Structure and meaning of morphemes and how they interact with the grammatical structure of utterances.

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2
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2answers
181 views

“used to” for past habitual: analysis

I teach ESL at the adult level. I am trying to analyze "used to" for past habitual, as in: My car used to malfunction a lot. Is "used to" an adverb-phrase meaning something like 'for a long time ...
3
votes
1answer
56 views

Balto-Slavic Infinitive and PIE 3rd p., sg, present endings

I'm curious to ask if the suffix -tī for the infinitive in Balto-Slavic is related to the PIE third person, singular, present suffix -ti? Although there is no reason (from a functional point of ...
2
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0answers
37 views

What is some standard analysis for “Look me in the eye”

I am looking for hints where to find a ("standard") analysis of something like this english dative construction: Look me in the eye Clearly, the "the" in this phrase is semantically scoped BY the ...
1
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0answers
37 views

Why “Monotonicity” Hypothesis? (Koontz-Garboden)

Should't it be "monodirectionality hypothesis"? In my understanding, this is about the one-way that material/structure can be added to a sentence-while-generated, but never deleted. (Harley 2013 ...
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0answers
22 views

Russian “crude” translation into English for Theatre Purpose [closed]

I am a playwright/performer and need help with writing a "broken" English version from a native Russian speaker of the following. Please note the show I am doing is in the Ridiculous Theatrical ...
1
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1answer
80 views

Why is syntax called “grammar outside the word ” [closed]

In my book said that syntax is grammar outside the word but i don't understand why can you explain me
4
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1answer
123 views

How frequent are different morphosyntactic types?

I started wondering what share of all world's languages are polysynthetic (on any practical definition of polysynthetic, i.e. the prototype approach, the macroparameter theory (Baker 1995), etc.), and ...
3
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0answers
64 views

Particles and Words Affixing Heads and Phrases

In Malay, there are quite a few words and particles that can affix or modify both heads and phrases. The interrogative suffix -kah is one of them. -Kah affixing heads Tidak-kah sakit kecederaan ...
-1
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1answer
48 views

What are the dimensions along which English & Portuguese differ? [closed]

What are the dimensions along which English & Portuguese differ, and how are these dimensions of variation related and restricted?
-4
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1answer
37 views

I'd like to know your point of view about that [closed]

Are there explanations for the morphological similarities and differences between languages? Which ones?
2
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1answer
125 views

How can case systems emerge diachronically?

This questions applies only to the languages which originally did not feature noun case systems and developed it over time through various sound, morphological and syntactical changes. By a case ...
5
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1answer
54 views

TAM categories: Can they be predicted from their numbers (a language's TAM inventory size)?

To some extent, vowels can be predicted based on the size of the vowel inventory, so, for example, in a 3-vowel system, it will be /a i u/, whereas in a 4-vowel system, we will get /a i u ɛ/ or /a i u ...
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0answers
31 views

are words more independent from syntax in non-analytical languages? Does this affect language processing?

When we think about the morphology and syntax, the debate arises. Even if they are protagonist parts of linguistic debates, and even if they are usually address separately, the importance of each ...
2
votes
1answer
124 views

Evidence for/against Lexical integrity principle

Some (mostly lexicalist) theories of syntax assume that there's a 1-to-1 relationship between the words in a sentence and the nodes in its syntax tree. It seems pretty obvious to me. Is there ...
5
votes
3answers
237 views

Vocatives and Case Assignment

Vocatives, which are basically nouns that refer to the person to whom the speech event is directed, are said to be detached from the sentences in which they occur. Mary, I hate you. I don't think I ...
3
votes
0answers
59 views

Kuryłowicz on cases and prepositions

I've read Kuryłowicz's classic paper "Le problème du classement des cas" and I'm not sure how to interpret what he says about the difference between case affixes and prepositions. Does he in effect ...
1
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2answers
63 views

Monoclausality in dependency trees

I've read Alex Alsina's papers on complex predicates and I understand why they are a problem for the syntax-semantics interface. If we wanted to build a syntax tree for a complex predicate in Romance, ...
3
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0answers
68 views

Word classes reliant on phonological form?

1) Are there any documented languages in which a certain word class corresponds to a particular phonological structure? A. CVC(VC) = Noun In Polish, the word kot 'cat' (CVC) corresponds to a ...
1
vote
3answers
223 views

How do formal theories analyse the syntax of polysynthetic languages?

How is syntax of polysynthetic languages (e.g. Inuktitut, Mohawk) represented in formal theories of syntax? In many cases, a sentence consists of only one or two words so the syntax tree is rather ...
1
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0answers
39 views

Does Lao (or Thai) have any “verbalizer” morphemes?

I know of at least two morphemes in lao which are nominalizers that can convert lexical verbs or adjectives into nouns: ການ and ຄວາມ. What I'm wondering is whether there are any counterparts which ...
2
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0answers
68 views

On the search for an example sentence from a German textbook

Once I read three sentences build of made-up words with correct German declination and conjugation, so you were able to parse this sentence although it beared no semantic meaning. It was something ...
3
votes
2answers
119 views

How do various frameworks account for situations when multiple cases can be assigned?

My mother and I went to the market. My mother and me went to the market. Many (most?) English speakers today will accept both of these as grammatical. But it would be hard to argue that they ...
0
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1answer
75 views

What are some alternative communities/forums that are home to engaged linguists? [closed]

I have made accounts on some forums that seem quite lackluster. Quora can be fun, but it's not really enough. Reddit fails in this regard. I would love to find a forum for discussion that I can look ...
3
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1answer
155 views

Can a language have both nominative/accusative and ergative/absolutive syntactic systems in its syntactic structure?

These examples are from Kui, a Trans New Guinean language spoken on Alor island, Indonesia. (1) nya yai umasingin u=ga=sam u=ga=bur=i. 1pl.Sub v. n. appl=3sg....
1
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1answer
65 views

What are lexical and morpho-syntactic alternations?

I ought to write a paper with corpus-based analysis of a lexical or morpho-syntactic alternation. In other words, the paper should deal with two (or more) nearly synonymous lexical items or morpho-...
3
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1answer
272 views

Subject/Complement Agreement. How to describe problem with “The thing is the objects.”

In http://ell.stackexchange.com/questions/29140/is-or-are-the-only-thing-that-i-want-you-to-hit-right-now-is-are-the-books/29170#29170, I provided the following, problematic, wording (especially bold ...
2
votes
2answers
112 views

Do phrase structure rules for natural languages explicitly mark which constituents can consist of coordinated constituents of the same type?

I'm only beginning to review phrase structure rules, so let's take a very basic example: "A sentence consists of a noun phrase + a verb phrase." S --> NP + VP Now the NP can consist of "NP + NP," ...
3
votes
2answers
128 views

How does one gloss a case that has both locative and genitive meaning?

I am designing a language where a single case affix expresses both loc and gen. How should such a case be labelled? An example would be: house-GEN.LOC 'in the house'; he-GEN.LOC house-3POSS 'his ...
6
votes
2answers
149 views

Arabic word stress in the presence of an elided hamza (“hamzat al-waSl”)

Word stress in MSA follows a precise set of rules, which are described consistently in various Arabic grammar textbooks, e.g. Ryding's "A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic" (2005). However, ...
6
votes
1answer
134 views

In Latin protases, what's the different between the future and future perfect tenses?

In Latin, so-called "future more vivid" conditionals can take one of two tenses in the protasis: Future: Si aedificabis, venient "If you build it, they will come." Future perfect: Si aedificaveris, ...
2
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0answers
37 views

Looking for books etc on gender animacy in Oromo

I request you if you are willing and able to help me on my linguistics thesis with the title of The morphosyntax of gender animacy and clitics in Oromo. Oromo is one of the Cushitic branch languages ...
10
votes
4answers
365 views

Are the morphologies of languages based on regular grammars?

Is the sets of possible morphemes of any given language a regular set, and can thus be recognized by a finite state automaton, or, equivalently, matched by regular expressions? Or are there any ...
9
votes
3answers
345 views

Can anyone point me toward articles/theory that syntax and morphology operate on the same principles?

Looking for articles and or theories that explore the idea that morphology and syntax are not separate but operate on the same principles; for example, that the sentence is just an extended ...
6
votes
2answers
163 views

Is it okay that Ergative case be unmarked?

I found a language of Celebes island in Indonesia, its name is Mongondow (mog). It has a Phillipine's Alignment morphosyntactic which it has combination of Accusative and Ergative languages. The word ...
3
votes
1answer
150 views

“Enumerators” and Approximate Inversion

There's a term that, as far as I know, goes back to traditional Celtic grammar called "enumerators". These are essentially words that inflect for number in weird ways when preceded by a numeral, that ...
2
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0answers
268 views

What are some theoretical motivations for do-support?

I've been attempting to put together an overview of the various theoretical motivations that have been proposed for do-support in the literature, but the topic has been frustratingly difficult to ...
1
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0answers
104 views

Exists there a language in which the patient of transitive verbs and the single argument of intransitive verbs are treated alike?

I am somewhat familiar with (not at all learned of)the morphosyntactic criteria by which many languages are classified--such as the system by which the grammatical abstractions of agent, argument, and ...
9
votes
2answers
285 views

Are there languages where adjectives are clearly neither noun-like nor verb-like?

Most language I have some knowledge of have adjectives with are either a) nominal in nature or b) verbal in nature. (apologies if this is not the best wording.) In German, Romanian, and Georgian, ...
7
votes
2answers
249 views

Is there are strong case for the existence of languages that lack a clear morpho-syntactic distinction between nouns and verbs?

Is there a strong case for the existence of languages that lack a clear morpho-syntactic distinction between nouns and verbs? If so, what would be an example of a phrase structure for a uniclausal ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Is Conversion syntactic or morphological?

Conversion, such as: permit (verb): I permit you to do so permit (noun): Take this permit Can be considered to be a morphological (i.e. lexical) process. But there are arguments for it being a ...