The study of the structure and formation of words and their component parts, "morphemes".

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Is feminine ending in -a a native feature of Semitic languages?

It seems to me that many Arabic female names are ending in -a: Fatima, Yamina, Aisha, Aziza. Is this a modern innovation imported from Indo-European languages or a native feature? Also I wonder about ...
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55 views

How can teacher embed academic language into their everyday lesson plan? [closed]

The question is how can teachers embed academic language into their daily lesson plan? What could be some possibilities?
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84 views

How does Morphology apply to reading and teaching English Language Learners how to read?

I am not sure if I am answering the question correctly can anyone please comment. Morphology is the study of words. It deals with understanding of word parts (morphemes). To facilitate student’s ...
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54 views

Does the classification of languages “agglutinating” concern itself with inflectional morphology, derivational morphology, or both?

I had always thought that the terms "agglutinative" and "agglutination" referred to the typology of the inflection in a language. But on another question here there seem to be a number of comments ...
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Do any natural languages have phrase-coordinators that surround their coordinands?

For those who came in late, there are such things as discontinuous morphemes, i.e. single morphemes that are interrupted by other morphemes. Note this example from this SIL link: ...
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102 views

Across languages that have adjectives, what are the most common grammatical inflections for adjectives?

Not all languages have adjectives; some use adjectival nouns ("red.one" instead of "red") and/or stative verbs ("be.red" instead of "red"). Among languages that have adjectives, not all allow ...
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102 views

What's the difference between suppletion and irregular inflection?

I've been using the two terms interchangeably. One of my assignments is asking me to identify cases of both suppletion and irregular inflection. I've been going over course notes/google to no ...
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55 views

What morphosyntactic features are associated with VSO?

In an answer to another question, librik cited Orin Gensler's observation that Insular Celtic and Semitic share a surprisingly large feature complex. This makes it hard for a layman with ready access ...
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What is the term for a noun that stands for more than one portion of an uncountable referent?

A noun that refers to one countable thing is singular. A noun that stands for one countable portion, part, or unit of some non-countable thing is singulative. See ...
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77 views

Is the case described below hypothetical or does it occur in natural languages?

Suppose that you have a language, let's say it's SVO, has a clause pattern in which the subject typically stands for an agent or experiencer and the object typically stands for a patient or stimulus, ...
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118 views

Is there any difference between imperfect and imperfective aspect?

For those who came in late, "perfect" and "perfective" aspects are not the same. Perfect aspect pertains to actions that have been completed at the time referenced by the tense. So English past ...
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192 views

Accusative vs Ergative

In terms of syntactic structure, from the below grammar can we conclude that English is accusative language, not ergative. S --> NP VP VPtv --> Vtv NP VPiv --> Viv By intuition, I ...
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58 views

Are there any natural languages with exclusively asyndetic coordination?

Are there any languages with exclusively asyndetic coordination, i.e. in which constituents are coordinated solely by juxtaposition, with disjunctive (or) or adversative (but) meaninigs communicated ...
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42 views

How is disjunction of noun phrases expressed in languages that coordinate noun phrases by using pronouns?

According to the paper presented at http://depts.washington.edu/uwcl/matrix/sfd/Drellishak%20-%20MA%20Thesis.pdf, two of the most common strategies for coordinating pronouns are a) the use of a ...
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58 views

Have agglutinative languages productive morphology?

In non-agglutinative languages we have certain word classes that would be considered productive, and we have word classes that wouldn't. Morphological inflection, on the other hand, is from my ...
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116 views

Does the neologism “knowlet” have correct morphology in English?

I'm about creating a new word to denote small pieces of knowledge and understanding, like truthful sentences (eagles are birds), or informative news about technology (Google Chrome's market share ...
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92 views

Linguistics resources for beginners [closed]

I'm currently reading Jackendoff's Foundations of language and I've realised that my knowledge of syntax, morphology and phonology isn't as strong as I'd like it to be. I'm coming from a psych ...
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117 views

The manifestation of creativity in written language

I am working on a project where the aim is to create a dictionary of creativity terms. I am a scholar of social psychology and marketing, and the aim the project is to be able to track ideas and ...
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119 views

Does Euro-English exist?

There is debate on the existence of this variety within the expanding circle, I think it exists in as much as we can categorise other varieties (i.e. Singlish falls under the 'Asian-English' label). ...
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110 views

To what extent is a language's morphology tied to orthography, and why do we not consider orthography when doing morphological analysis?

Linguistics classes seem to be mostly concerned with analyzing language in its spoken form. Written language is seen as almost "parasitic" to spoken language. A language's orthography generally gives ...
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53 views

What are the advantages of using a morpheme-based dictionary in a speech recognition system?

What are the advantages of using a morphologically-based / lemma-based dictionary in a speech recognition system as opposed to a dictionary of 'Orthography' + 'transcription' or other types (which I ...
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118 views

Languages with subordinate imperatives?

English does not allow an imperative to be used in a subordinate clause: Eat that pizza! *There's a pizza on the table, which eat! (="which I order you to eat") *I told you eat that pizza! (A ...
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78 views

Curious to understanding a word formation

I am currently studying English language acquisition and an early elementary grade leveled subject's assessment results. The subject was asked to repeat a series of complex sentences. One of the ...
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191 views

Discontinuous morphemes in Indo-European languages

Indo-European is not a language family known for discontinuous morphology, but there are occasional examples. I can think of two: The German and Dutch past participle formants, ge-en and ge-t, e.g. ...
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291 views

Why does the English complementizer “that” look like the relative pronoun “that”?

Why does the English complementizer "that" look like the relative pronoun "that"? for those This question may need to be carted off to the English Stack Exchange, unless there are other languages ...
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114 views

Agglutinative vs. Analytic. What's the difference?

First of all, I understand that these typological distinctions are not absolute and almost all languages show signs of almost all morphological strategies but most display a certain tendency towards ...
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1k views

Help with syntax trees for sentences

I am trying to understand syntax trees for sentences, i have been working through linguistics by myself and am having trouble understanding the structure of syntax trees (English is my second ...
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226 views

Does the term “(highly) agglutinating language” refer to inflecional endings, word-formation processes, or both?

I had always thout agglutinative languages were inflected languages where the inflections to a greater degree are built up by multiple affixes, each having an atomic effect. (Unlike the -s on English ...
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182 views

Rules of forming past participle tense and perfect tense of a verb in Latin? [closed]

What are the rules of forming past participle tense and perfect tense of a verb in Latin? For example, about the word "parsimony (n.)", from etymonline early 15c., from Latin parsimonia ...
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92 views

Singular versus plural in certain locutions: Is there a name for this?

I wouldn't touch that idea with a ten-foot pole. He's a tool maker. In Germany, Catholics and Lutherans pay a church tax. The zebra stripes indicate a pedestrian crossing. He is a resident of an ...
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148 views

Why do so many English nouns have a Consonant-Vowel-Nasal ending?

Just a rule of thumb from my perspective (compound words are not included), such as th/t/s/z/c + /V/ + n/m: T- -tion/-sion (question, division, conclusion), TH- -than (leviathan), ...
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137 views

What non-Semitic languages have templatic non-concatenative morphology?

Which languages, if any, outside of Semitic have something like Semitic-style root-and-template morphology, with roots that can be analyzed as consisting of consonants only, and the vowels coming from ...
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117 views

Are there languages that mark different types of volition or causality morphologically?

A simple event description such as "The boy jumped" does not necessarily imply anything about the speaker's understanding of the cause of the event or of the volition of the agent. I can say "The boy ...
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163 views

In what ways does English syntax compensate for its low number of inflectional morphemes?

Two native German speakers have each told me that conversational English is easy to learn because its number of case-endings, agreement morphemes, and other grammatical morphemes is small. However, ...
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247 views

Are “go” and “went” part of the same lexeme?

Are “go” and “went” part of the same lexeme, i.e. the same set of inflected forms? Consider this brief Glottopedia entry. The entry defines its subject matter as follows: “A lexeme is usually ...
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185 views

Which language(s) has cases which cannot be mistaken for other cases?

I would like to learn a language which has cases which cannot be mistaken for other cases, in pronunciation and writing. Does such a language exist? For an example of what I want to avoid: The case ...
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131 views

Are there signed languages that have a case system?

In a prior question I asked whether word order in ASL has a special significance, which naturally lead to another question: do any signed languages, that is languages communicated mostly if not fully ...
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172 views

Are there any natural languages that mark the distinction between cataphoric and anaphoric pronouns?

Are there any natural languages that mark the distinction between cataphoric and anaphoric pronouns? Just to make sure I got the terms straight, I looked up “cataphora” and its opposite, “anaphora,” ...
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245 views

Is the reality of zero morphs controversial among linguists?

Is the reality of zero morphs controversial among linguists? I haven't been able to find a wealth of information online about zero morphs, but did find a definition of them at the SIL Glossary of ...
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245 views

What do the terms “exponent” and “formative” mean in linguistics?

What do the terms "exponent" and "formative" mean in linguistics? I've seen the term "exponent" used in linguistics texts, and found a definition at Wikipedia. "An exponent is a phonological ...
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90 views

What is the functional or semantic distinction between proximate and obviative person deixis?

What is the functional or semantic distinction between proximate and obviative person deixis? From what I've read ... "Deixis is reference by means of an expression whose interpretation is ...
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Why does the Georgian adverb მწარედ (mtsared) “bitterly” end in -ედ rather than -ად?

According to the materials I possess or can find on the Internet, Georgian adverbs derived from nouns end in -ად (-ad) (unless the noun in the nominative ends in -ო (-o) or -უ (-u), in which case the ...
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65 views

How do directional morphemes work independant of relative positions of the speaker and listener?

This is from Wikipedia: An interesting aspect of Akatek grammar, which is also present in most other Q'anjobalan languages, is the use of directional morphemes, which appear as enclitics. ...
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99 views

Across ergative languages, is there a case that typically marks arguments in copular & existential clauses?

Across ergative languages, is there a case that typically marks the arguments in copular & existential clauses? For example, in sentences that translate as "The beetle is red" and "There is a ...
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63 views

Does the relationship between definiteness and specificity vary across languages?

In English, specificity of reference and the use of definite vs. indefinite articles don't always co-vary. For example, in "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush," and "The bird is the only ...
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Do applicative verbs ever govern the cases of their objects?

From what I've read (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumental_case) applicative voice occurs when an oblique noun phrase becomes an argument of the verb when the verb takes some applicative ...
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Do any natural languages vary the form of the 2nd person markers according to whether the intended audience is present or absent?

For example, does any natural language have 2nd person pronouns or verb conjugations that vary according to whether ... a) All of the people for whom the speaker's remarks are intended are present. ...
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128 views

morph/morpheme analyis

After analyzing many words morphologically I come across the following three words which I found hard to analyze: linguistic morphs: lingu/ist/ic --> 3 morphs; Would 'lingu' be then a bound ...
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74 views

Can Georgian verb stems start with a vowel?

I'm interested in the kinds of ambiguities which can be encountered when attempting to analyse the agglutinative verbs of Georgian into their component "slots". Georgian verbs may have an optional ...
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Constraints on Kartvelian preverbs

In Georgian and its related languages there is a concept of the "preverb", which is much like the separable and inseparable verb prefixes in German or in English phrasal verbs with a preposition or ...