The International Phonetic Alphabet: A Latin-based alphabet designed for transcribing all sounds of all languages.

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phonetic description help [on hold]

In each group below, one sound does not belong, and the rest form a phonetic class. For each group, (a) write down the sound that does not belong and (b) name the class that includes the rest. ...
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170 views

IPA Listening Training

Are there any programs that will play a sound and allow the user to choose which sound was played? The options would need to be IPA or some other descriptive method (e.g., voiceless alveolar stop). ...
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38 views

What do [ ] mean in the middle of a reconstructed pronunciation?

While looking up Old Chinese reconstructions, I often find square brackets [] in the middle of an reconstruction. For example, Baxter-Sagart system says 寺's old Chinese pronunciation is /*s-[d]əʔ-s/. ...
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34 views

How to convert a string to their IPA equivalent

I want to take a list of words from diferent languages (each language being a diferent file) and compare such lists by using their IPA equivalents to see how many diferent homophones are shared ...
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81 views

Where are PIE phonemes transliterated as IPA?

Where can I find each PIE phoneme (which I don't know how to pronounce) transliterated and represented as IPA? Afterword: (Delightedly but fortuitously) Searching 'Grimm's Law' on Youtube directed ...
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37 views

How to represent acronyms using IPA?

As we all know in IPA isn’t used capital letters. There is also the 2nd option for representation acronyms which is to use dots, but in IPA dots is used to represent syllables. And therefore I'd like ...
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35 views

For each IPA letter, where can I find pictures or videos that depict where the tongue must be?

(TL;DR) For each IPA letter, are there diagrams, pictures or videos that depict exactly and precisely the location of your tongue (and any other relevant organs), needed to vocalise that letter? ...
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78 views

IPA: Question Marks

Came across this while looking up some information for Chinese dialects. What do the question marks mean as an IPA symbol?
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56 views

Sounds for an Indo-European Language, such as Sinhala?

I speak American English and am trying to learn Sinhala and have found conflicting spelled descriptions of Sinhala words in various learning resources, so I started trying to figure out how to notate ...
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73 views

The sound /Ur/ in English

I read in a book that there is a stressed version as well as an unstressed version of the sound "ər" The stressed one usually look like "ɜr" in dictionaries: hurt /'hɜrt/ her /'hɜr/ and the ...
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46 views

What is the history of /ɨ/ vs /ï/?

The Close central unrounded vowel has two symbols in the IPA: /ɨ/ /ï/ It appears (from my completely unscientific survey of having seen the symbols in use) that the former is the more common. ...
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96 views

Word reduction and American T before consonant

when I pronounce the phrase "It was good" in a context like this one: Person A: How was your day? Person B: It was good. I think that "was" is reduced to wəz (with a schwa sound). The only word ...
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107 views

Glide between the words “be” and “okay”

the phrase "It's gonna be okay" phonetically looks like: [ɪts gʌnə bɪ oʊkeɪ] There should be a glide (y) or (w) between the words "be" and "okay": ɪts gʌnə bɪ(y)oʊkeɪ, or ɪts gʌnə bɪ(w)oʊkeɪ I'm ...
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How does one pronounce the following cyrillic letters in their respective languages?

ӯ - Tajik ҷ - Tajik ӣ - Tajik ҳ - Tajik х - Tajik ғ - Kazakh And what is the difference between қ and к in Kazakh? I would prefer an answer that doesn't refer to the IPA. For example, I know ...
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65 views

How to transcribe a labial+glottal stop released as a bilabial nasal

I think English something is sometimes pronounced thus: [s] some vowel, arguendo [ə] a stop. This stop is pronounced by simultaneously closing the lips and glottis. So perhaps it'd be called a ...
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200 views

What is the history of the International Phonetic Alphabet?

I know it has its origins in the International Phonetic Association, but the idea of a unique alphabet for each speech sound of the world's languages organized by place and manner must've had an ...
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85 views

What is the IPA notation for Chinese zuo4cuo4 做错?

zuo4cuo4 is the pinyin-notation for 做错 = doing wrong. To my ear zuo4 and cuo4 sound very similar. I need the IPA notation to understand the difference in articulation.
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87 views

Correctness of Wiktionary IPA Translation

The logo for Wikimedia's Wiktionary project features a narrow transcription IPA of the term: Adding English syllabification produces [ˈwɪk.ʃənˌrɪ] (WICK-shun-rih), which I find strange. I personally ...
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84 views

Are there letters or diacritics in the IPA suitable for narrow/phonetic descriptions of the Malay final -h?

In Malay there is a syllable-final -h with some unique properties distinct from the "normal" syllable-initial h. But in all the accounts of the language I can only see a single symbol used, the ...
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1answer
73 views

Is the labiodental flap used only in the beginning of words?

In 2005, the IPA phonetical alphabet got extended by including the labiodental flap. The wikipedia-page shows a good overview. However, I am wondering if the labiodental flap is restricted to be ...
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112 views

Other than Scottish rolled “r” and North American rhotacised vowels, are there any differences across “r” sounds in English dialects?

I'm wondering about subtle differences in /r/ sounds across varieties of English. By subtle I mean I want to ignore the obvious large differences such as the trilled "r" in Scottish English and the ...
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58 views

What are the IPA equivalents for the special characters used to transscribe indian words?

When I try to read an article related to India (in particular indo-aryan languages) certain special characters emerge which I do not know how to pronounciate. For instance: Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini ...
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57 views

Is there a public sound bank of the IPA?

I'm looking for a comprehensive audio database of the IPA, spoken by the same individual. I realize the this restriction may not include the full set of the IPA and I'm willing to settle on the ...
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583 views

Does sample text exist that includes most sounds represented by the International Phonetic Alphabet?

My understanding of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is that it aims to provide a set of letter-based values that represent and map to fundamental sounds present in human languages. My ...
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What's the difference between [ɚ], [ɹ̩], and [əɹ]?

I've seen the "-er" sound in English (like in butter) transcribed in all three of the above ways, but I've heard there are subtle differences between them. What are these differences, if there are ...
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Is there an online tool to convert IPA symbols into audio sound?

As many amateurs and beginners know, IPA is difficult to memorize and internalize at first. Does software exist where one can paste in IPA text and hear synthesized speech (ideally in the form of a ...
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108 views

SAMPA of a language - phones or phonemes?

I currently hear a lecture with the topic "Spoken Language Processing" and I have problems to understand SAMPA. I know that the IPA encodes the phones of human languages, so its possible to encode the ...
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IPA notation for syllabic [n] after another [n]

Written German has verbs like <können> ‘can’, but some (quick, lazy, …) speakers – myself included – pronounce this word form without any /e/ or schwa sound in the second nucleus. There are still ...
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127 views

How to work with an IPA chart?

I am trying to learn French vowel sounds using this IPA chart. My question is about this chart. I use it for the first time and I am interested how comprehensive it is. Does a position at this chart ...
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48 views

Symbols for IPA categories

In IPA a consonant can have different places of articulation such as Bilabial, Labio-dental, Dental etc. I want to create a IPA chart that doesn't take much space. For that purposes the words are too ...
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294 views

IPA letter: m with vertical straight line underneath

I came across the following letter in some documents I'm going through: But I can't seem to find this letter in any IPA tables, nor can I find anyway to type this. How can I find/type this letter? ...
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110 views

What were allophone rules for [r] in Old English and Middle English?

I gather that [r] (trill) was realized as [ɹ] in different dialects of Old English and Middle English, but when [r] was used, was it an allophone? In other words, did [r] vary predictably with [ɹ] ...
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99 views

IPA for English: British or US standard?

I often see IPA representations of words (e.g in Wikipedia) that render the American accent of English (instead of British). Is there any agreement on which English accent IPA should render or does it ...
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How much phonetic/phonological detail can be captured using IPA alone?

Although spectrograms contain much more detail, I'm curious how far phonologists and phoneticists can go with IPA alone. Can someone provide some examples of narrow, detail-rich IPA transcription for ...
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IPA for Slender Irish /r'/ in Connemara Dialects

Edit: I would also be willing to reward the bounty if someone can partially answer the question by stating if my proposed IPA is possible based on the description or not. I am specifically asking ...
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Dictionary with real IPA and English sandhi rules?

I don't like English dictionaries that use pseudo-IPA to indicate pronunciation. I've seen none indicating that most plosives should be aspirated, but when they're in "sp", "st" and other combinations ...
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Are there any good open source English text to IPA/other phonetics alphabet transcription programs?

I'm writing a computer program which requires some of this functionality at one point, so I wanted to get into a (better-written) code and have a look, to get some inspiration. Are there any good ones ...
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IPA Transcription help [closed]

I'm a linguistics student and working on narrow transcriptions. Most transcription come fairly easily to me, but I'm caught up on the vowel in the word "hard" How should the vowel be transcribed with ...
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Is there any speech to IPA software? [duplicate]

Does anyone know of a software that does speech to IPA transcription? It seems like this is an easier problem than speech to text but searching for it online didn't give me any results.
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1answer
346 views

Is there a way to learn Icelandic phonetics online?

I want to learn Icelandic online, but am struggling to produce some phonemes. I am unable to find an IPA translator for Icelandic and think it'd be easier for me if I could see some of what I learn ...
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Convert audio recording of word to IPA representation

Are the any open source tools/software libraries to convert an audio clip to its IPA representation? If so, are they accurate? If not, why not? Here is a Gaelic word I wish to convert: Ogg format: ...
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198 views

How to convert IPA into CPA (Nuance)?

I'm working on speech project where the original authors chose to use the Computer Phonetic Alphabet (CPA), from Nuance, to store phonemes. The problem is that the dictionaries we want now to use ...
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18k views

Does an IPA to 'English' translator exist?

IPA is really tricky to read, especially for beginners like me. Are there any online tools that can almost 'convert' pasted IPA into phonetic pronunciations or similar? I've tried Wolfram|Alpha ...
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300 views

Multimedia materials for pronunciation learning

I randomly found this terrific site that contains a good structured collection of images, animations and videos to show how a sound is articulated in the German, Spanish and American English ...
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Is it hard for software speech synthesisers to handle IPA? If so, why?

Yesterday on ELU, the IPA sequence ˌoʊkeɪˈhiːɹjəˌgoʊ was posted in a comment. I'm not very familiar with IPA, so I thought the easiest way to "decode" that would be through a software speech ...
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Is IPA obsolete?

It seems to me that IPA is badly designed and not suitable well for many languages other than English. Some problems are: It uses different characters to denote the same sounds. For example, [ʍ] ...
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IPA for phonemes - does this make sense at all?

On the Wikipedia page for the International Phonetic Alphabet, slashes for phonemes are mentioned quite casually, without getting into the discussion of how or if it makes sense to use a phonetic ...
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What is the most common vowel? [closed]

Of all the languages for which there is sufficient data, including extinct languages, which vocalic speech sound, or phone, as represented by the IPA, has been used most?
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IPA transcription of the American English “bunched” /r/

There are 2 common articulations of /r/ and /r̩/ in American English, one retroflex, and the other dorsal. This phone is called the molar or bunched r. It can be described roughly as a back-palatal or ...
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How can the IPA vowels be memorized?

Memorizing IPA consonants is trivially easy; each symbol represents one sound, and that sound can be described with a variety of parameters about manner of articulation, etc. The IPA vowels, however, ...