The study of the structure and formation of words and their component parts, "morphemes".

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What is some standard analysis for “Look me in the eye”

I am looking for hints where to find a ("standard") analysis of something like this english dative construction: Look me in the eye Clearly, the "the" in this phrase is semantically scoped BY the ...
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32 views

Why “Monotonicity” Hypothesis? (Koontz-Garboden)

Should't it be "monodirectionality hypothesis"? In my understanding, this is about the one-way that material/structure can be added to a sentence-while-generated, but never deleted. (Harley 2013 ...
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1answer
38 views

“The bat broke the window” - double meaning in The Stuff of Thought

Some background: In Steven Pinker's book The Stuff of Thought, he critiques Radical Pragmatics (ch 3). In one instance, on pages 121-122, he describes a computer simulation of Radical Pragmatics by ...
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3answers
68 views

Help with palatalisation and syllabification

Does palatalisation only occur at the beginning of a given word? All textbook examples (muse, beauty...) are at the beginning. Could somebody also explain syllabification? (Lecturer hardly covered ...
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27 views

What are polymorphemic words? [duplicate]

Are Polymorphemic words the same as Complex words? Do you have some examples? What about word formations like "green table" or "snow ball", "major lift"? Unforgettable would be a polymorphemic word ...
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1answer
42 views

About allomorphs of morphemes [closed]

Is it possible for an allomorph of a morpheme to have another allomorph that is a free form? Could you give an example?
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2answers
69 views

Are all morphemes meaningful?

According to the notes I kept during a lecture on Morphology, morphemes are meaningful themselves and they can also differentiate meaning. Are all morphemes considered to be meaningful? For example ...
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1answer
56 views

Order of cases in Indo-European languages by morphologic similarity

Following the first Greek grammars or even older sources, there is a traditional and apparently arbitrary order used for cases in most if not all living European languages, e.g. in declension tables. ...
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1answer
34 views

What term describes the production of new words by 'aggregating them'?

Certain words seem to come from gluing or aggregating other extant words; what is the technical name given for phenomenon? For example: In Sanskrit: pratyaksanamanagamah; where pratyaksa is percept, ...
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27 views

Does this count as predicate transfer?

Yesterday, I asked the meaning of some phrases in this Wikipedia article on predicate transer on English language and usage, assuming that I didn't understand the article because of those phrases. I ...
2
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1answer
63 views

How should I organize my grammar?

So I'm doing a grammar for my conlang (constructed language). My conlang is a very verb-heavy/polysynthetic language. E.g. subordinate clauses are marked on the verb. To create a conditional clause ...
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1answer
49 views

In the context of 'case', what does 'grammatical' mean in 'grammatical relation of a noun in a sentence'?

My question concerns only p 48: what does grammatical mean? Its use does not appear to match any of the definitions of 'grammar' below. I know of the distinctions between Descriptive, Prescriptive, ...
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63 views

How is the English noun 'system' a 'base'?

Source: An Introduction to Language (10 ed, 2014) by V Fromkin, R Rodman, N Hyams. I already read this. [p 578:] root = The morpheme that remains when all affixes are stripped from a complex word, ...
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51 views

Inclusive/Exclusive Pronouns and Agreement Mismatch

The following data (taken from Adger's Core Syntax) show that certain forms cause mismatching agreement. The dual, in Hopi, triggers both singular and plural agreement. Puma ta?taq-t wari Those ...
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1answer
37 views

Do each intensive prefix intensify a verb uniquely and differently from other intensive prefixes?

Please feel free to emend this if I have not described my question cogently. Though knowing little of Latin, I have exemplified with it because I have encountered it more than Ancient Greek. For ...
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3answers
179 views

Examples of stems that are NOT words

I read that technically, most words are also stems (most words can be further elaborated somehow); but stems are sometimes not words, since some stems are bound, that is, they require further ...
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1answer
77 views

How to generalize over these morphological rules?

I've just started a linguistic course at university, we've just started Morphology this week. I am very new to the subject and I am looking for some guidance about how to approach a morphology ...
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1answer
74 views

What is the meaning of “Mar”? [closed]

I am wondering what is the meaning of ," Mar" part of some words such as Margarita, Maria, Martin? I appreciate your answer! Thanks in advance! Margarita
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1answer
93 views

finding the language stem of vowelless Hebrew

I am looking for tools to find the language stem in vowelless Hebrew, preferably a full list of suffixes and prefixes with the stem. A small list can be found on wikipedia. An extensive list can be ...
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2answers
174 views

Is this a nonce word or is there another name for a regularly constructed neologism?

I had an argument with a friend, since he didn't find "claustrophilia" in the dictionary he thought it should be called a nonce word. I thought the term "nonce" was for one-off words that arose a ...
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2answers
138 views

Characteristics of Theoretical Linguistics [closed]

I've been asked by my professor to do a research about the characteristics of Theoretical Linguistics, and now I'm stuck. What are these characteristics that makes theoretical linguistics a ...
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3answers
123 views

Why does inflection in any language sound so natural? [closed]

I saw this video and realised that all mentioned Old English plurals sound pretty natural for me, even though I'm native Czech speaker. Also in German I think inflection seems to follow some universal ...
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2answers
194 views

Does adding the suffix -ly to a noun or an adjective provide morphological evidence for word class?

For example, adding -ly to quick to make quickly. Or adding -ly to gentleman to make gentlemanly.
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1answer
48 views

What are the dimensions along which English & Portuguese differ? [closed]

What are the dimensions along which English & Portuguese differ, and how are these dimensions of variation related and restricted?
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1answer
116 views

How can case systems emerge diachronically?

This questions applies only to the languages which originally did not feature noun case systems and developed it over time through various sound, morphological and syntactical changes. By a case ...
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2answers
89 views

Origins of gender distinction in verbs in Slavic

This is a thing that I have been thinking about for a while. I know that PIE did not have gender distinction in verb forms, and its presence in modern Slavic languages must be an innovation. If I am ...
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2answers
262 views

words ending in -man: Compound or suffix?

What are words ending in -man (policeman, postman ...) classified as? compounds or suffixes? Some books that i've read considered policeman as a suffix, since the element -man means 'person' and it ...
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0answers
67 views

Possible connection between PIE Ablaut and Semitic vowel alternation

Since I started to read about language typology and then got a hint about PIE ablaut system I have been wondering if there might be any prehistorical connection between these families at least ...
5
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1answer
54 views

TAM categories: Can they be predicted from their numbers (a language's TAM inventory size)?

To some extent, vowels can be predicted based on the size of the vowel inventory, so, for example, in a 3-vowel system, it will be /a i u/, whereas in a 4-vowel system, we will get /a i u ɛ/ or /a i u ...
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2answers
111 views

stem classes and the terms “fusional” / “inflectional”

I have seen both the word "fusional" and the words "inflectional"/"flectional" used as the counterparts of "agglutinative" when describing a morphological process. 1) Is there a distinction between ...
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1answer
89 views

Assuming that passives need verbal morphology, which languages commonly said to have a passive do not actually count?

Among others, I recently read the passive definition by Martin Haspelmath (from THE GRAMMATICIZATION OF PASSIVE MORPHOLOGY, 1990), which states (page 26/27 of the book, the second/third page of the ...
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4answers
154 views

Are there languages that form noun singulars by adding suffixes to plurals, rather than vice versa?

In languages that express grammatical number in nouns with suffixes, usually there is either a suffix added to an unsuffixed singular to form the plural (cat—cats), or the suffix (or inflectional ...
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1answer
68 views

In languages with robust case systems, such as Latin, Russian, and Finnish, is there a case in which appositives commonly occur?

In English appositive constructions, noun phrases can be juxtaposed to convey the fact that they are co-referential. "I, Don Quixote," "John, the baker," "the art-object, a bronzed umbrella," and ...
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74 views

Constraints for the -er affix

I was doing my homework and got stuck with questions iii and iv. The book doesn't contain information regarding these two questions and I don't know what applies here. To me, it seems like: iii) ...
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1answer
92 views

Is “cran” still a cranberry morpheme, given Cran-Apple, crantini, etc.?

"Cran-" is the eponymous and archetypal "cranberry morpheme", which Wikipedia describes as "a type of bound morpheme that cannot be assigned an independent meaning or grammatical function, but ...
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30 views

are words more independent from syntax in non-analytical languages? Does this affect language processing?

When we think about the morphology and syntax, the debate arises. Even if they are protagonist parts of linguistic debates, and even if they are usually address separately, the importance of each ...
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4answers
125 views

Are there languages whose nouns have multiple cases but whose determiners and adjectives do not agree with the nouns in case?

In many languages that feature multiple cases for nouns, the determiners and attributive adjectives agree with their associated nouns for case, among other things. You can find examples of adjective ...
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0answers
65 views

Word classes reliant on phonological form?

1) Are there any documented languages in which a certain word class corresponds to a particular phonological structure? A. CVC(VC) = Noun In Polish, the word kot 'cat' (CVC) corresponds to a ...
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1answer
130 views

Can the prefix re- be added to nouns?

I am a little confused about what affix to add first to the stem "elect". The word is re-election. If I add the suffix -ion first, then it turns the verb into a noun. The affix 're-' attaches best to ...
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2answers
65 views

Is it common to analyze grammatically motivated vowel alternation as an occurence of discontinuous morphemes?

For example, are the triconsonantal roots in Arabic (like k-t-b --write) considered to be discontinuous morphemes? How about the English roots (s-ng -- sing, sang, sung, song) and (beg-n -- begin, ...
3
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1answer
241 views

What is the morpheme that marks a question called?

When languages have a morpheme attached to the word that makes it a question, such as a suffix, is this called a question suffix, an interrogative, suffix, etc? I don't have much experience in ...
5
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5answers
203 views

Can present tense be more marked?

Are there languages that overtly mark present tense, rather than future/past? In other words, is the present ever more marked? There doesn't seem to be a way to search for it in WALS, unfortunately.
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2answers
181 views

How many bases does a compound word have?

How many bases does the word girlfriends have? Let's take this word apart. girl -- root friend -- root s -- affix that denotes plural form Base may be identical with the word root but can also ...
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4answers
108 views

Any world languages having multiple-letter-based or single-ideogram-based syllables where three or more consecutive syllables of any word repeat?

My question is related to this interesting question, but instead of looking for letters within words which happen to appear repeated three or more times in a row, I'm looking for consecutive identical ...
9
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3answers
286 views

Are different “aspects” of a Polish verb the same lexeme or different lexemes?

Polish verbs have two "aspects", imperfective and perfective, which means you use a different word depending on whether the activity you're describing is ongoing or habitual, or if it's definite or ...
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1answer
119 views

Can every language express any lexical aspect?

Wikipedia tells about the difference and relation between lexical aspect and grammatical aspect. Whereas the lexical aspect is a specific way to put focus onto how to observe an event on a semantic ...
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3answers
136 views

What is an affix called that is interlocked?

Wikipedia mentions 4 subgroups of affixes: prefix, the affix is in front of the word suffix, the affix is behind the word infix, the affix is within the word circumfix, the afix is separated into ...
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1answer
136 views

L1 acquisition of morphology in heavily inflected languages

It is very common to hear two- and three-year-olds in English saying "I falled down," "She gived me it," etc. And the frequency of a verb form is inversely related to the age at which one is likely to ...
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159 views

What is the difference between case marking particles and adpositions?

Apparently there is some relevant book which claims, more or less: Case marking particles and adpositions are not identical, one is a morphological, one a syntactic unit. This claim was heard ...
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2answers
158 views

How many levels to approach language exist in linguistics?

I know only a few,like semantic level to approach its very meaning, the morphology level to understand how single words are build, syntax level to understand the inner structure of sentences. I ...