The study of the production and perception of sounds or "phones".

learn more… | top users | synonyms

-1
votes
2answers
37 views

How is the concept of formant used in linguistics different from that used in instrumental music?

Linguists use the term "formant" to refer to refer to those frequency components that e.g. distinguish one vowel from another. Typically, we refer to F1, F2, F3, and F4 and their role in determining ...
0
votes
3answers
72 views

Determining underlying representation

I'm really confused about how to determine underlying representation. Every thing I read seems to contradict the last. Trying desperately to solve this problem and I just seem to be going in circles ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Aside from Praat, which are the professional options for speech analysis?

I'm working as a forensic linguist at an upcoming trial. No details to share, but I need something highly professional. Praat is obviously a fine speech analysis program (and I know it well from my ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Armenian pH < PIE *p(H)?

PIE * p has widely become h in Armenian (e.g. հարց (harts) "question" < * prsk-, հուր (hur) "fire" < * pur-, etc.). However, some have claimed that the verb փլիլ (pHlil) "to fall in, collapse", ...
0
votes
2answers
30 views

Theoretical implications of different models of distinctive features

There are multiple models of distinctive features. Wikipedia distinguishes between three main approaches: Acoustic: Jakobson and colleagues defined them in acoustic terms,[11] Articulatory: ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Do languages with long clusters have minimal vowel or consonant inventories?

I assume, considering the Onset principle, that there are not many languages that have a structure with VV or VVV but are there languages that have a CV.VV structure? If there is, I would assume that ...
2
votes
2answers
74 views

What is the history of the International Phonetic Alphabet?

I know it has its origins in the International Phonetic Association, but the idea of a unique alphabet for each speech sound of the world's languages organized by place and manner must've had an ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Why are non-stop nasals so rare?

Almost every language has at least two nasal stops (usually /n/ and /m/), and a language that lacks any nasal stops is extremely rare. And yet, also very rare is any kind of nasal that isn't a stop, ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Voiced aspirated sonorants? (Not breathy voiced)

I was looking at the Wikipedia page on the Wa Language and came across something strange in the consonant table: the consonants [mʰ], [nʰ], [ɲʰ], [ŋʰ], [rʰ], [jʰ], and [lʰ]. Not only are they ...
4
votes
1answer
92 views

The effect of speeding up speech waveforms on formant frequencies

I understand that formants represent the resonances of the vocal tract and that the frequency of a formant is determined by the shape and size of the vocal tract. If we speed up the speech waveform, ...
1
vote
2answers
190 views

Why don't any languages have strictly one character for every single phonetic sound?

Of the languages I know about, most of them (not Chinese, Japanese, etc.) only have characters or character groups for specific sounds, and also can have a single specific sound generated by placing ...
3
votes
1answer
157 views

What is an example of a language or dialect that contains triphthongs?

I spent some time on a research project examining spectrograms and coding vowels for speakers of American English from a few rural regions in the state of Oklahoma. I noticed that certain speakers ...
2
votes
1answer
168 views

Why is [f] ambiguous between [f] and [s] after saying the word <three>?

I used an automated customer service system that requires reading off one's case id. The case id I had included the sequence "3F." The speech recognition software was only tripped up by that ...
0
votes
3answers
76 views

What is the IPA notation for Chinese zuo4cuo4 做错?

zuo4cuo4 is the pinyin-notation for 做错 = doing wrong. To my ear zuo4 and cuo4 sound very similar. I need the IPA notation to understand the difference in articulation.
3
votes
2answers
70 views

Are there letters or diacritics in the IPA suitable for narrow/phonetic descriptions of the Malay final -h?

In Malay there is a syllable-final -h with some unique properties distinct from the "normal" syllable-initial h. But in all the accounts of the language I can only see a single symbol used, the ...
-1
votes
2answers
90 views

What is the linguistic process behind prolonging of vowels?

Vowels can change from short vowels to long vowels in time But from a diachronic perspective, what is happening? Please fill in with some examples of vowels that have been prolonged and that have ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Is the labiodental flap used only in the beginning of words?

In 2005, the IPA phonetical alphabet got extended by including the labiodental flap. The wikipedia-page shows a good overview. However, I am wondering if the labiodental flap is restricted to be ...
0
votes
3answers
88 views

What is the difference between an alveolar trill and a syllabic alveolar trill?

I wanted to understand how to articulate the sound ṛ from IAST (transliteration system for indian languages). On Wikipedia i have found this explanation: ऋ पृ [ərə] (traditional) or [ri] ...
0
votes
2answers
46 views

What phonologically redundant features can capture the characteristic of a voice more specifically?

Background-Explanation: A sound can be described by a list of articulatory features: If the list is sufficient to determine the function of the sound in a particular language, it matches the ...
2
votes
2answers
116 views

Are the unreleased stops in cantonese discernable by listening?

Background-Info: In contrast to mandarin Chinese, which can only have a few consonants at the and of a syllable, e.g. man, mang, Cantonese syllables can contain p,t,k at their end. Nevertheless, ...
8
votes
1answer
260 views

Can a stop be both voiced and aspirated?

One day while discussing things with my friends, we came across the topic of trying to pronounce the sound [gh]. No such symbol actually exists in the IPA to my knowledge, but hypothetically it would ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

How do I hear “shimmer”?

How would you impressionistically guess if a voice has a high degree of "shimmer" (as opposed to a lot of "jitter"). I know these variable have to do with hoarseness or breathiness, but I have ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

How do I draw just one channel of a waveform in Praat?

I have a nice 2-channel recording in Praat. I want to illustrate the waveform for an article, but when I select file>draw visible sound, the result is both channels. Is there any way to adjust this so ...
1
vote
2answers
201 views

Does sample text exist that includes most sounds represented by the International Phonetic Alphabet?

My understanding of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is that it aims to provide a set of letter-based values that represent and map to fundamental sounds present in human languages. My ...
-1
votes
1answer
48 views

acoustic features for english phonems

in this following paper , if we go to page no- 126 we will find a table with all acoustic features of all german Phonemes. ...
3
votes
3answers
109 views

What's the difference between [ɚ], [ɹ̩], and [əɹ]?

I've seen the "-er" sound in English (like in butter) transcribed in all three of the above ways, but I've heard there are subtle differences between them. What are these differences, if there are ...
2
votes
1answer
100 views

What are examples of Haudricourt's tonogenesis in Chinese?

As far as I know, tonogenesis occurs when consonants merge. The merging of initial consonants results in register tones and the merging of final consonants results in contour tones. What are concrete ...
2
votes
2answers
95 views

Examples of discrete place-of-articulation changes

Most sound changes that involve consonantal place of articulation are gradual changes between two POAs that are contiguous: for example, a velar gets gradually fronted until it becomes a palatal. What ...
1
vote
2answers
129 views

Which other languages pronounce <j> as [dʒ]

On a related question, the OP points out that the grapheme j has a variety of pronunciations throughout various languages: as [ʒ] in French, [j] in German, and [x] in Spanish. Does any other language ...
7
votes
5answers
639 views

Can a vowel and a consonant be allophones of the same phoneme?

Are there languages where a vowel and a consonant can be allophones of the same phoneme?
1
vote
2answers
133 views

How does passing air through a narrow glottis cause vibrations?

I'm studying phonetics as part of a Linguistics degree, and in my textbook, the author discusses how we make our vocal folds narrow, almost touching, such that air passing through vibrates. This is ...
0
votes
1answer
86 views

What is the difference between velar and ejective stops?

What is the difference between the velar stop [kʰ] and the ejective [k̛ ]? And how are they pronounced?
0
votes
2answers
108 views

How to work with an IPA chart?

I am trying to learn French vowel sounds using this IPA chart. My question is about this chart. I use it for the first time and I am interested how comprehensive it is. Does a position at this chart ...
2
votes
1answer
112 views

The 'ch' sound in Chilean Spanish — is there a difference between these symbols?

I am researching dialects in Chilean Spanish , and one feature that is often mentioned (and one that you can hear all across Chile in conversation) is the varying pronunciation of the 'ch' sound. I ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

How are “spectral properties” distinct from “linguistic properties”?

As a linguist, I have a good idea of what linguistic properties of a sound can be: be they describable in terms of distinctive features or whatever. But what, then, are spectral properties? It's not ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Pronunciation software?

Do you know of any pronunciation or phonetics software that would be useful to ESL learners? I have read that software with spectrographs or xrays showing tongue placement are very effective. I am ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Software that analyses a speech recording and displays a graphic readout

Are there programs that take a recording of human speech as input, perform some kind of phonetic analysis and then return a graphic readout of the phonemes that have been found? I'm currently trying ...
3
votes
3answers
188 views

When I hear the sound “s” am I hearing [s] or /s/… or?

This is really a terminological issue. The phoneme is only in the mind of the speaker /s/ The phonological segment is that which the speaker articulates [s] What is it that the speaker "hears"? Is ...
0
votes
2answers
95 views

Acoustic description of Polish vowels

Using formants, it is possible to produce an acoustic description of vowel quality. Basically, the first formant (F1) corresponds to vowel height, and the second formant (F2) to vowel backness, as ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Roles of the vocal cords

I've heard that there are 3 parts to the vocal cords: the true vocal cords, and the "false" vestibular folds and ventricular ligament. I read that the vestibular serves some function in chanting and ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

Suggestions for brushing the insides of lower back teeth

When I brush my toddler's teeth, I want good access to the lingual (inside) side of the lower back teeth, to brush them. Thus, I want my kid with parted lips and teeth and with the tongue pulled away ...
2
votes
0answers
94 views

Palatalization in English words like street, storm, etc [closed]

More and more people on television are pronouncing street as "shtreet" and storm as "shtorm", replacing the initial /s/ with /ʃ/. Where and when did this start in mainstream America?
1
vote
0answers
49 views

What phonetic features are commonly used in forensic speaker identification and verification?

Speaker verification is the task of estimating how likely it is that two speech recordings come from the same speaker, while speaker identification tries to match a speech recording with one of a ...
1
vote
0answers
92 views

R before TH sound?

Most of time when I say a word with r before θ or ð, my tongue slides on my palate and it goes to down mouth, behind my lower teeth. This movement produce a sound similar with tap or click, sometimes ...
5
votes
2answers
213 views

Why has Paris French mostly lost the distinction between /e/ and /ɛ/?

Why has Paris French mostly lost the distinction between /e/ and /ɛ/? As in, the difference between 'Je le ferai' and 'Je le ferais', 'poignée' and 'poignet', or more simply between the é sound and ...
3
votes
1answer
116 views

How is it that such varied sounds (in major European Languages) came to be represented by the same letter “j”?

The letter "j" is pronounced differently in the following major European languages: English: just (just) Spanish: justo (husto) German: junge (yunguh) French: juste (zoost) How is the ...
1
vote
2answers
89 views

Where on the Internet can I find sound files so that I can hear the alveo-palatal consonants?

Where on the Internet can I find sound files so that I can hear the alveo-palatal consonants? I've been relying on this chart ... http://westonruter.github.io/ipa-chart/keyboard/ ... to help me ...
1
vote
1answer
76 views

Are songs more difficult to understand than normal speech?

On the Internet one can find lists of misheard lyrics. But are songs really more difficult to understand than normal speech? And if so, why is that? You may also want to check out the term ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Why are f0 candidates stacked vertically in all .pitch files in Praat, like this one?

Why is it that, if I zoom into a .pitch file in Praat, the little numbers (pitch candidates) that are displayed are stacked into vertical lines?
4
votes
1answer
82 views

What, if any, prosodic information can be gleaned from a study of a waveform?

Can any sort of prosodic information (e.g. rhythm, intensity, pitch) be seen/understood just from a waveform alone (without reference to e.g. spectrograms)?