Natural Language Processing: Computer programming techniques designed to aid in processing human language.

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Pros and cons of the different annotation schemes that encode semantic information [on hold]

Over the years, a number of annotation schemes that encode semantic information have been developed and used to produce data sets for training machine learning algorithms. What are the pros and cons ...
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20 views

How to identify mentions in a text?

I am looking for rule-based methods or any other methods to identify all mentions in a text. I have found several libraries that give coreferences but no exact options for only mentions. What I want ...
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48 views

Extracting Rare Words From A Corpus

This question might be too general, or opinion-based, but I was looking for advice on how to extract rare words from a very large corpus. The rare words wouldn't necessarily be consistent from ...
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1answer
55 views

representing a sentence in integers ( hopefully retaining semantic value )

I've been trying to convert natural language strings into integers for use in a long short-term neural-network. I tried converting to binary, using a bag-of-words, and an associative-array with each ...
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22 views

Downloadable list of Romance-language cognates?

I'm looking for tables of cognates between French, Spanish and Italian (and potentially Latin, Portuguese, Catalan, etc.), so I can run some Python on them. If they could have extra information such ...
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1answer
44 views

Word Co-occurrence and collocation difference?

This Wikipedia page says, "In contrast to collocation, co-occurrence assumes interdependency of the two terms". But I'm not really sure what that means by interdependency of the two terms. Can someone ...
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26 views

programmatically access IME [migrated]

Is there a way to access Japanese or chinese IME either from the command line or python? I have Linux/osx/win8 boxes, so which ever system exposes the easiest accessible api is fine. I'm ...
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1answer
49 views

What should I do of inter-annotator agreement is below 100%?

I am currently working on an NLP project where I had to mark an initial list of words, giving a score of either 1 or 2 to each word in the list. I got the list marked by 2 people and found that the ...
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38 views

Inside-outside algorithm (PCFG learning) and binarization

I am implementing the Inside-outside algorithm to estimate the parameters of a PCFG based on the train corpus. One observation (on existing implementations) is that, the grammar is converted into ...
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2answers
74 views

How to identify corresponding sentences in source and translation texts?

I'm interested in creating files where a source text and translation are interleaved with each other, so that each sentence (or small group of sentences) is immediately followed by its translation. ...
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1answer
23 views

Semi-offset Annotated Data

I want to use the data provided by CoNLL 2012 shared task. They mentioned that the data is semi-offset annotated, I couldn't find any interpretation for the term "semi-offset annotation". Can anyone ...
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45 views

Categorizing short sentences into a taxonomy

I feel like I might be in the wrong exchange, but I do not see a NLP exchange, so I figured this was the best bet. My current task is to take short sentences and try to categorize them based on some ...
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1answer
59 views

Text Summarization Tool

I'm looking for tools I can use to perform text summarization. Specifically something I could use to summarize personal communication (i.e. email). Preferably I'm looking for something open source ...
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64 views

What's the real need for an end-symbol in n-gram models?

There's a footnote in Jurafsky & Martin (2008, p.89) pointing out that, without an end-symbol, an n-gram model would not be "a true probability distribution". Even after seeking the paper they've ...
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19 views

NLP: How to do feature normalisation for gender classificiation?

NOTE Before I begin, this F-measure is not related to precision and recall, and its title and definition is taken from this paper. I have a feature known as the F-measure, which is used to measure ...
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36 views

How do PCFG parsers actually work?

I'm new to NLP. I have a few doubts about PCFG parser (NLTK). My understanding is that PCFG parser will return most probable parse tree. So if I'm parsing one sentence with PCFG parser, I'll be ...
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1answer
78 views

Gold Part-Of-Speech tags

I've read this term in many papers in NLP: (Gold POS tags). what does it mean? Thanks.
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1answer
60 views

What is the most comprehensive context-free grammar for English?

I realize how hard it is to develop a CFG to model an arbitrary English sentence. Some valid discussion points for this topic can be found here: Is there an EBNF that covers all of English? However, ...
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1answer
81 views

Steps to build a dependency parser [closed]

I'm a beginner in NLP. What are the main steps to build a dependency parser? thanks.
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37 views

markov chains in text generation

I'm a beginner in natural language processing, what is the disadvantages of using markov chains in text generation versus using productive grammars? any help or keywords? thanks.
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126 views

Detecting actions within text

I'm looking for a way to computationally find any actionable clauses within a body of text. Ideally there is a library I could use that I just give a body of text and it spits out the actions that it ...
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41 views

Finding word frequency for calculating PMI

I am going to calculate PMI (Pointwise Mutual Information) for a set of words. As we know, for calculating PMI for two words we need to have the frequency of words (specifically, 1-gram and 2-grams). ...
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62 views

What are the most promising research directions for natural language generation?

I have just discovered Natural Language Generation, which seems like a very interesting field. The idea of taking something like highly-structured database records and transforming them into natural ...
2
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2answers
80 views

Determine adjective order algorithmically

Does NLTK (or any other Python natural language module) have the ability to determine the order of multiple modifier adjectives? For example: metal round huge bowl (incorrect) huge round metal bowl ...
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1answer
40 views

What is the linguistic significance of dep and gov methods in Stanford NLP's Typed Dependency class?

I am looking at a TypedDependency object like this: root(ROOT-0, fired-4), which is part of the StanfordNLP suite. If I call the object's .dep() method I get fired/VBD If I call the object's .gov() ...
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2answers
80 views

Book suggestions for linguistics for Computer Science people

I am asked to do some NLP tasks on a language which is agglutinative. I am finding these terms difficult to understand since my background is different. I am looking for some nice books that give a ...
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1answer
114 views

Earley Parser: Ambiguity

I've got a pretty basic question concerning the Earley parser: In case of syntactic ambiguity ( S -> NP VP(V NP(NP PP)) vs. S -> NP VP(VP((V NP) PP) ), are both parses stored in one chart or in two? ...
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1answer
146 views

Combine dictionary lemmatization with stemmer

I'm doing lemmatization as part of a classifier right now. My question is, if it makes sense to first use a dictionary lookup, to find the lemmas (wordnet) and after that additionally, to apply a ...
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48 views

VerbNet semantic roles and preposition groups - how to determine matches

Using verbnet to test whether a sentence matches a frame, how does one determine whether the semantic role specified in the verbnet frame is appearing in the sentence or not? e.g. on this verbnet ...
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12 views

Identifying styles of reasoning in text

I'm trying to programmatically identify in a text some elements of "style of reasoning". I'm more specifically thinking about syllogism, induction, abduction, deduction, etc. More generally i would ...
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1answer
61 views

What is state of the art in the field of NLP? [closed]

I am new to Natural Language Processing, I think NLP is a challenging field, the syntax and semantic ambiguities could cause a lot of problems. For example I think for these problems machine ...
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29 views

Any NLP performance timeline?

I am looking for any plots, etc. that show performance metrics on various NLP tasks as a function of year. E.g. [the following ...
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1answer
237 views

What do WordNet::Similarity scores mean?

I am using WordNet Interface in NLTK, which facilitates computation of a number of similarity metrics: Path similarity Leacock-Chodorow Similarity Wu-Palmer Similarity Resnik Similarity ...
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49 views

NLP system with end-to-end ambiguity support?

I've noticed that most NLP systems I can easily investigate on the Internet don't handle ambiguity at all, or only handle within components of the pipeline and not between components. For instance it ...
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1answer
213 views

NLP conversion between parts of speech and pertainyms?

I would like to write a program that can automatically group e.g. 'happiness', 'happily', 'happy' into 'happy': What do I need to read to get a handle on this subject? What is it called? What is the ...
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43 views

adjective features - similar to beth Levin's verb classes?

Beth Levin published research on verb classes/alternations - is there similar for the adjective category of words? I can see references to countable/uncountable, gradable,absolute, of quantity/quality ...
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38 views

Where to find a dataset of related/sister terms

I'm working on a Natural Language Processing project that requires me to automatically categorize various articles. I've tried creating categories based on wikipedia, freebase and dbpedia but often ...
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5answers
296 views

Introduction to linguistics from a practical application standpoint

I currently have a project that I need to do that involves quite a bit of computational linguistics. My background in linguistics is very high level - I wonder if there are any good introductory ...
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2answers
85 views

Probabilities for 2-grams are higher than 1-grams in arpa file produced by kenlm

I'm using the 1 billion word language corpus to build a model with 1 and 2-grams. When using the lmplz program that comes with kenlm, I noticed that the arpa file seems to have higher probabilities ...
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2answers
190 views

Noise Removal -Text classification

I am doing a text classification task. My text is questions and answers in a community question answering website. I want to extract tags from the title , existing tags, and BODY of the questions and ...
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71 views

Punctuation and spaces in other common languages?

For example, in Chinese, a full stop is 。 (U+3002) and a space is   (U+3000). I need to break paragraphs into sentences and I want to make it compatible with as many languages as possible. What other ...
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1answer
66 views

recognizing if a message is question or not?

Although there are appreciable comments and an answer after this question (thank to Robert and Acattle), I am much seeking for a Knowledge branch, (e.g. an "NLP sub-task") than an individual research: ...
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1answer
90 views

Spelling Correction on Romanized Devanagari texts

Has anything been done in this regard? I am looking for research that has been conducted for spell checking of Romanized Devanagari text. I suppose well researched English spell checking algorithms ...
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2answers
167 views

How to determine whether a given sentence is demanding an answer or is providing some information?

I tried with basic thing like whether question starts with who/what/.. but there are a lot many sentences which do not start with interrogative words but still demands an answer like "hotels in ...
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1answer
41 views

Tokenizing first and last name as one token

Is is possible to tokenize a text in tokens such that first and last name are combined in one token? For example if my text is: text = "Barack Obama is the President" Then: text.split() ...
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170 views

Two sentences with the same meaning

I am looking for a statistical or linguistic method that could give the degree of similarity between the meaning of two sentences. I have found in literature many distance measures (euclidean ...
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1answer
124 views

Where to study probability and natural language processing from? [duplicate]

I am a programmer and I am interested in Natural Language Processing. I studied it a bit in college, but it was years ago and anyway it wasn't enough for a good knowledge of the field. I'm ...
2
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2answers
533 views

How to generate grammatically correct sentences?

I'd like to give something like this: # John # eat + past # apple and get back the grammatically correct sentence: John ate an apple. Which software can I use for such generation?
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64 views

Node level with Stanford dependency parser

I am trying to find a way to select the node(word) level using Stanford dependency parser. But, i haven't found any method that help to get the node level. I will be very grateful for your help
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139 views

annotation tool to work with XML Schema

Is there an annotation tool which can create annotation tasks automatically using an XML schema? The desirable annotation markup may be specified with an XML schema file. I'd like to be able to ...