The discrete and distinctive units constituting the internalized inventory of sounds of a language. A sequence of phonemes is the preverbal form of a word. Phonemes may be systematically distorted upon verbalization, resulting in an allophone. Phonemes and allophones are both "phones".

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Theoretical implications of different models of distinctive features

There are multiple models of distinctive features. Wikipedia distinguishes between three main approaches: Acoustic: Jakobson and colleagues defined them in acoustic terms,[11] Articulatory: ...
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1answer
54 views

Glottal stops that aren't tenuis

Is any language known to contain a glottal stop [ʔ] that isn't tenuis? For example, an aspirated glottal stop [ʔʰ], a palatalized glottal stop [ʔʲ], or a labialized glottal stop [ʔʷ]. CORRECTION: It ...
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29 views

Are there Tai languages (or Tai-Kadai) which have a voiced velar stop phoneme?

Thai and Lao each have three series of stops, unvoiced unaspirated, aspirated, and voiced. For labials and alveolars, all three exist, but for velars there is no voiced stop. Is this the case for ...
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0answers
8 views

Proper noun patterns advice [migrated]

I hope this isn't too vague a question, but I don't know where to find resources for this sort of thing (My Google-Fu was not up to the challenge for this subject). In some Role Playing Game source ...
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2answers
183 views

Why don't any languages have strictly one character for every single phonetic sound?

Of the languages I know about, most of them (not Chinese, Japanese, etc.) only have characters or character groups for specific sounds, and also can have a single specific sound generated by placing ...
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1answer
64 views

Size of phonemic inventory of individual speakers across different accents and dialects of English

This started out as a trivially simple question: How many phonemes are there in the different dialects and accents of English? I just needed a simple reference for a point about the teaching of ...
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1answer
44 views

acoustic features for english phonems

in this following paper , if we go to page no- 126 we will find a table with all acoustic features of all german Phonemes. ...
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4answers
582 views

Can a vowel and a consonant be allophones of the same phoneme?

Are there languages where a vowel and a consonant can be allophones of the same phoneme?
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1answer
75 views

SAMPA of a language - phones or phonemes?

I currently hear a lecture with the topic "Spoken Language Processing" and I have problems to understand SAMPA. I know that the IPA encodes the phones of human languages, so its possible to encode the ...
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3answers
188 views

When I hear the sound “s” am I hearing [s] or /s/… or?

This is really a terminological issue. The phoneme is only in the mind of the speaker /s/ The phonological segment is that which the speaker articulates [s] What is it that the speaker "hears"? Is ...
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1answer
97 views

Does any language using the Latin alphabet have a unique name for “w”?

In English, we call w "double-u", referring to the original representation of [w], which looked like uu, or two us. Then, in French, they pronounce it "double-veh", presumably because the modern form ...
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1answer
87 views

What were allophone rules for [r] in Old English and Middle English?

I gather that [r] (trill) was realized as [ɹ] in different dialects of Old English and Middle English, but when [r] was used, was it an allophone? In other words, did [r] vary predictably with [ɹ] ...
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1answer
83 views

Consonantal innovations in Hungarian

The Hungarian language seems to have many phonetic features uncommon in other Uralic languages- for example, phonemic voicing in its stops and sibilants and the presence of a labiodental fricative ...
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1answer
805 views

List of French minimal pairs

I recently asked a general question about minimal pairs (i.e. words that differ by one phoneme) and got a link to a website that provides a comprehensive list of English minimal pairs. Is there a ...
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1answer
107 views

Which English phonemes can be distinguished via lip-reading?

Is there a comprehensive list about which phonemes in the English language can be distinguished via lip-reading and which can't?
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1answer
218 views

Resource for German minimal pairs

I recently asked a general question about minimal pairs and got a link to a website that provides a comprehensive list of English minimal pairs. Is there a similar list for German minimal pairs?
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0answers
157 views

Database of words that differ by one phoneme

I want to test whether people are able to distinguish different phonemes from each other. Example: men (/mɛn/) and man (/mæn/) The user of the software is supposed to hear the correct pronunciation ...
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3answers
644 views

How many different distinctive sounds can an average human make?

If we wanted to create an all new alphabet composed of as much letters as possible, with each letter corresponding to one distinctive sound. What's the maximum amount of letters we could have? Oh and ...
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2answers
333 views

List of phoneme per language

I there a resource that lists the phonemes that are used in different languages? I would prefer a ranking of the most common phonemes within each language like in this example: German: 1 /ɛ/ 2 /ə/ ...
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1answer
220 views

Question regarding leading “r” sounds in Japanese

I'll start by saying I'm not trained in formal linguistics. So I won't have the slightest qualms being told what I'm saying doesn't make too much sense. I'm a native speaker of American English. I've ...
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1answer
77 views

Australian Aboriginal Languages: Fricatives

Can anyone give me any information at all on the distribution of fricatives (or the lack thereof) in Australian aboriginal languages, nearby languages, and worldwide? Additionally, any further or ...
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2answers
121 views

How do you figure out the underlying sound of several allophones?

For example if I know that [s],[z], [dz] and [ez] are allophones. How do I determine the underlying phoneme sound?
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0answers
62 views

Where do I get all the phonemes of RP English in audio?

I need an authoritative link or a standard which linguists use as a reference point (to compare). It would be not bad if someone knows more or less right phonemes (wav) links (with correct formants ...
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158 views

IPA for Slender Irish /r'/ in Connemara Dialects

Edit: I would also be willing to reward the bounty if someone can partially answer the question by stating if my proposed IPA is possible based on the description or not. I am specifically asking ...
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1answer
95 views

Do some words have secondary or unintended click consonants?

I am currently trying to learn Tamil. My friend who is teaching me seems to be making a clicking sound with one word in particular, and she can't seem to tell she's making it. The word is குளம் ...
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2answers
164 views

What, if any, difference is there between long vowels and a double vowels?

What, if any, difference is there between long vowels and a double vowels, i.e. consecutive identical vowels? For example, what is the difference between /i:/ and /ii/? Phonetically, could it be ...
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3answers
240 views

Can a phoneme function as an allophone?

Let's say some hypothetical language had the phones [g],[k],[ʔ],[h] and we determined /g/ to be the UR of the following allophones: /g/: [g],[k],[ʔ] But upon further examination, you may be able to ...
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1answer
61 views

Pronunciation Dictionary for Portuguese

Is there any comprehensive pronunciation dictionary for Portoguese language like CMU dictionary for English? Thanks.
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1answer
182 views

Correlation between vowel sounds and compact alphabet used in English and its acceptance

English is the preferred language in many fields of study and in international communications, it has more vowel sounds than many languages, but a compact alphabet, which in my opinion is why English ...
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1answer
109 views

Is there a language-independent notation system that can compare the phonemes found in different languages?

I need to make a comparison of the phonemes commonly spoken in Standard Chinese and English to spot the differences. I tried to use some IPA charts, but then found in Convert audio recording of word ...
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0answers
125 views

What is the difference between an ejective consonant and a sequence of consonant + glottal stop?

Is it just the simultaneousness? Also - can a sequence of say uvular stop and glottal stop become - diachronically - an uvular ejective? Thanks :))
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5answers
855 views

Languages with the fewest phonemes

Which natural languages have the fewest phonemes?
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1answer
472 views

Where can I find a dataset of language phoneme sets?

I'm looking for a dataset of phoneme sets for the most widely spoken languages. Something like the sort of thing available here: http://web.phonetik.uni-frankfurt.de/upsid.html though the data there ...
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1answer
235 views

Is there a way to learn Icelandic phonetics online?

I want to learn Icelandic online, but am struggling to produce some phonemes. I am unable to find an IPA translator for Icelandic and think it'd be easier for me if I could see some of what I learn ...
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111 views

What does a phonemic rewrite mean?

We have been doing phonemic rules in class, and our professor says to write a "phonemic rewrite" of words based on these rules, where these words are written like so "/_/". While I understand the ...
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2answers
310 views

Why do people from a certain region sometimes have difficulty pronouncing certain sounds?

There is a word in Indian Bengali which is "sala", but in Banladesh Bengali it is pronounced as "Hala". The "s" becomes "h" in a Bangladeshi's tongue. Similarly "Tsunami" seems to be impossible to be ...
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1answer
369 views

IPA for phonemes - does this make sense at all?

On the Wikipedia page for the International Phonetic Alphabet, slashes for phonemes are mentioned quite casually, without getting into the discussion of how or if it makes sense to use a phonetic ...
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1answer
685 views

Is there a language with but one vowel sound?

Is there a language known to have no minimal pairs separating vowels, or in which only one vowel exists phonemically in the language, or whose speakers don't detect a difference between any two vowels ...
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1answer
447 views

Mandarine Phonemes: Which ones are not shared by English AND the most likely to be used?

There are 214 (by one count) Mandarin phonemes. How can I learn Which of those are not shared by English? Which of the remaining number are in the most common use (assuming they follow the Pareto ...
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1answer
187 views

For natural languages, are there writing systems that consist entirely of signs for phonemes on one hand and grammatical morphemes on the other?

At omniglot.com, we find scripts whose characters more-or-less stand for consonant phonemes, or all phonemes, or syllables, or words. But I've never heard of a language whose written form consists ...
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2answers
456 views

Is there an IPA character for the sympathetic sucking in sound?

Is there an IPA symbol for the sound you might make when you burn yourself or someone tells you a story about an injury they have—when you suck your breath quickly through your teeth with your ...
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0answers
139 views

Patterns of accent changes by non-native English speakers

I am looking for a list of 'accent changes', or pronunciation inaccuracies, non-native English speakers commonly make when speaking English words. The list would obviously be native language specific ...
7
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1answer
208 views

“oeuvre”: foreign phonemes in a loanword

I recently came across oeuvre, which in the two out of two times I've heard the word spoken (in an English context), sounded like it does in Merriam-Webster's online audio pronunciation, that is, with ...
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3answers
2k views

Definition(s) of phoneme

What different definitions of phoneme do you know? Please note that I'm not asking for an explanation of what phoneme is but rather for professional definitions. I'm interested in how the issue is ...
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4answers
246 views

Are there languages in which two or all three of /χ/, /x/, and /ç/ are opposed as distinct phonemes?

These (and some others) are all quite similar raspy sounds to most ears and by features other than place of articulation: [χ] unvoiced uvular fricative [x] unvoiced velar fricative [ç] unvoiced ...
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3answers
1k views

Where did Spanish get its /x/? Arabic influence?

Most Romance languages don't have /x/ (like the j in hijo), nor did Latin. Where did Spanish /x/ come from? Internal development, Arabic influence, or something else? Since Moroccan Arabic also has ...
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2answers
844 views

Where does the term “segment” fit in in relation to “phone” and “phoneme”?

In a recent question seeking to clarify how diphthongs relate to phonemes, another term popped up in the comments, segment. This made me wonder if "segment" is some kind of synonym for either "phone" ...
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Is a diphthong one phoneme or two, or does it depend?

In Mitch's answer to "What is the difference between a diphthong and a glide?" and its comments it seems more than one of us is at least a bit confused as to how many phonemes a single diphthong ...
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7answers
549 views

If similar phonemes are pronounced the same, will this be difficult to understand for a native speaker?

In French, phonemes like /e/ and /ɛ/ are so similar in sound. In English, phonemes like /o/ and /ɔ/ are just so similar too. Brief is that, in almost any language, there are phonemes which are very ...
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3answers
619 views

Which languages other than Chinese have apical vowels?

Which languages other than some Chinese languages have apical vowels? The "apical vowels" are the i in zi, ci, si (in IPA: z̩ (also seen as ɿ)) and ʐ̩ (also seen as ʅ). They are basically buzzed ...