The discrete and distinctive units constituting the internalized inventory of sounds of a language. A sequence of phonemes is the preverbal form of a word. Phonemes may be systematically distorted upon verbalization, resulting in an allophone. Phonemes and allophones are both "phones".

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82 views

Any languages without the following list of consonants?

I was wondering if there are any living languages without any of the following: /ɬ/ or /ɮ/, postaveolars and palatals—with the exception of /j/? Again, a list of the excluded consonants are- ...
1
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4answers
180 views

Are there minimal pairs between normal length and long vowels in English?

Are there minimal pairs between vowels of normal length such as a and vowels of long length such as aː?
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4answers
113 views

why there are many different ways to pronounced a phoneme?

A phoneme may be pronounced in different ways, depending on its position in the utterance, and still remain the same phoneme. Why?
2
votes
1answer
69 views

How strong was the r/l distinction in Proto-Afro-Asiatic?

The East Asian languages do not distinguish r and l. The PIE had r/l alternation in suffixes: -tlom/-trom, -dhlom/-dhrom, -ter/-tel, -ros/-los. What can be said in this context about Afro-Asiatic ...
2
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5answers
112 views

Phonemic Transcription Ambiguity?

I recently learned the the flap [ɾ] letter is part of both the /t/ and /d/ phonemes. A common example is writer /ˈraɪtər/ and rider /ˈraɪdər/. If they're both pronounced [raɪɾər], then shouldn't the ...
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0answers
61 views

Tips for pronouncing sounds that does not exist in the student's mother thongue [closed]

This is my first post here. My name is Bruno and I'm a native (Brazilian) Portuguese speaker. Besides Portuguese, I only have a rough knowledge of American English. I spite of that, I am trying to ...
6
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2answers
76 views

How do allophones become distinct phonemes?

The title pretty much sums up my question, but to elaborate, how do allophones of phonemes become their own distinct phonemes? For example: in Old English, /θ/ became /ð/ between vowels, but in ...
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2answers
84 views

How similar are phonemes across different languages?

As a side thought to my current efforts looking at types of minimal-pairs, the similarity between sounds across other languages has occurred to me. After some searching, I failed to find an answer to ...
0
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1answer
37 views

The difference/realtionship between allophones and diaphonemes

I'm trying to understand the difference/relationship between the concepts "allophone" and "diaphoneme." The Wikipedia article for allophone says this: For example, [pʰ] (as in pin) and [p] (as ...
2
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3answers
69 views

Given a vowel system, how do I find the tendencies and universals that are manifested with it?

Suppose I am given a vowel system (for example, 'i', 'upside down and then flipped e', 'a' and 'u'). How do I figure out the tendencies and universals manifested in the vowel system? Based on my ...
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0answers
63 views

If two glyphs representing one phoneme is a “digraph,” what is one glyph representing two phonemes called?

Two glyphs representing one phoneme is a "digraph," but what is it called when one glyph represent two phonemes? For example, the Greek letter ξ (represents the two grouped phonemes, /ks/) or ψ (...
2
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1answer
87 views

Phoneticians versus phonologists

What is the difference between a phonetician and a phonologist? I've seen these two terms somewhere on this site but can't figure out the difference.
2
votes
2answers
101 views

How is an archiphoneme represented on the phonetic level?

Consider an archiphoneme N that can be realized as n, ng, or as a nasal on a vowel depending on the context. Is this representation, below, standard i.e. with the archiphoneme as a capital letter on ...
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votes
1answer
113 views

Can someone please explain the basic principles of optimality theory?

i am struggling to understand optimality theory. I want to make a research paper on the definiteness system in my dialect using that theory? plz help me
2
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2answers
62 views

Mapping graphemes to phonemes in CMUDict

I'm trying to make a fun little "Halloweenify" feature where a user types in his or her name and gets a scary version. (Julie becomes "Ghoulie", Robert becomes "Macabert"). I have a huge list of ...
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2answers
77 views

Labiodental sounds in languages

I noticed that IE languages often derive /v/ from /w/. It is a bit of a rare sound (predominantly IE?). I wonder how /v/ came about in various languages? In general, labiodentals seem to be a more "...
2
votes
3answers
192 views

If two phonemes are merged in pronunciation across a morpheme boundary, are the corresponding letters a digraph?

I want a third, preferrably referenced opinion on a terminological dispute here. The problem is the following (though I am avoiding the actual example to avoid unnecessary complication): In German ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

Influence of the climate and geography on the phonemes

I would like to construct a language for a fictional world. From what I gathered in different places, the first element to consider are the phoneme used by the speakers. However, since I already have ...
4
votes
2answers
212 views

Was the change in spelling from “cw” to “qu” in English associated with any difference in pronunciation?

I always thought that "cw" in Old English represented /kw/, and the same for modern English "qu", and that the change from one to the other was purely orthographic, since the "qu" digraph was more ...
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1answer
27 views

From where I can get phonemes in audio format?

I am working on a speech recognition system and to begin with I need all phonemes of English in audio format by which I will be able to compare with my speech fragments.
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2answers
109 views

Frequency of phonemes consisting of two phones in world languages

I want to create nice name for international service. My idea is based on the fact, the word which consisting of phonemes that have high frequency in the native language, sounds good. So, the same ...
0
votes
2answers
171 views

Is there a comprehensive list of all (or many) phonological rules (specifically allophonic) of the English language available anywhere online?

It would be very helpful to have for a programming project I'm working on involving grapheme-to-phoneme translation. I've been able to find many rules for phonemes but not too many for allophones.
2
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1answer
79 views

Which English phonemes are the easiest to distinguish from each other?

I work as a literacy tutor in a preschool and part of my job is to help students develop phonological awareness by teaching them how to identify rhymes and alliteration. To make it as easy as possible ...
1
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1answer
376 views

Phonemes: German vs. English

How many of the same phonemes in the German language are found in the English language? Same consonants? Vowels? Resources for this?
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3answers
532 views

Determining underlying representation

I'm really confused about how to determine underlying representation. Every thing I read seems to contradict the last. Trying desperately to solve this problem and I just seem to be going in circles ...
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2answers
41 views

Theoretical implications of different models of distinctive features

There are multiple models of distinctive features. Wikipedia distinguishes between three main approaches: Acoustic: Jakobson and colleagues defined them in acoustic terms,[11] Articulatory: ...
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3answers
221 views

Glottal stops that aren't tenuis

Is any language known to contain a glottal stop [ʔ] that isn't tenuis? For example, an aspirated glottal stop [ʔʰ], a palatalized glottal stop [ʔʲ], or a labialized glottal stop [ʔʷ]. CORRECTION: It ...
1
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0answers
50 views

Are there Tai languages (or Tai-Kadai) which have a voiced velar stop phoneme?

Thai and Lao each have three series of stops, unvoiced unaspirated, aspirated, and voiced. For labials and alveolars, all three exist, but for velars there is no voiced stop. Is this the case for ...
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2answers
290 views

Why don't any languages have strictly one character for every single phonetic sound?

Of the languages I know about, most of them (not Chinese, Japanese, etc.) only have characters or character groups for specific sounds, and also can have a single specific sound generated by placing ...
1
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1answer
106 views

Size of phonemic inventory of individual speakers across different accents and dialects of English

This started out as a trivially simple question: How many phonemes are there in the different dialects and accents of English? I just needed a simple reference for a point about the teaching of ...
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votes
1answer
135 views

acoustic features for english phonems

in this following paper , if we go to page no- 126 we will find a table with all acoustic features of all german Phonemes. http://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=...
7
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5answers
957 views

Can a vowel and a consonant be allophones of the same phoneme?

Are there languages where a vowel and a consonant can be allophones of the same phoneme?
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1answer
150 views

SAMPA of a language - phones or phonemes?

I currently hear a lecture with the topic "Spoken Language Processing" and I have problems to understand SAMPA. I know that the IPA encodes the phones of human languages, so its possible to encode the ...
3
votes
3answers
209 views

When I hear the sound “s” am I hearing [s] or /s/… or?

This is really a terminological issue. The phoneme is only in the mind of the speaker /s/ The phonological segment is that which the speaker articulates [s] What is it that the speaker "hears"? Is ...
2
votes
1answer
124 views

Does any language using the Latin alphabet have a unique name for “w”?

In English, we call w "double-u", referring to the original representation of [w], which looked like uu, or two us. Then, in French, they pronounce it "double-veh", presumably because the modern form ...
4
votes
1answer
120 views

What were allophone rules for [r] in Old English and Middle English?

I gather that [r] (trill) was realized as [ɹ] in different dialects of Old English and Middle English, but when [r] was used, was it an allophone? In other words, did [r] vary predictably with [ɹ] (...
3
votes
1answer
97 views

Consonantal innovations in Hungarian

The Hungarian language seems to have many phonetic features uncommon in other Uralic languages- for example, phonemic voicing in its stops and sibilants and the presence of a labiodental fricative /f/....
2
votes
2answers
2k views

List of French minimal pairs

I recently asked a general question about minimal pairs (i.e. words that differ by one phoneme) and got a link to a website that provides a comprehensive list of English minimal pairs. Is there a ...
3
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1answer
231 views

Which English phonemes can be distinguished via lip-reading?

Is there a comprehensive list about which phonemes in the English language can be distinguished via lip-reading and which can't?
2
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1answer
423 views

Resource for German minimal pairs

I recently asked a general question about minimal pairs and got a link to a website that provides a comprehensive list of English minimal pairs. Is there a similar list for German minimal pairs?
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0answers
330 views

Database of words that differ by one phoneme

I want to test whether people are able to distinguish different phonemes from each other. Example: men (/mɛn/) and man (/mæn/) The user of the software is supposed to hear the correct pronunciation ...
0
votes
7answers
3k views

How many different distinctive sounds can an average human make? [closed]

If we wanted to create an all new alphabet composed of as much letters as possible, with each letter corresponding to one distinctive sound. What's the maximum amount of letters we could have? Oh and ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

List of phoneme per language

I there a resource that lists the phonemes that are used in different languages? I would prefer a ranking of the most common phonemes within each language like in this example: German: 1 /ɛ/ 2 /ə/ ....
5
votes
1answer
307 views

Question regarding leading “r” sounds in Japanese

I'll start by saying I'm not trained in formal linguistics. So I won't have the slightest qualms being told what I'm saying doesn't make too much sense. I'm a native speaker of American English. I've ...
1
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1answer
122 views

Australian Aboriginal Languages: Fricatives

Can anyone give me any information at all on the distribution of fricatives (or the lack thereof) in Australian aboriginal languages, nearby languages, and worldwide? Additionally, any further or ...
4
votes
2answers
322 views

How do you figure out the underlying sound of several allophones?

For example if I know that [s],[z], [dz] and [ez] are allophones. How do I determine the underlying phoneme sound?
0
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0answers
158 views

Where do I get all the phonemes of RP English in audio?

I need an authoritative link or a standard which linguists use as a reference point (to compare). It would be not bad if someone knows more or less right phonemes (wav) links (with correct formants .....
7
votes
0answers
248 views

IPA for Slender Irish /r'/ in Connemara Dialects

Edit: I would also be willing to reward the bounty if someone can partially answer the question by stating if my proposed IPA is possible based on the description or not. I am specifically asking ...
4
votes
1answer
120 views

Do some words have secondary or unintended click consonants?

I am currently trying to learn Tamil. My friend who is teaching me seems to be making a clicking sound with one word in particular, and she can't seem to tell she's making it. The word is குளம் ...
5
votes
2answers
233 views

What, if any, difference is there between long vowels and a double vowels?

What, if any, difference is there between long vowels and a double vowels, i.e. consecutive identical vowels? For example, what is the difference between /i:/ and /ii/? Phonetically, could it be ...