is change hindered by mass education of grammar rules and idiomatic writing, publishing of lexicons, standardization, etc? Is the only manner in which english is allowed to evolve, as things stand ...
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2answers
116 views

Heads, classifiers

I'm really struggling to 'get' two things on my linguistics course right now, which is heads of phrases and classifiers. I understand that a head determines the nature of a phrase, but I just can't ...
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1answer
131 views

Suffix -sk[a/i] for adjectives derrived from nations in Nordic and some Slavic languages

I was wondering about the ending -sk(+ optionally an additional vowel) used to create adjectives from names of the nations in Nordic (at least Danish and Swedish) as well as some Slavic languages (at ...
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1answer
42 views

context free grammar ressource

I am looking for a large...ish context free grammar, preferably in flat format (so no XML for example). The language does not matter. Whether it has features or not doesn't matter either. Can you ...
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2answers
43 views

accusative being used to express an origin?

I read in Plutarch (Demosthenes.1) the phrase ὑπάρξαι ‘τὰν πόλιν εὐδόκιμον‘ (~ to be born in ‘a famous city’). (τὰν πόλιν εὐδόκιμον being a quote from (pseudo-?)Euripides' ode to Alcibiades, cf ...
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3answers
110 views

What are good linguistic arguments for keeping heterographic homophones?

While having a discussion with a friend who oft malapropriates their/there/they're, and to/too/two, he maintains the position that he has a: "disbelief that the current system is the best one" ...
4
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1answer
105 views

What is to verbs as pronouns are to nouns?

"Mr. Hemmingway, do you write books?" "I do." "Did Mr. Hemmingway write this book?" "He did." Just as the pronoun "he" or "I" stands in place of the noun "Mr. Hemmingway", so the verb "do" or "did" ...
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1answer
45 views

Where to learn Athabascan grammar?

I want to try and understand Athabascan grammar, but I don't know very much about it, and, because of this I also don't know what kind of Athabasca language I want to learn. I have looked on Wikipedia ...
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368 views

Is “sentence” a useful and/or clearly-defined term in linguistics

Further to comments against Do complex sentences always need a conjunction? as recently asked on ELU (and Complex sentence without a subordinating conjunction? here on Linguistics), I'd like to know ...
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55 views

Does corpus linguistics research confirm/disconfirm Bolinger principle?

I remember learning about Bolinger's principle (basically, when there is a verb complement situation like "I like [verb complement]" or "I want to [verb complement]", gerunds are preferred to express ...
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2answers
728 views

The verb BE as function word or content word

I'm reading a book on America accent and there's a page with exercises. Exercice: Circle the function words in the following sentences: The sky is blue. ... ... The answers are provided at the ...
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1answer
93 views

How many gaps should a sentence have to be solvable but not too easy?

At the moment I am coding an automatic cloze generator on Text on the following way: Use a summarizer to find relevant sentences in a text based on frequency Use Pos Tagging on the remaining ...
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0answers
67 views

Classical Greek vs. Colwell's Rule vs. Subset Proposition [closed]

Question: In Classical Greek, how is identification of Subject / Predicate Nominatives, (and Definite-ness), accomplished in constructs consisting of "Untagged/Anarthrous Nominatives w/tagged ...
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3answers
82 views

Why do some scientific possessives have trailing “s” and others don't?

I debated names of scientific terms with my friend, and we both discovered that some of them have the trailing letter "s" while others don't. Here are some examples: Mobius strip, Fourier series, ...
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1answer
67 views

Ek gaan or Ek sal [closed]

I know 'Ek sal' means I will. Does Ek gaan mean I will too? Ek gaan dit beslis nie so aanvaar nie en ek is besig om regshulp in te win.
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69 views

Proper vs. common nouns: Are there more differences, esp. in grammar, than capital letter and simpler plural?

Proper nouns in English have a capital starting letter and the plural is simpler (e.g. -y ending gets -ys instead of -ies). Are there any other differences? Especially when analysing/parsing the ...
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58 views

'reason that' (English) vs 'reason for which' (French)

I already know of the redundancy of reason why, which I ask NOT about. Please advise if I erred, but does the following (by Prof John Lawler) support the rightness of reason that? 1. He didn't ...
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3k views

How similar are Spanish and French?

I know that Spanish and French both belong to the Romance branch and they are very alike. But what I want to make clear is that how similar they are. I mean that if I have mastered one of them, how ...
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92 views

Inside-outside algorithm (PCFG learning) and binarization

I am implementing the Inside-outside algorithm to estimate the parameters of a PCFG based on the train corpus. One observation (on existing implementations) is that, the grammar is converted into ...