A body of rules, features, or generalizations which reliably differentiate between grammatical and ungrammatical constructions.

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-3
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0answers
43 views

Did I write this gramatically correct? [closed]

I am interested in applying to the opening of .....
0
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0answers
45 views

What's the linguistic term for the process of turning a noun to article+[measure word]+noun?

What's the linguistic term for the process of turning a to ' + [measure word] + ' (<> indicates necessary element, and [] optional) in general? What I mean is for example English: apple -> an ...
0
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0answers
12 views

Why do they say 'un día domingo' in Spanish? [migrated]

Is there a technical linguistic term for this? It seems unusual to use two nouns, 'day', and 'Saturday', back to back. Where can I learn more about this?
1
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4answers
175 views

What are the state-of-the-art English syntax theories there are that can explain all the English syntax phenomena?

Both Dependency Grammar (DG) and Constituency Grammar (CG) are a tool to describe the syntax of any natural language in general. The language whose syntax is to be described in DG or CG doesn't have ...
4
votes
2answers
92 views

Will my child learn incorrect grammar from me?

I'm not a native English speaker so my grammar isn't perfect. I make some of mistakes especially when I'm speaking fast. I would like my child to have the cognitive advantage that comes from being ...
1
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1answer
19 views

So in need for help in bracketing [closed]

Please tell me if my bracketing and clause pattern are correct. 1- [ To walk in the superstitions [ is nice ] (SVC). 2- [ She looked cheerful ] [ when she met her husband ] (SVC). 3- [ That John ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

Can we form a statement in english with verb without noun

I am working on NLP project, I saw during processing of large number of documents that there is always a noun either before or after a verb and both are strongly related. I just need to verify my ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

How should I organize my grammar?

So I'm doing a grammar for my conlang (constructed language). My conlang is a very verb-heavy/polysynthetic language. E.g. subordinate clauses are marked on the verb. To create a conditional clause ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Asking for analysis of sentences [closed]

Could you tell me what the difference nominal WH clause and nominal relative clause is ? For example, nominal WH clause : no one knows what caused the accident. Nominal Relative clause: You call ...
0
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2answers
46 views

Difference between grammar and syntax? [duplicate]

Is grammar the way words are formed and the way "correct English" is achieved and syntax just sentence types? And does grammar rule over syntax i.e. do we need correct grammar to create a sentence ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Could anyone explain this grammar question for me? [closed]

According to the grammar rule i have learned up to now, in Arabic people use the feminine form of adjective to describe plural noun (more than two).For instance,دفاتر كشيرة(many books),here we use ...
5
votes
1answer
95 views

Why the grammatical difference between “eu gosto” in Portuguese and “me gusta” in Spanish. What's the historical evolution of this expression?

Apparently, "eu" is the subject in "eu gosto (de isso)" while "me" is the object in "me gusta (algo)". Why such a difference between two languages? What's the historical evolution of this expression?
4
votes
2answers
76 views

Treatment of or collective term for constructions with no*, some*, any*, every*

Many languages have a little subsystem that uses a combination of particles of no*, some*, any*, every* or similar to create related question and negation words. This is what the system roughly ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Logic disambiguation in composed sentences with negative predicates and “or” conjunction

Today, I've attended a psychological test for the master thesis of a friend of mine. The target is children and adults. So don't scare if you see in the following lines that I speak about animals. I ...
5
votes
2answers
63 views

Does standardisation restrain naturally occurring grammar change?

Is change hindered by mass education of grammar rules and idiomatic writing, publishing of lexicons, standardization, etc? Is the only manner in which english is allowed to evolve, as things stand ...
1
vote
2answers
93 views

Heads, classifiers

I'm really struggling to 'get' two things on my linguistics course right now, which is heads of phrases and classifiers. I understand that a head determines the nature of a phrase, but I just can't ...
4
votes
1answer
102 views

Suffix -sk[a/i] for adjectives derrived from nations in Nordic and some Slavic languages

I was wondering about the ending -sk(+ optionally an additional vowel) used to create adjectives from names of the nations in Nordic (at least Danish and Swedish) as well as some Slavic languages (at ...
-1
votes
1answer
41 views

context free grammar ressource

I am looking for a large...ish context free grammar, preferably in flat format (so no XML for example). The language does not matter. Whether it has features or not doesn't matter either. Can you ...
2
votes
2answers
43 views

accusative being used to express an origin?

I read in Plutarch (Demosthenes.1) the phrase ὑπάρξαι ‘τὰν πόλιν εὐδόκιμον‘ (~ to be born in ‘a famous city’). (τὰν πόλιν εὐδόκιμον being a quote from (pseudo-?)Euripides' ode to Alcibiades, cf ...
1
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0answers
14 views

What's the best way to combine systemic functional grammar and historical linguistics?

One last question, ladies and gentlemen, sorry about that. What's the best way to combine SFL/SFG and historical linguistics? I've just thought of diachronic genre analysis as being an interesting ...
1
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0answers
18 views

underinvestigated areas in systemic functional grammar/linguistics?

Second question, or rather a bit of a 'cluster' of questions. :-) Are there any underinvestigated areas in systemic functional grammar/linguistics? I specifically mean areas that may merit a special ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

current state of affairs in (systemic) functional grammar/linguistics?

Based on jknappen's recommendation, I'm splitting my previous post into three separate questions. :-) Here goes the first one, then. What is the state of affairs in (systemic) functional ...
2
votes
1answer
120 views

What is the current status of (systemic) functional grammar/linguistics

I'm sorry if my questions may sound rudimentary, so please bear with me. :-) I'm thinking of delving deeper into functional grammar/linguistics (most probably systemic in particular), perhaps with ...
3
votes
3answers
106 views

What are good linguistic arguments for keeping heterographic homophones?

While having a discussion with a friend who oft malapropriates their/there/they're, and to/too/two, he maintains the position that he has a: "disbelief that the current system is the best one" ...
4
votes
1answer
98 views

What is to verbs as pronouns are to nouns?

"Mr. Hemmingway, do you write books?" "I do." "Did Mr. Hemmingway write this book?" "He did." Just as the pronoun "he" or "I" stands in place of the noun "Mr. Hemmingway", so the verb "do" or "did" ...
0
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1answer
40 views

Where to learn Athabascan grammar?

I want to try and understand Athabascan grammar, but I don't know very much about it, and, because of this I also don't know what kind of Athabasca language I want to learn. I have looked on Wikipedia ...
9
votes
3answers
357 views

Is “sentence” a useful and/or clearly-defined term in linguistics

Further to comments against Do complex sentences always need a conjunction? as recently asked on ELU (and Complex sentence without a subordinating conjunction? here on Linguistics), I'd like to know ...
1
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0answers
45 views

Does corpus linguistics research confirm/disconfirm Bolinger principle?

I remember learning about Bolinger's principle (basically, when there is a verb complement situation like "I like [verb complement]" or "I want to [verb complement]", gerunds are preferred to express ...
1
vote
2answers
599 views

The verb BE as function word or content word

I'm reading a book on America accent and there's a page with exercises. Exercice: Circle the function words in the following sentences: The sky is blue. ... ... The answers are provided at the ...
2
votes
1answer
88 views

How many gaps should a sentence have to be solvable but not too easy?

At the moment I am coding an automatic cloze generator on Text on the following way: Use a summarizer to find relevant sentences in a text based on frequency Use Pos Tagging on the remaining ...
1
vote
0answers
57 views

Classical Greek vs. Colwell's Rule vs. Subset Proposition [closed]

Question: In Classical Greek, how is identification of Subject / Predicate Nominatives, (and Definite-ness), accomplished in constructs consisting of "Untagged/Anarthrous Nominatives w/tagged ...
1
vote
3answers
77 views

Why do some scientific possessives have trailing “s” and others don't?

I debated names of scientific terms with my friend, and we both discovered that some of them have the trailing letter "s" while others don't. Here are some examples: Mobius strip, Fourier series, ...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

Ek gaan or Ek sal [closed]

I know 'Ek sal' means I will. Does Ek gaan mean I will too? Ek gaan dit beslis nie so aanvaar nie en ek is besig om regshulp in te win.
0
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0answers
61 views

Proper vs. common nouns: Are there more differences, esp. in grammar, than capital letter and simpler plural?

Proper nouns in English have a capital starting letter and the plural is simpler (e.g. -y ending gets -ys instead of -ies). Are there any other differences? Especially when analysing/parsing the ...
1
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0answers
42 views

'reason that' (English) vs 'reason for which' (French)

I already know of the redundancy of reason why, which I ask NOT about. Please advise if I erred, but does the following (by Prof John Lawler) support the rightness of reason that? 1. He didn't ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

How similar are Spanish and French?

I know that Spanish and French both belong to the Romance branch and they are very alike. But what I want to make clear is that how similar they are. I mean that if I have mastered one of them, how ...
3
votes
0answers
69 views

Inside-outside algorithm (PCFG learning) and binarization

I am implementing the Inside-outside algorithm to estimate the parameters of a PCFG based on the train corpus. One observation (on existing implementations) is that, the grammar is converted into ...
0
votes
1answer
99 views

Opinions on Principles and Parameters Theory [closed]

I'm curious about your opinions on Principles and Parameters Theory. Do you consider it possible or rather you think that it is impossible that our grammar was structured that way. I appreciate any ...
1
vote
2answers
72 views

Why are there presuppositions?

I am working with these two sentences: 1. Alex stopped playing the piano. What I concluded is that the sentence presupposes that Alex had previously played the piano. But why does the presupposition ...
0
votes
3answers
125 views

“They told me that” which one is the direct and indirect object?

In the sentence "They told me that" or "They told me so" OR even much better sentence from one of the provisional answer "She taught me Spanish" Which one is the direct object? (My guess is "that" ...
3
votes
1answer
177 views

Why is the misconception that “Chinese has no grammar” so widespread?

Of course, Chinese indeed has its own grammar. But I had heard the claim many times, even from some native Chinese speakers. How did this misconception arise? Why even some native Chinese speakers ...
1
vote
2answers
160 views

Сoncept of an attribute usesd by Russian grammarians

Note: This is cross-posted on ELL.se at Сoncept of an attribute used by Russian grammarians. I need to know all the attributes in theese sentences and how they are expressed.The problem is that ...
0
votes
3answers
161 views

What' s the hardest language to learn? [closed]

What's the hardest language to learn???
1
vote
3answers
353 views

What is the relationship between lambda calculus and logical form?

I was first introduced to lambda calculus as a way to use syntax to compose the semantic value of a phrase from the semantic values of the components of that phrase. Lambda calculus does more than ...
0
votes
2answers
153 views

How to represent a dative verb in first order logic?

I understand that the representation of an intransitive verb, V in lambda calculus would be lambda x. V(x), where x is the subject. How do I represent an intransitive verb followed by a ...
0
votes
1answer
77 views

Term for when sentences (or parts) are combined with “this means”, “meaning”, “that shows”, etc.?

Often sentences or parts of sentences are combined with verbs or pronoun + verb. However, they don't describe something of the content of the text, they just help to bring the parts or sentences in ...
1
vote
0answers
86 views

How do PCFG parsers actually work?

I'm new to NLP. I have a few doubts about PCFG parser (NLTK). My understanding is that PCFG parser will return most probable parse tree. So if I'm parsing one sentence with PCFG parser, I'll be ...
0
votes
2answers
89 views

Where can I find formal grammars?

Where can I find formal grammars? By 'formal grammar' I mean 'a mathematically precise set of rules that generate all (or at least a significant portion of) the grammatical sentences of a language.' ...
-1
votes
2answers
73 views

Trying to understand why adjectives do not refer

[Question rewritten and retitled, now that I have a better understanding of what I didn't understand, due to comments] This is probably information I could find on the Internet elsewhere, but I am ...
3
votes
6answers
709 views

Which comes first? Grammar or language?

I always have the impression grammar is just a tool to help studying and learning a language, i.e. it is a scientific tool invented for a language after the language has existed. But to think of it ...