A body of rules, features, or generalizations which reliably differentiate between grammatical and ungrammatical constructions.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

2
votes
4answers
21 views

Which comes first? Grammar or language?

I always have the impression grammar is just a tool to help studying and learning a language, i.e. it is a scientific tool invented for a language after the language has existed. But to think of it ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

Are Spanish “que” clauses following “parece” complements or postponed subjects?

The Spanish equivalent of It seems that they hate each other is Parece que se odian. In both languages seem/parecer are one-place predicates (well, both can optionally accept a second argument with ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

How can a Language or a Dialect be incorrect or inferior than some other one?

The question is that can one say that a Language or a Dialect is grammatically incorrect? What if I say, Sanskrit is grammatically incorrect modern Hindi This doesn't make sense. We cannot ...
0
votes
2answers
70 views

Is the use of abbreviation and ellipsis as codified as the basic syntax of a language?

I had a style discussion on another SE site. Part of the discussion boiled down to whether the following sentence is appropriate: It was a bird. It had a black head and wings with a golden ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

What are the most promising research directions for natural language generation?

I have just discovered Natural Language Generation, which seems like a very interesting field. The idea of taking something like highly-structured database records and transforming them into natural ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Is there an order of difficulty for MSA?

Has an order of grammatical difficulty for Modern Standard Arabic been discovered (or proposed) similar to that found for L2 learners of English?
0
votes
0answers
25 views

What are the subsets of japanese and korean particles?

Postpositions and case-markers are subsets of particles in Japanese and Korean. What is the full list of subsets?
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Is the social relationship between listener and referent grammatically realized in japanese or korean?

I know that the social relationship between speaker, listener and referent are grammatically realized in japanese and korean. I know there are different levels for the relation between ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Which languages marks grammatically for social relationships?

Which languages apart from Japanese, Korean and Javanese encode systematically the relationships between speaker, hearer and referent by means of grammar markers and special sets of vocabulary?
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Which personal pronouns take dependent clause and which personal pronouns don't take [migrated]

Note from The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language - (Page no. 507) i. It is I [who am at fault]. ii. It is me [who is at fault]. Example [i] follows the general rules for ...
1
vote
5answers
220 views

English grammar: is it possible to automatically verify correctness

Is it possible to verify if sentence is grammatically correct automatically. E.g. for sentence Lemon yellow. verb (predicate) is missing or for sentence If it will rain, we will not go ...
0
votes
2answers
68 views

Book suggestions for linguistics for Computer Science people

I am asked to do some NLP tasks on a language which is agglutinative. I am finding these terms difficult to understand since my background is different. I am looking for some nice books that give a ...
3
votes
0answers
100 views

Why did English change so rapidly between the late 1600s and the early 1700s?

I am currently reading the King James Version of the Bible and am slowly getting used to the text-—English is my second language. I then wondered with what ease would I be able to understand the ...
1
vote
1answer
258 views

Drawing tree diagrams of ambiguous sentences generated by a CFG

Suppose I have the following CFG rules: S -> NP VP NP -> (D) NOM VP -> V (NP) (NP) NOM -> N NOM -> NOM PP VP -> VP PP PP -> P NP X -> X+ CONJ X How should I draw the tree ...
2
votes
3answers
128 views

What are some grammatical features found only in modern languages?

By modern language I mean a language spoken since less than two thousands years. By grammatical feature I mean for example passive voice, which doesn't exist in PIE but is found in its descendants
0
votes
1answer
52 views

Is a sentence, composed of mainclause and subclause, represented by one or two syntax-trees?

I read, that one sentence can have different syntax-trees what is considered a phrase is dependent on the grammar used there are a lot of grammars, basically divided into two groups: ...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

How many different syntax patterns exist in standard English ?

My command of the English language is quiet poor, I write by my feeling, and each sentence is just another chain element left behind not knowing how many Errors are within it. The feeling comes close ...
2
votes
1answer
105 views

Why do time adverbials like “yesterday” have a different distribution than adverbials like “always?”

Consider these two sentences below, which employ some kind of temporal adverbial / adjunct. (I) Yesterday John won the Turkey Raffle. (II) John always wins the Turkey Raffle. My question is, why ...
3
votes
8answers
254 views

What's the use of Grammar?

There's a question that bothered me for a long time when I am learning another language. English is not my first language, so when I was being taught, they told me all these grammars like like the ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

Which grammar framework the terms “predicate/ complement/ adjunct” belong to?

From wiki, there're a number of grammar frameworks. Which framework the terms "predicate/ complement/ adjunct" belong to?
2
votes
4answers
107 views

What sub-field in linguistics should I study to help me learn foreign languages?

I'm interested in languages and linguistics, can speak a few languages (English, French, Mandarin, some German, Japanese, and Esperanto) and would like to eventually learn more (Japanese, Spanish, ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

How do both traditional grammar and linguistics categorize addressees within sentences?

By traditional grammar I am referring to the grammar used in books about teaching languages, this grammar uses terminology, that is not perceived as standard in linguistics. For example terms like ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Do affixes and clitics belong to an own part of speech, part of sentence or another category ?

Birds, flowers, children belong to the part of speech of nouns, to fish, to pick, to play to verbs, swift, smelly, nice to adjectives those are the easy ones, what about clitics and affixes and such ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Formal definition of English grammar

I saw on a related question some mentions of a formal grammar definition for English. It is mentioning there a definition called English Resource Grammar. Perhaps anyone here would know about loosely ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Who and whom confusion for this sentence? [closed]

This question arose when I wrote this sentence - John was crying for who/whom he lost. Now while writing I got confused whether to use "whom" or "who". I know there is no problem if we use ...
0
votes
2answers
58 views

Latin nouns derived from pluperfect verbs

I am trying to understand the logic of Latin nouns derived from pluperfect verbs. For example, we have facta, things done, and scripta, things written, but I thought the pluperfect gerundive would be ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

Subject/Complement Agreement. How to describe problem with “The thing is the objects.”

In http://ell.stackexchange.com/questions/29140/is-or-are-the-only-thing-that-i-want-you-to-hit-right-now-is-are-the-books/29170#29170, I provided the following, problematic, wording (especially bold ...
2
votes
0answers
76 views

In the Minimalist Program, can valued uninterpretable features still act as goals before they are deleted?

the title pretty much says it, if deletion happens with shipping to the interfaces SEM/PHON, can a valued, uninterpretable feature still be a goal for another probe of this feature? In a DP, maybe as ...
1
vote
2answers
289 views

Ergative Verbs and some discussion about them

I know what ergative verb is - Consider the following sentences - I opened the door. The door was opened (by me). The door opened. The verb open is a transitive verb in sentence #1, ...
0
votes
2answers
135 views

“Those who” vs “Them who”

I have asked this question in ELL site, but as I haven't received any answer from grammatical point of view, I am asking the same question here. Please help. I pity those who lost their money in ...
1
vote
1answer
111 views

Is there any phrase where common syntax fails?

Are there any phrases were a conventional grammar gives multiple syntactic analysis for the same phrase (without changing the meaning) or even fails to give a consistent structure? I thought about ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Are the phrases “both in water and land” and “for the loss and damage to” grammatical? [closed]

A. Consider the phrase that is boldfaced in sentence (1): (1) "It can live both in water and land." Is the phrase grammatical as it is, with no preposition before "land"? Or should the phrase ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

Phrases and clauses used as an adverb, and hence don't take a preposition

He had been in precarious situations his entire life. I know here in this sentence his entire life is used as an adverbial phrase and, hence there was no need of placing a preposition before that ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

What's the technical term for illocative parenthesis?

I want to know whether there is a technical term, preferably an accepted one, for the following type of parenthesis (bold): (1) You are, I believe, not healthy. The (bold) parenthesis always ...
4
votes
2answers
416 views

need to understand infinitive

What is the easiest way to understand what an infinitive is? How do I know which verb in which sentence is an infinitive? For example, let us take this website: Infinitive This is the example I am ...
7
votes
3answers
209 views

Relationship between possession (“to have”) and tenses (“I have seen”)

In several Indo-European languages the verb that denotes possession (to have) is also used to construct verb tenses. Some examples: I have seen ... I have a dog. (English) Am văzut ... Am un ...
3
votes
1answer
301 views

Why is it correct to say “Honey, I'm home”, but “Miel, soy casa” is not?

Inspired by the picture below (thanks to brainlesstaless), when I got home I called to my wife: "Miel, soy casa". After a short pause, she started laughing. I know in Spanish this sentence makes no ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

what would be the hypothetic result of *βεβλεπνται in Ancient Greek?

I'm talking about the third plural form of medium/passive perfect, in Ancient Greek. My grammar explains that some very simple verb like παιδεύω may be inflected that way : 1S πεπαίδευ-μαι > ...
0
votes
2answers
136 views

Is a sentence's deep structure representative of i-language?

That is to say, is the deep structure supposed to be what's happening in our head when we speak a language? Or is this just to make our model of a grammar consistent?
2
votes
3answers
102 views

can the latin word -que coordinate two propositions?

I read in Ovid, Metamorphoses, I.474-477 (Apollo is in love with Daphne) : Protinus alter amat, fugit altera nomen amantis silvarum tenebris captivarumque ferarum exuviis gaudens innuptaeque aemula ...
2
votes
1answer
93 views

Grammar framework features that are not supported cross-linguistically

There are quite a lot of grammar frameworks postulated since the last century, like MP, LFG, RRG, RCG, MTT to name a few. I like reading about languages, but a lot of publications about languages are ...
2
votes
1answer
171 views

Help with syntax trees [closed]

I am having trouble creating a syntax tree for the following sentence: Ginny thinks Harry is dreamy. "Harry is dreamy" is clearly a sentence. However, I am confused what "is" should be. I think it ...
9
votes
5answers
960 views

What is minimalist about the minimalist program?

The minimalist program seems to be very fashionable amongst linguists at present, but for the life of me I can't understand its appeal. As far as I can see - and I've read my fair share of the ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

vowel contraction after “προ-” preverb in Ancient Greek

Like περι-, προ- preverb keeps its final vowel when added to a radical as in "προ-αιρέω". But my French->Ancient Greek dictionary, the old Bailly, tells me that προβάλλω becomes either προέβαλον ...
0
votes
3answers
121 views

Sentence well-formedness

When compressing a source sentence by removing some of its words, what are the main component besides the verb, subject and negation that one has to keep in order to preserve the grammaticality of a ...
3
votes
1answer
182 views

What is the relation between formal grammar and generative grammar?

I am having trouble figuring out the relation between formal grammar and generative grammar. Is one a superclass of another, are they distinct, or are they identical? So far I've checked my notes, ...
2
votes
2answers
193 views

Is the set of lexical rules, or phrase structure rules finite?

I'm trying to write a program that generates valid English sentences, but without specifying what structure the sentence takes. I want that to be determined by starting at a simple sentence S (NP ...
-2
votes
2answers
366 views

English vs. Esperanto (in grammar, vocabulary, semantics)

I know Esperanto is constructed on the basis of Romance languages; but what are the main differences and similarities between English and Esperanto? Especially from the following aspects: grammar ...
2
votes
2answers
96 views

Are there a finite number of noun phrase rules for nlp?

For example, a noun phrase might break up into these ways: You should eat [noun phrase] You should eat fish You should eat the fish You should eat the fresh fish You should eat NP(N) You should eat ...
2
votes
1answer
100 views

Dependency Grammar constraints

I study dependency grammar, DG and I have a question regarding constraints of DG. I do understand why do we need constituency grammars, CG and DG, however I don't completely understand the ...