A body of rules, features, or generalizations which reliably differentiate between grammatical and ungrammatical constructions.

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8
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3answers
294 views

Is “sentence” a useful and/or clearly-defined term in linguistics

Further to comments against Do complex sentences always need a conjunction? as recently asked on ELU (and Complex sentence without a subordinating conjunction? here on Linguistics), I'd like to know ...
1
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0answers
37 views

Does corpus linguistics research confirm/disconfirm Bolinger principle?

I remember learning about Bolinger's principle (basically, when there is a verb complement situation like "I like [verb complement]" or "I want to [verb complement]", gerunds are preferred to express ...
0
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2answers
162 views

The verb BE as function word or content word

I'm reading a book on America accent and there's a page with exercises. Exercice: Circle the function words in the following sentences: The sky is blue. ... ... The answers are provided at the ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

How many gaps should a sentence have to be solvable but not too easy?

At the moment I am coding an automatic cloze generator on Text on the following way: Use a summarizer to find relevant sentences in a text based on frequency Use Pos Tagging on the remaining ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Classical Greek vs. Colwell's Rule vs. Subset Proposition [closed]

Question: In Classical Greek, how is identification of Subject / Predicate Nominatives, (and Definite-ness), accomplished in constructs consisting of "Untagged/Anarthrous Nominatives w/tagged ...
0
votes
3answers
67 views

Why do some scientific possessives have trailing “s” and others don't?

I debated names of scientific terms with my friend, and we both discovered that some of them have the trailing letter "s" while others don't. Here are some examples: Mobius strip, Fourier series, ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Ek gaan or Ek sal [closed]

I know 'Ek sal' means I will. Does Ek gaan mean I will too? Ek gaan dit beslis nie so aanvaar nie en ek is besig om regshulp in te win.
0
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0answers
50 views

Proper vs. common nouns: Are there more differences, esp. in grammar, than capital letter and simpler plural?

Proper nouns in English have a capital starting letter and the plural is simpler (e.g. -y ending gets -ys instead of -ies). Are there any other differences? Especially when analysing/parsing the ...
0
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0answers
25 views

'reason that' (English) vs 'reason for which' (French)

I already know of the redundancy of reason why, which I ask NOT about. Please advise if I erred, but does the following (by Prof John Lawler) support the rightness of reason that? 1. He didn't ...
0
votes
2answers
107 views

How similar are Spanish and French?

I know that Spanish and French both belong to the Romance branch and they are very alike. But what I want to make clear is that how similar they are. I mean that if I have mastered one of them, how ...
3
votes
0answers
47 views

Inside-outside algorithm (PCFG learning) and binarization

I am implementing the Inside-outside algorithm to estimate the parameters of a PCFG based on the train corpus. One observation (on existing implementations) is that, the grammar is converted into ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Opinions on Principles and Parameters Theory [closed]

I'm curious about your opinions on Principles and Parameters Theory. Do you consider it possible or rather you think that it is impossible that our grammar was structured that way. I appreciate any ...
1
vote
2answers
61 views

Why are there presuppositions?

I am working with these two sentences: 1. Alex stopped playing the piano. What I concluded is that the sentence presupposes that Alex had previously played the piano. But why does the presupposition ...
0
votes
3answers
105 views

“They told me that” which one is the direct and indirect object?

In the sentence "They told me that" or "They told me so" OR even much better sentence from one of the provisional answer "She taught me Spanish" Which one is the direct object? (My guess is "that" ...
3
votes
1answer
125 views

Why is the misconception that “Chinese has no grammar” so widespread?

Of course, Chinese indeed has its own grammar. But I had heard the claim many times, even from some native Chinese speakers. How did this misconception arise? Why even some native Chinese speakers ...
1
vote
2answers
131 views

Сoncept of an attribute usesd by Russian grammarians

Note: This is cross-posted on ELL.se at Сoncept of an attribute used by Russian grammarians. I need to know all the attributes in theese sentences and how they are expressed.The problem is that ...
0
votes
3answers
108 views

What' s the hardest language to learn? [closed]

What's the hardest language to learn???
1
vote
3answers
227 views

What is the relationship between lambda calculus and logical form?

I was first introduced to lambda calculus as a way to use syntax to compose the semantic value of a phrase from the semantic values of the components of that phrase. Lambda calculus does more than ...
0
votes
2answers
139 views

How to represent a dative verb in first order logic?

I understand that the representation of an intransitive verb, V in lambda calculus would be lambda x. V(x), where x is the subject. How do I represent an intransitive verb followed by a ...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

Term for when sentences (or parts) are combined with “this means”, “meaning”, “that shows”, etc.?

Often sentences or parts of sentences are combined with verbs or pronoun + verb. However, they don't describe something of the content of the text, they just help to bring the parts or sentences in ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

How do PCFG parsers actually work?

I'm new to NLP. I have a few doubts about PCFG parser (NLTK). My understanding is that PCFG parser will return most probable parse tree. So if I'm parsing one sentence with PCFG parser, I'll be ...
0
votes
2answers
79 views

Where can I find formal grammars?

Where can I find formal grammars? By 'formal grammar' I mean 'a mathematically precise set of rules that generate all (or at least a significant portion of) the grammatical sentences of a language.' ...
-1
votes
2answers
72 views

Trying to understand why adjectives do not refer

[Question rewritten and retitled, now that I have a better understanding of what I didn't understand, due to comments] This is probably information I could find on the Internet elsewhere, but I am ...
3
votes
6answers
263 views

Which comes first? Grammar or language?

I always have the impression grammar is just a tool to help studying and learning a language, i.e. it is a scientific tool invented for a language after the language has existed. But to think of it ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Are Spanish “que” clauses following “parece” complements or postponed subjects?

The Spanish equivalent of It seems that they hate each other is Parece que se odian. In both languages seem/parecer are one-place predicates (well, both can optionally accept a second argument with ...
2
votes
1answer
199 views

How can a Language or a Dialect be incorrect or inferior than some other one?

The question is that can one say that a Language or a Dialect is grammatically incorrect? What if I say, Sanskrit is grammatically incorrect modern Hindi This doesn't make sense. We cannot ...
0
votes
2answers
88 views

Is the use of abbreviation and ellipsis as codified as the basic syntax of a language?

I had a style discussion on another SE site. Part of the discussion boiled down to whether the following sentence is appropriate: It was a bird. It had a black head and wings with a golden ...
2
votes
0answers
62 views

What are the most promising research directions for natural language generation?

I have just discovered Natural Language Generation, which seems like a very interesting field. The idea of taking something like highly-structured database records and transforming them into natural ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

Is there an order of difficulty for MSA?

Has an order of grammatical difficulty for Modern Standard Arabic been discovered (or proposed) similar to that found for L2 learners of English?
1
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0answers
37 views

Is the social relationship between listener and referent grammatically realized in japanese or korean?

I know that the social relationship between speaker, listener and referent are grammatically realized in japanese and korean. I know there are different levels for the relation between ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Which languages marks grammatically for social relationships?

Which languages apart from Japanese, Korean and Javanese encode systematically the relationships between speaker, hearer and referent by means of grammar markers and special sets of vocabulary?
3
votes
5answers
390 views

English grammar: is it possible to automatically verify correctness

Is it possible to verify if sentence is grammatically correct automatically. E.g. for sentence Lemon yellow. verb (predicate) is missing or for sentence If it will rain, we will not go ...
0
votes
2answers
84 views

Book suggestions for linguistics for Computer Science people

I am asked to do some NLP tasks on a language which is agglutinative. I am finding these terms difficult to understand since my background is different. I am looking for some nice books that give a ...
4
votes
0answers
143 views

Why did English change so rapidly between the late 1600s and the early 1700s?

I am currently reading the King James Version of the Bible and am slowly getting used to the text-—English is my second language. I then wondered with what ease would I be able to understand the ...
1
vote
1answer
4k views

Drawing tree diagrams of ambiguous sentences generated by a CFG

Suppose I have the following CFG rules: S -> NP VP NP -> (D) NOM VP -> V (NP) (NP) NOM -> N NOM -> NOM PP VP -> VP PP PP -> P NP X -> X+ CONJ X How should I draw the tree ...
2
votes
3answers
163 views

What are some grammatical features found only in modern languages?

By modern language I mean a language spoken since less than two thousands years. By grammatical feature I mean for example passive voice, which doesn't exist in PIE but is found in its descendants
0
votes
1answer
74 views

Is a sentence, composed of mainclause and subclause, represented by one or two syntax-trees?

I read, that one sentence can have different syntax-trees what is considered a phrase is dependent on the grammar used there are a lot of grammars, basically divided into two groups: ...
0
votes
0answers
117 views

How many different syntax patterns exist in standard English ?

My command of the English language is quiet poor, I write by my feeling, and each sentence is just another chain element left behind not knowing how many Errors are within it. The feeling comes close ...
2
votes
1answer
106 views

Why do time adverbials like “yesterday” have a different distribution than adverbials like “always?”

Consider these two sentences below, which employ some kind of temporal adverbial / adjunct. (I) Yesterday John won the Turkey Raffle. (II) John always wins the Turkey Raffle. My question is, why ...
3
votes
8answers
295 views

What's the use of Grammar?

There's a question that bothered me for a long time when I am learning another language. English is not my first language, so when I was being taught, they told me all these grammars like like the ...
2
votes
0answers
42 views

Which grammar framework the terms “predicate/ complement/ adjunct” belong to?

From wiki, there're a number of grammar frameworks. Which framework the terms "predicate/ complement/ adjunct" belong to?
2
votes
4answers
143 views

What sub-field in linguistics should I study to help me learn foreign languages? [closed]

I'm interested in languages and linguistics, can speak a few languages (English, French, Mandarin, some German, Japanese, and Esperanto) and would like to eventually learn more (Japanese, Spanish, ...
1
vote
1answer
109 views

How do both traditional grammar and linguistics categorize addressees within sentences?

By traditional grammar I am referring to the grammar used in books about teaching languages, this grammar uses terminology, that is not perceived as standard in linguistics. For example terms like ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Do affixes and clitics belong to an own part of speech, part of sentence or another category ?

Birds, flowers, children belong to the part of speech of nouns, to fish, to pick, to play to verbs, swift, smelly, nice to adjectives those are the easy ones, what about clitics and affixes and such ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

Formal definition of English grammar

I saw on a related question some mentions of a formal grammar definition for English. It is mentioning there a definition called English Resource Grammar. Perhaps anyone here would know about loosely ...
0
votes
1answer
94 views

Who and whom confusion for this sentence? [closed]

This question arose when I wrote this sentence - John was crying for who/whom he lost. Now while writing I got confused whether to use "whom" or "who". I know there is no problem if we use ...
0
votes
2answers
75 views

Latin nouns derived from pluperfect verbs

I am trying to understand the logic of Latin nouns derived from pluperfect verbs. For example, we have facta, things done, and scripta, things written, but I thought the pluperfect gerundive would be ...
2
votes
1answer
225 views

Subject/Complement Agreement. How to describe problem with “The thing is the objects.”

In http://ell.stackexchange.com/questions/29140/is-or-are-the-only-thing-that-i-want-you-to-hit-right-now-is-are-the-books/29170#29170, I provided the following, problematic, wording (especially bold ...
2
votes
0answers
80 views

In the Minimalist Program, can valued uninterpretable features still act as goals before they are deleted?

the title pretty much says it, if deletion happens with shipping to the interfaces SEM/PHON, can a valued, uninterpretable feature still be a goal for another probe of this feature? In a DP, maybe as ...
2
votes
3answers
474 views

Ergative Verbs and some discussion about them

I know what ergative verb is - Consider the following sentences - I opened the door. The door was opened (by me). The door opened. The verb open is a transitive verb in sentence #1, ...