Questions on notation used in linguistics

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2
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57 views

How can I use C's and V's to describe syllable structures in a way that rules out highly unlikely syllable structures?

How can I use C's and V's to describe syllable structures in a way that rules out highly unlikely syllable structures? For example, I recently looked up the fact that "The structure of the Hawaiian ...
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2answers
53 views

Do phrase structure rules for natural languages explicitly mark which constituents can consist of coordinated constituents of the same type?

I'm only beginning to review phrase structure rules, so let's take a very basic example: "A sentence consists of a noun phrase + a verb phrase." S --> NP + VP Now the NP can consist of "NP + NP," ...
2
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0answers
142 views

What is the notation used in Functional Discourse Grammar?

The paper Functional Discourse Grammar by Kees Hengeveld and J. Lachlan Mackenzie describes objects in FDG using notation like the formulae below. (π v1: [head (v1)Φ]: [σ (v1)Φ]) (π M1: [(A1) ... ...
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1answer
46 views

What are *L and *W used to denote in Optimality Theory

In certain papers on Optimality Theory (e.g. this paper by McCarthy, or this) the tableaus contain the notations *L and *W, as seen in the image below: What is meant by these notations? The second ...
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2answers
621 views

Basic syntax notation: noun phrase vs determiner phrase

I'm a first-semester student in linguistics and I need clarifications regarding the following trees: (1) and (2) My course notes seem to stick with the first kind of notation but when I read ...
3
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1answer
131 views

What is the Aramaic transliteration system used in the “Aramaic of Jesus” Wikipedia article?

The Wikipedia article "Aramaic of Jesus" contains many instances of transliterated Aramaic, using a system I have not seen before. Some of the notations are well-established, like ŝ for /ʃ/ and ...
3
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2answers
294 views

How are these diagrams read?

I naively picked up a book in which the author assumes that the reader has a background in linguistics, so she often uses abbreviations without first explaining what they mean. I don't have such a ...
7
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1answer
481 views

IPA transcription of the American English “bunched” /r/

There are 2 common articulations of /r/ and /r̩/ in American English, one retroflex, and the other dorsal. This phone is called the molar or bunched r. It can be described roughly as a back-palatal or ...
4
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1answer
181 views

Abbreviations for “gerund”, “gerundive” and “supine”?

Are there some commonly used abbreviations for "gerund", "gerundive" and "supine"?
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2answers
139 views

What do reversed and dotted tone letters mean?

The IPA uses the 5 tone-letters ˥,˦,˧,˨,˩. Unicode also has reversed (꜒,꜓,꜔,꜕,꜖) and dotted tone bars (꜈,꜉,꜊,꜋,꜌; ꜍,꜎,꜏,꜐,꜑). What are these characters used for?