The study of the meaning of words.

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References and sources to help me explain the semantics of the word 'over'

So I'm doing an assignment on the semantics of the word 'over'. Everyone in our semantics class was asked by the lecturer to pick a piece of paper out of a hat, he then said that we were required to ...
2
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1answer
53 views

Does “I don't drink.” mean “I don't drink alcohol.” in all languages? [duplicate]

In those languages I'm a bit familiar with, the verb for drinking is very often understood as drinking alcohol, especially if its meaning "the oral intake of any fluid", wouldn't make sense. For ...
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2answers
81 views

How do native speakers determine a word's literal/basic meaning?

For example, to me, the verb "to turn" has a literal meaning along the lines of "to change physical orientation along some particular axis". You can also say "X turned [adj.]", "X turned up (as in to ...
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1answer
40 views

Is there a name for the concept describing the particular way in which adjectives and nouns interact together to create meaning

A contrived example, but: if I said something like "The Penguin Wars" (Yes, it's a silly example but this is a serious question I promise), such a phrase (bare of any conventional denotations) could ...
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1answer
34 views

What separates events such as festivals and tournaments from other events such as running and partying? [closed]

Events are widely defined as things that happen. Actions can take place, but objects cannot, so it would be natural to assume that all events are actions. However, there are many things that we call ...
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55 views

Entailments Relations

I have problem understanding the entailment logic on these examples and would like some help. Here's my answers: Sally works together with Polly. Sally works. => I think one entails other, but not ...
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0answers
55 views

How to extract Subject, Object, Verb through a parser

For my project, I need to extract Subject, Object and Verb from the sentence. I have read that, LFG F structure is what I need. I am using Stanford NLP package. I couldnt find out how to do that in ...
2
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2answers
106 views

Is it possible to determine the number of words in a language?

Recently I got into a discussion with my friend concerning sizes of lexicons of different languages. He stated something about Japanese having considerably more words than English. (The exact ...
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20 views

Word ageing: what reliable bibliographical references can be recommended?

I have encountered the notion of "word ageing". Lexemes (unless and until replaced through internal or external innovation) grow older and older, and with time they tend to (1) acquire some additional ...
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2answers
74 views

Language with without a lexical entry for “before”

Has anyone encountered a language in which there is no lexical entry corresponding to English "before" and the relation of temporal precedence is manifested by something equivalent to "earlier than"? ...
0
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1answer
65 views

representing a sentence in integers ( hopefully retaining semantic value )

I've been trying to convert natural language strings into integers for use in a long short-term neural-network. I tried converting to binary, using a bag-of-words, and an associative-array with each ...
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2answers
60 views

Monoclausality in dependency trees

I've read Alex Alsina's papers on complex predicates and I understand why they are a problem for the syntax-semantics interface. If we wanted to build a syntax tree for a complex predicate in Romance, ...
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1answer
101 views

Lexical diversification

What is the precise scientific name for the following phenomenon: Spanish: Los tios = aunt + uncle English: aunt + uncle There is no single expression in English which encompasses both the meaning ...
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1answer
64 views

Lexicosemantic and lexicosyntactic?

I am reading a paper that distinguishes between lexicosemantic patterns and lexicosyntactic patterns (page 4, paragraph 2). I am unfamiliar with these terms and am having trouble understanding what ...
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1answer
107 views

influence of the structure of a sentence on its semantics

A friend told me : "The syntax is different from semantics. Semantics are concerned with the meanings of single words, not the structure of the sentence" Is that true ? If not, how can the ...
2
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0answers
66 views

On the search for an example sentence from a German textbook

Once I read three sentences build of made-up words with correct German declination and conjugation, so you were able to parse this sentence although it beared no semantic meaning. It was something ...
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89 views

How polysemic on average were Chinese words around the time of the creation of Chinese characters?

If you look up a Chinese character and its meaning in classical Chinese, there is a good chance you get a long list with many different semantically unrelated meanings. Take 而 for instance, that bears ...
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1answer
75 views

Is there a term ending in “-nym,” that signifies terms that all have the same hypernym?

We have terms like hyponym and hypernym, which convey the relationships "subcategories" and "supercategory". Metaphorically, one could think of such relationships as similar to parent/children ...
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1answer
1k views

What do WordNet::Similarity scores mean?

I am using WordNet Interface in NLTK, which facilitates computation of a number of similarity metrics: Path similarity Leacock-Chodorow Similarity Wu-Palmer Similarity Resnik Similarity ...
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1answer
62 views

What are lexical and morpho-syntactic alternations?

I ought to write a paper with corpus-based analysis of a lexical or morpho-syntactic alternation. In other words, the paper should deal with two (or more) nearly synonymous lexical items or ...
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2answers
139 views

Relationship between “see” and “look”

I'm interested in how "see" and "look" relate to each other. I think "hear" and "listen" is similar. Is there specific linguistic terminology that describes how the words relate to each other? To me ...
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0answers
48 views

Some discrepancies in WordNet symmetric relations

I have extracted the number of each relation in WordNet as you can see below. Some relations, such as hypernym and hyponym, are not in the same size. What is wrong with it? "count(*)" "link" ...
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2answers
204 views

Two sentences with the same meaning

I am looking for a statistical or linguistic method that could give the degree of similarity between the meaning of two sentences. I have found in literature many distance measures (euclidean ...
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3answers
335 views

Lexical category of “that”

I am having a bit of trouble with my linguistics homework. I know "that" is a determiner. However, I am less sure of its lexical category in this sentence: "Ginny likes that." I know that a sentence ...
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2answers
349 views

Almost half crazy vs Almost half sane

Forgive me if it is not the right place to ask this question in SE sites. I am mostly active on SO but I thought it might be a better fit here. I enrolled in a class this semester and there was a ...
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1answer
147 views

Help understanding “degree of overall vocabulary divergence”

There was an article published with a diagram showing Lexical Difference: http://elms.wordpress.com/2008/03/04/lexical-distance-among-languages-of-europe/. It cites a Russian source "K. Tyshchenko ...
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124 views

When do you use 'in' vs 'by' when talking about payments and transactions [closed]

When talking about buying things and making payments for them etc... what context would you use "in" vs"by" when referring to the payment. For example... She paid by credit card. (felicitous) She ...
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2answers
124 views

Lexical Relationships

How can I define the lexical/semantic relationship between a noun X and a modifier + noun X? e.g. a girl/ a beautiful girl; a city/ a big city. Is it a case of hyperonimy/superordination?
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1answer
187 views

Pseudosemantic question [closed]

Forgive me if this isn't right place to ask this kind od question, which I'm aware is not, but at the same time I can't pick any more adequate from the list of SE sites. Premise is this: Verb [x] in ...
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2answers
329 views

Methods for meaning extraction

Let someone wants to know what some word (concrete as "chair" or abstract as "happiness") mean. What methods, experimental techniques are there for extracting word's meaning? I found next ways: ...
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1answer
271 views

How to explore the meaning of a concept (like “friendship”)?

I am trying to extract all components ("atoms") of meaning of the concept "friendship" in a certain language (actually in Russian). By components of meaning I mean, for example: ...
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81 views

How to check the distance beween comparative adjectives?

It is known that distances (intervals) between (I could be wrong in the choice of words) "very bad", "bad", "not bad", "good", "very good" are approximately equal. Such equality of intervals was used ...
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422 views

Is there a term for sets of words that have the same sense relation between them?

Sense relations are apparently semantic relationships between words and/or predicates. We learn more about this at Glottopedia.org. "A sense relation is a paradigmatic relation between words or ...
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997 views

Are “mother” and “father” antonyms?

I think that this is not pure antonymy. If it's still antonymy, do linguists have a separate term for this type of semantic relationship?
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1answer
632 views

Term paper in Semantics

I’m a university student from Bonn, Germany, and have to write a linguistic term paper for my semantics class. My topic is: Meronymies in English - Is a cap part of a bottle? So I’m dealing with the ...
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1answer
162 views

Semantic logic of the word “both” in English - different from “and”?

I am trying to figure out what additional semantic information "both" carries when used in a sentence. Does it differ from "and"? Take the following sentences: Alice and Bob both ate lunch. vs. ...
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2answers
655 views

Online Semantic Relatedness Database?

I'm looking for something like the (really excellent and useful) MRC database that includes a measure of semantic relatedness for a given pair or set of words in colloquial American English. I've ...
3
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1answer
175 views

Aktionsart - “brought”

I'm trying to analyse the verb brought (or bring) in terms of lexical aspect, or aktionsart. More accurately, it's an analysis of the Hungarian verb "hozta" (bring-3sg.pst.def). Would it be telic ...
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2answers
699 views

finite/non-finite verb = conjugated/non-conjugated verb

Are those terms totally interchangeable in all contexts (finite = conjugated) (non-finite = conjugated) or are there slight meaning differences?
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0answers
56 views

Is the use of a word in a morphological gap technically a speech production error?

Typically, speech production errors such as phoneme or morpheme exchange, anticipation, etc. are the result of interference in the speech production process. However, the use of a word in a ...
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2answers
213 views

Which other languages have idiotmatic meaning for words meaning 'blue'? [closed]

I came across culture-specific meanings of concept 'blue' (that is, of a colour hue between green and violet) in various languages. We know its idiomatic meanings in Standard or American Englishes, ...
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442 views

Is there a term for when words that sound like antonyms are actually synonyms?

Seeded grapes are actually seedless An inflammable object is really flammable It seems to me that, superficially, the use of those affixes make the words sound like they should be antonyms, ...
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1answer
1k views

How common are the different semantic types of compounds?

According to the Wikipedia article, Compound (linguistic), compound words that occur in natural languages can be semantically grouped into four categories. Witness this quote from the article: ...
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1answer
519 views

What is the reason for the semantic change bowl/pot/cup > head?

I was reading about problems with the assumption of basic vocabulary in Lyle Campbell, Historical Linguistics: An Introduction: Some 'basic vocabulary' appears to change rather easily for cultural ...
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3answers
1k views

Identifying studies on how English language reflects sexism

Right now I'm looking for papers on how sexism is reflected in the English language. A lot of the literature is from the 1970's and is seen as a little out there and not empirical. Besides reading the ...
13
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2answers
2k views

How are languages deciphered?

How do archaeologists, cryptoanalysts and linguists decipher extinct languages? Has there been a case in history where this was successfully accomplished, without the means of something like the ...
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1answer
402 views

Why does “half” not follow the pattern of ordinal numbers across languages?

The cardinal "a half" is unrelated to "two", whereas "a third", "a quarter" (and certainly "a fourth"), etc. are related to "three", "four", etc. This seems to be true in other languages, too, in ...
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1answer
313 views

Are there languages which use the negation of 'odd' to denote 'even'?

This question is influenced by another one I found on the German SE, "Warum nennt man in Deutsch die Zahlen 0, 2, 4 … “gerade” Zahlen?". It asks "Why call Germans the numbers 0, 2, 2 "even". The ...
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1answer
65 views

How to characterise set/assign-from/to

If I want to talk about moving information, I can use verbs "set" or "assign" in combination with nouns referring to source and target information containers, right? My intuition/instinct is to ...
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2answers
1k views

Is there a single origin for the connection between time and weather?

There are several families of languages where the same word can mean either a concept closely related to time or a concept closely related to weather: Romance root: French temps, Italian tempo, ...