The discrete and distinctive units constituting the internalized inventory of sounds of a language. A sequence of phonemes is the preverbal form of a word. Phonemes may be systematically distorted upon verbalization, resulting in an allophone. Phonemes and allophones are both "phones".

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1answer
27 views

The difference/realtionship between allophones and diaphonemes

I'm trying to understand the difference/relationship between the concepts "allophone" and "diaphoneme." The Wikipedia article for allophone says this: For example, [pʰ] (as in pin) and [p] (as ...
2
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3answers
25 views

Given a vowel system, how do I find the tendencies and universals that are manifested with it?

Suppose I am given a vowel system (for example, 'i', 'upside down and then flipped e', 'a' and 'u'). How do I figure out the tendencies and universals manifested in the vowel system? Based on my ...
0
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0answers
55 views

If two glyphs representing one phoneme is a “digraph,” what is one glyph representing two phonemes called?

Two glyphs representing one phoneme is a "digraph," but what is it called when one glyph represent two phonemes? For example, the Greek letter ξ (represents the two grouped phonemes, /ks/) or ψ ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

Phoneticians versus phonologists

What is the difference between a phonetician and a phonologist? I've seen these two terms somewhere on this site but can't figure out the difference.
2
votes
2answers
75 views

How is an archiphoneme represented on the phonetic level?

Consider an archiphoneme N that can be realized as n, ng, or as a nasal on a vowel depending on the context. Is this representation, below, standard i.e. with the archiphoneme as a capital letter on ...
-3
votes
1answer
81 views

Can someone please explain the basic principles of optimality theory?

i am struggling to understand optimality theory. I want to make a research paper on the definiteness system in my dialect using that theory? plz help me
1
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2answers
35 views

Mapping graphemes to phonemes in CMUDict

I'm trying to make a fun little "Halloweenify" feature where a user types in his or her name and gets a scary version. (Julie becomes "Ghoulie", Robert becomes "Macabert"). I have a huge list of ...
1
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2answers
72 views

Labiodental sounds in languages

I noticed that IE languages often derive /v/ from /w/. It is a bit of a rare sound (predominantly IE?). I wonder how /v/ came about in various languages? In general, labiodentals seem to be a more ...
2
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3answers
165 views

If two phonemes are merged in pronunciation across a morpheme boundary, are the corresponding letters a digraph?

I want a third, preferrably referenced opinion on a terminological dispute here. The problem is the following (though I am avoiding the actual example to avoid unnecessary complication): In German ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Influence of the climate and geography on the phonemes

I would like to construct a language for a fictional world. From what I gathered in different places, the first element to consider are the phoneme used by the speakers. However, since I already have ...
3
votes
2answers
182 views

Was the change in spelling from “cw” to “qu” in English associated with any difference in pronunciation?

I always thought that "cw" in Old English represented /kw/, and the same for modern English "qu", and that the change from one to the other was purely orthographic, since the "qu" digraph was more ...
0
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1answer
20 views

From where I can get phonemes in audio format?

I am working on a speech recognition system and to begin with I need all phonemes of English in audio format by which I will be able to compare with my speech fragments.
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2answers
93 views

Frequency of phonemes consisting of two phones in world languages

I want to create nice name for international service. My idea is based on the fact, the word which consisting of phonemes that have high frequency in the native language, sounds good. So, the same ...
0
votes
2answers
151 views

Is there a comprehensive list of all (or many) phonological rules (specifically allophonic) of the English language available anywhere online?

It would be very helpful to have for a programming project I'm working on involving grapheme-to-phoneme translation. I've been able to find many rules for phonemes but not too many for allophones.
2
votes
1answer
64 views

Which English phonemes are the easiest to distinguish from each other?

I work as a literacy tutor in a preschool and part of my job is to help students develop phonological awareness by teaching them how to identify rhymes and alliteration. To make it as easy as possible ...
1
vote
1answer
308 views

Phonemes: German vs. English

How many of the same phonemes in the German language are found in the English language? Same consonants? Vowels? Resources for this?
1
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3answers
324 views

Determining underlying representation

I'm really confused about how to determine underlying representation. Every thing I read seems to contradict the last. Trying desperately to solve this problem and I just seem to be going in circles ...
0
votes
2answers
41 views

Theoretical implications of different models of distinctive features

There are multiple models of distinctive features. Wikipedia distinguishes between three main approaches: Acoustic: Jakobson and colleagues defined them in acoustic terms,[11] Articulatory: ...
1
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3answers
174 views

Glottal stops that aren't tenuis

Is any language known to contain a glottal stop [ʔ] that isn't tenuis? For example, an aspirated glottal stop [ʔʰ], a palatalized glottal stop [ʔʲ], or a labialized glottal stop [ʔʷ]. CORRECTION: It ...
1
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0answers
47 views

Are there Tai languages (or Tai-Kadai) which have a voiced velar stop phoneme?

Thai and Lao each have three series of stops, unvoiced unaspirated, aspirated, and voiced. For labials and alveolars, all three exist, but for velars there is no voiced stop. Is this the case for ...
1
vote
2answers
270 views

Why don't any languages have strictly one character for every single phonetic sound?

Of the languages I know about, most of them (not Chinese, Japanese, etc.) only have characters or character groups for specific sounds, and also can have a single specific sound generated by placing ...
1
vote
1answer
97 views

Size of phonemic inventory of individual speakers across different accents and dialects of English

This started out as a trivially simple question: How many phonemes are there in the different dialects and accents of English? I just needed a simple reference for a point about the teaching of ...
-1
votes
1answer
108 views

acoustic features for english phonems

in this following paper , if we go to page no- 126 we will find a table with all acoustic features of all german Phonemes. ...
7
votes
5answers
875 views

Can a vowel and a consonant be allophones of the same phoneme?

Are there languages where a vowel and a consonant can be allophones of the same phoneme?
1
vote
1answer
131 views

SAMPA of a language - phones or phonemes?

I currently hear a lecture with the topic "Spoken Language Processing" and I have problems to understand SAMPA. I know that the IPA encodes the phones of human languages, so its possible to encode the ...
3
votes
3answers
201 views

When I hear the sound “s” am I hearing [s] or /s/… or?

This is really a terminological issue. The phoneme is only in the mind of the speaker /s/ The phonological segment is that which the speaker articulates [s] What is it that the speaker "hears"? Is ...
2
votes
1answer
118 views

Does any language using the Latin alphabet have a unique name for “w”?

In English, we call w "double-u", referring to the original representation of [w], which looked like uu, or two us. Then, in French, they pronounce it "double-veh", presumably because the modern form ...
4
votes
1answer
116 views

What were allophone rules for [r] in Old English and Middle English?

I gather that [r] (trill) was realized as [ɹ] in different dialects of Old English and Middle English, but when [r] was used, was it an allophone? In other words, did [r] vary predictably with [ɹ] ...
3
votes
1answer
93 views

Consonantal innovations in Hungarian

The Hungarian language seems to have many phonetic features uncommon in other Uralic languages- for example, phonemic voicing in its stops and sibilants and the presence of a labiodental fricative ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

List of French minimal pairs

I recently asked a general question about minimal pairs (i.e. words that differ by one phoneme) and got a link to a website that provides a comprehensive list of English minimal pairs. Is there a ...
3
votes
1answer
198 views

Which English phonemes can be distinguished via lip-reading?

Is there a comprehensive list about which phonemes in the English language can be distinguished via lip-reading and which can't?
2
votes
1answer
387 views

Resource for German minimal pairs

I recently asked a general question about minimal pairs and got a link to a website that provides a comprehensive list of English minimal pairs. Is there a similar list for German minimal pairs?
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0answers
298 views

Database of words that differ by one phoneme

I want to test whether people are able to distinguish different phonemes from each other. Example: men (/mɛn/) and man (/mæn/) The user of the software is supposed to hear the correct pronunciation ...
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7answers
2k views

How many different distinctive sounds can an average human make? [closed]

If we wanted to create an all new alphabet composed of as much letters as possible, with each letter corresponding to one distinctive sound. What's the maximum amount of letters we could have? Oh and ...
1
vote
2answers
985 views

List of phoneme per language

I there a resource that lists the phonemes that are used in different languages? I would prefer a ranking of the most common phonemes within each language like in this example: German: 1 /ɛ/ 2 /ə/ ...
5
votes
1answer
278 views

Question regarding leading “r” sounds in Japanese

I'll start by saying I'm not trained in formal linguistics. So I won't have the slightest qualms being told what I'm saying doesn't make too much sense. I'm a native speaker of American English. I've ...
1
vote
1answer
106 views

Australian Aboriginal Languages: Fricatives

Can anyone give me any information at all on the distribution of fricatives (or the lack thereof) in Australian aboriginal languages, nearby languages, and worldwide? Additionally, any further or ...
4
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2answers
255 views

How do you figure out the underlying sound of several allophones?

For example if I know that [s],[z], [dz] and [ez] are allophones. How do I determine the underlying phoneme sound?
0
votes
0answers
136 views

Where do I get all the phonemes of RP English in audio?

I need an authoritative link or a standard which linguists use as a reference point (to compare). It would be not bad if someone knows more or less right phonemes (wav) links (with correct formants ...
6
votes
0answers
225 views

IPA for Slender Irish /r'/ in Connemara Dialects

Edit: I would also be willing to reward the bounty if someone can partially answer the question by stating if my proposed IPA is possible based on the description or not. I am specifically asking ...
4
votes
1answer
117 views

Do some words have secondary or unintended click consonants?

I am currently trying to learn Tamil. My friend who is teaching me seems to be making a clicking sound with one word in particular, and she can't seem to tell she's making it. The word is குளம் ...
5
votes
2answers
217 views

What, if any, difference is there between long vowels and a double vowels?

What, if any, difference is there between long vowels and a double vowels, i.e. consecutive identical vowels? For example, what is the difference between /i:/ and /ii/? Phonetically, could it be ...
2
votes
3answers
304 views

Can a phoneme function as an allophone?

Let's say some hypothetical language had the phones [g],[k],[ʔ],[h] and we determined /g/ to be the UR of the following allophones: /g/: [g],[k],[ʔ] But upon further examination, you may be able to ...
1
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1answer
84 views

Pronunciation Dictionary for Portuguese

Is there any comprehensive pronunciation dictionary for Portoguese language like CMU dictionary for English? Thanks.
1
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1answer
272 views

Correlation between vowel sounds and compact alphabet used in English and its acceptance

English is the preferred language in many fields of study and in international communications, it has more vowel sounds than many languages, but a compact alphabet, which in my opinion is why English ...
2
votes
1answer
124 views

Is there a language-independent notation system that can compare the phonemes found in different languages?

I need to make a comparison of the phonemes commonly spoken in Standard Chinese and English to spot the differences. I tried to use some IPA charts, but then found in Convert audio recording of word ...
3
votes
0answers
159 views

What is the difference between an ejective consonant and a sequence of consonant + glottal stop?

Is it just the simultaneousness? Also - can a sequence of say uvular stop and glottal stop become - diachronically - an uvular ejective? Thanks :))
4
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5answers
2k views

Languages with the fewest phonemes

Which natural languages have the fewest phonemes?
3
votes
1answer
905 views

Where can I find a dataset of language phoneme sets?

I'm looking for a dataset of phoneme sets for the most widely spoken languages. Something like the sort of thing available here: http://web.phonetik.uni-frankfurt.de/upsid.html though the data there ...
3
votes
1answer
436 views

Is there a way to learn Icelandic phonetics online?

I want to learn Icelandic online, but am struggling to produce some phonemes. I am unable to find an IPA translator for Icelandic and think it'd be easier for me if I could see some of what I learn ...