Questions on notation used in linguistics

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What is the notation used in Functional Discourse Grammar?

The paper Functional Discourse Grammar by Kees Hengeveld and J. Lachlan Mackenzie describes objects in FDG using notation like the formulae below. (π v1: [head (v1)Φ]: [σ (v1)Φ]) (π M1: [(A1) ... ...
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1answer
44 views

What are *L and *W used to denote in Optimality Theory

In certain papers on Optimality Theory (e.g. this paper by McCarthy, or this) the tableaus contain the notations *L and *W, as seen in the image below: What is meant by these notations? The second ...
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2answers
451 views

Basic syntax notation: noun phrase vs determiner phrase

I'm a first-semester student in linguistics and I need clarifications regarding the following trees: (1) and (2) My course notes seem to stick with the first kind of notation but when I read ...
3
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1answer
124 views

What is the Aramaic transliteration system used in the “Aramaic of Jesus” Wikipedia article?

The Wikipedia article "Aramaic of Jesus" contains many instances of transliterated Aramaic, using a system I have not seen before. Some of the notations are well-established, like ŝ for /ʃ/ and ...
3
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2answers
271 views

How are these diagrams read?

I naively picked up a book in which the author assumes that the reader has a background in linguistics, so she often uses abbreviations without first explaining what they mean. I don't have such a ...
7
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1answer
378 views

IPA transcription of the American English “bunched” /r/

There are 2 common articulations of /r/ and /r̩/ in American English, one retroflex, and the other dorsal. This phone is called the molar or bunched r. It can be described roughly as a back-palatal or ...
4
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1answer
154 views

Abbreviations for “gerund”, “gerundive” and “supine”?

Are there some commonly used abbreviations for "gerund", "gerundive" and "supine"?
7
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135 views

What do reversed and dotted tone letters mean?

The IPA uses the 5 tone-letters ˥,˦,˧,˨,˩. Unicode also has reversed (꜒,꜓,꜔,꜕,꜖) and dotted tone bars (꜈,꜉,꜊,꜋,꜌; ꜍,꜎,꜏,꜐,꜑). What are these characters used for?