The study of the production and perception of sounds or "phones".

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Where can I find a vowel analyzer app or program?

I'm looking for a smartphone app or computer program that will listen to me pronouncing a vowel and will tell me where exactly the vowel is located in the IPA vowel chart. Does anyone know of apps or ...
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0answers
25 views

Arabic sin and shin sounds in Classical times

What sounds did س and ش‎ make in (early) Classical Arabic? I have heard that maybe they were not [s] and [ʃ]. Is that a widely accepted truth? If that's true, what is the evidence for that?
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2answers
125 views

How many vowels and how many consonants did the Proto-Indo-European Language have?

I am interested in development paths of Russian and English sound systems. At present the situation is as follows: according to WALS, the consonant inventory of modern Russian is classed as ...
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2answers
57 views

Human Vocal Tract: possibilities and impossibilities

I'm currently looking at an old past paper which asks why it would be impossible for a human vocal tract to produce a pharyngeal nasal and a uvular click. Could anyone help me out?
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1answer
41 views

Voiced obstruents (and sonority in general)

I (think that I) understand that sonorants are sonorous because airflow is continuous, non-turbulent, and so resonate at such a frequency that the vocal tract acoustic filter amplifies them. And I ...
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54 views

Finnish data, Consonant Gradatition

I am working on the blow Finnish data. As far as I understand there are 3 alternatives: 1) K -> 0 ( in "fault" group) 2) kk-> k (in "firplace" and "dot" group) 3) k-> k ( in "sledgehammer") The ...
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5answers
108 views

Phonemic Transcription Ambiguity?

I recently learned the the flap [ɾ] letter is part of both the /t/ and /d/ phonemes. A common example is writer /ˈraɪtər/ and rider /ˈraɪdər/. If they're both pronounced [raɪɾər], then shouldn't the ...
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63 views

English stress, abstract analysis

I am reading introductory phonology by Bruce Hayes, in chapter 12 he proposed an abstract analysis for English stress.Based on his proposed a word like cassette has been through a process like below: ...
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3answers
216 views

What is the phonetic reason for the occurence Sun and Moon letters in Arabic?

In Arabic, letters (or more accurately phonemes) are categroised into two categories: Sun letter and Moon letter in regard to what happen if we add Al (the) to them. Moon letters don't cause any ...
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39 views

Computational production of diphthongs

I am trying to generate vowels on MATLAB by using source-filter model. In case of monophthongs I'm using Rosenberg pulse as my source signal and then this source signal is convoluted with sounds ...
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3answers
73 views

Help with palatalisation and syllabification

Does palatalisation only occur at the beginning of a given word? All textbook examples (muse, beauty...) are at the beginning. Could somebody also explain syllabification? (Lecturer hardly covered ...
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4answers
72 views

How do they separate phones' length?

In phonetics we use below symbols to talk about phones' length. My question is that how do we measure it? In other words, since these terms (long, half-long extra-short) are relative, how do we ...
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2answers
40 views

What is syntagmatic axis?

I sort of know that syntagmatic axis is how phonemes arrange in a language, is it true? What is it in general?
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2answers
54 views

what are natural classes and how are they classified?

I know the general concept behind natural classes but what is the philosophy for some classes like syllabic? and are there any relationship between any two classes (like being sonorant and being ...
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0answers
49 views

Tips for pronouncing sounds that does not exist in the student's mother thongue [closed]

This is my first post here. My name is Bruno and I'm a native (Brazilian) Portuguese speaker. Besides Portuguese, I only have a rough knowledge of American English. I spite of that, I am trying to ...
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2answers
40 views

What is the philosophy of prosodic transcription?

Why are we transcribing prosody? and what is the philosophy behind it? In general what is the purpose of it?
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1answer
99 views

Can we have “rhoticized consonant”?

I presume that if your tongue tip is free while you're articulating a consonant, you can make a secondary narrowing with your tongue tip towards the alveolar ridge to produce a double-articulated ...
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2answers
87 views

Is there any way to draw a pitch track, sound wave, and annotation in Praat?

I can draw a combination of a Sound and a TextGrid, and the combination of a Pitch and a TextGrid, but I cannot draw the combination of all three, like it appears in the editor window. Is this a ...
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1answer
47 views

What is Fall-plus-Rise (phonetics)?

1) Is it a tone? 2) How do you pronounce it? How it would look like in the intonogram? 3) Is it the same thing as Divided (Extended) Fall-Rise? Are there any differences? 4) Is this tone used for a ...
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2answers
38 views

How to save the process of your work in PRAAT?

Is it possible to save the process of your project (not a result of it) in PRAAT programme so that you can change smth later etc and do not do the same things over again?
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1answer
22 views

do the vocal folds vibrate when producing oral stops of zero VOT?

we usually say voiceless stops are produced with vocal folds not vibrating. but when we introduce the idea of VOT, we say VOT is a specific feature for stop consonants that measures the amount of time ...
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2answers
43 views

Amplitude as the y-axis on a waveform

I just noticed, perhaps naively, that the representation of amplitude on the y-axis of a waveform is somewhat paradoxical. Although the space between each value on the y-axis is identical, the units ...
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42 views

Is “scandent” - a tone? (phonetics)? [closed]

I have a scandent mark on a word and I should identify a tone of it. Can I say just "scandent" or it should be one of the rising tones (like High Rise etc)?
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2answers
100 views

What, precisely, is a phoneme? [duplicate]

I'm currently enrolled in an introductory linguistics course at my school, and I am having a hard time pinning down what phonemes are. My text defines phonemes as: "A distinctive structural element ...
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5answers
264 views

Is there an easy way to type IPA?

I'm currently using http://ipa.typeit.org/full/ but it takes forever. Is there an easy way to type IPA? I've found this list of unicode keyboards over here ...
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1answer
65 views

So, if we fix our mouth & tongue in a particular position then we can make ONE & ONLY ONE distinct vowel sound right?

Ok see the following IPA vowel chart Let say to make the long /i/ sound then the front of the tongue need to be as front as possible in the mouth and as close as possible to the roof of the mouth. ...
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1answer
29 views

Finding segments in Praat textgrids

I need to find the second to last segment in a segment tier (1) within a word on the word tier (3). So far, I have: # Find the word in the word tier n = Get number of intervals: 3 for i to n label$ ...
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105 views

The drop/weakening of “h” sound in General American English

I noticed that the speakers with the General American accent occasionally weaken the "h" sound in words like "had" e.g. "You had this and that." becomes kind of like "You ad this and that." (I can't ...
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1answer
53 views

Any suggestions for real-time phonetic analysis packages?

I'm writing some software that will need to do a bit of phonetic analysis. Are there any programs, libraries, or software packages that I can extend to my program which are commonly used for real-time ...
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20 views

How can one measure loudness/intensity in a speech signal when there was no control for mic placement?

As part of a research project, I have to compare the loudness/intensity of speech on a few recordings of men and women. However, my colleague who made the recordings didn't control the placement of ...
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3answers
147 views

Should I use square brackets or slashes when transcribing an oral text in IPA?

I am transcribing an oral text into IPA in order to compare it with the "correct" pronunciation of words (e.g. according to the dictionary). I am using slashes for both versions, but it feels ...
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1answer
34 views

What is the most efficient way to compress “words”? [closed]

There are many ways a word can be expressed, or things a word is: With textual characters and a dictionary spelling, With phonetic symbols and a phonetic spelling With sound, a recording of the ...
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71 views

Similar sounds - phonemes, words and word-sequences

I'm looking for a way to identify words (single or in a sequence) that are audibly confusable (but not the same). So I'm looking for what could be described as "near heterographs"? If it helps, think ...
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1answer
59 views

which kind of phonetic symbol is it?

I read a electric dictionary in which the phonetic symbol are descirbed in the weird form. For example: afar / E5fB:(r); E`fBr/ which kind of phonetic symbol is it? Is there a full mapping ...
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3answers
145 views

Is it feasible to create an IPA adaptation for cats?

I was trying to transcribe my cat's noises into IPA. For example, her wanting to be petted is like [njæː] or [njaː]. But purring doesn't seem to fit any existing notation, except maybe [ʜ]. Has anyone ...
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1answer
48 views

Do both phonetics and phonology deal with diacritics? [closed]

Do both phonetics and phonology deal with diacritics? Or is studying phonology is necessary for phoneticians and vice versa in the first place? I understand that phonetics focuses more on phones, ...
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1answer
34 views

The difference/realtionship between allophones and diaphonemes

I'm trying to understand the difference/relationship between the concepts "allophone" and "diaphoneme." The Wikipedia article for allophone says this: For example, [pʰ] (as in pin) and [p] (as ...
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1answer
83 views

Acoustic difference in breathing in and breathing out

Many people can distinguish whether a person is inhaling or exhaling only by audio, even when the tongue and the lip position (=formants) is the same. That must mean there is a difference in the ...
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51 views

How to do a vowel continuum using Praat?

I was going to make a vowel continuum using two real sounds. I used the script below but the sounds I made all sounded similar...which means I didn't succeed in making a continuum... ...
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45 views

Uvular Fricative Trill vs Uvular Fricative vs Preüvular Fricative

I'm having trouble differentiating the uvular trill, uvular, and preüvular fricatives. While I understand that the preüvular variant is more fronted, it sounds to me like many acclaimed uvular ...
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1answer
86 views

Are Lana's “Yup!”s triphthongs?

At some point in the Archer series, Lana starts saying very emphatic Yup!s. I was recently wondering about triphthongs and whether they occur in English, and found the Wikipedia entry had only a few ...
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20 views

Forced alignment for a new language

Could anyone suggest what Forced Aligner should be the best for being modified to work with a new language (Bengali)? Which one should allow the most convenient way to train new language models and ...
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0answers
90 views

metathesis linguistic notation

znƷæbil /Ʒnzæbil/ Ginger /znƷæbil/ /Ʒnzæbil/ /nærƷin/ /ræanƷin/ /fænilæh/ /fælinæh/ /Ʒenzir/ /znƷir/ this is the data could you plz help me? can you help me to write the metathesis ...
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1answer
111 views

The phonological rules of metathesis and epenthesis

Could you provide me with the general rule of both metathesis and epenthesis? I can write the rules regarding specific case in metathesis and epenthesis but I couldn't find out the general rule.
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1answer
39 views

Generative phonology and segmental phonology

How can I know the difference between generative phonology and segmental phonology?
2
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1answer
82 views

Phoneticians versus phonologists

What is the difference between a phonetician and a phonologist? I've seen these two terms somewhere on this site but can't figure out the difference.
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31 views

Gliding from Unrounded to Rounded Vowels (or Vice Versa)

I've read that in most languages, front vowels are unrounded and back vowels are rounded. This helps make them more distinct from each other so as to be easier to hear in speech. However, different ...
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2answers
120 views

Is the sound “w” a velar or a bilabial consonant?

I am a bit confused about how to classify the sound "w" in English. In some books I find that it's a bilabial and in some others that it is a velar! What is right? Can it be both? In fact yes the ...
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1answer
115 views

Why are the names of some letters hard to understand on the telephone?

It is common experience that some letters are hard to understand when spelling a word in a telephone conversation. What exactly is the reason for this and is there any research as to which letters ...
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1answer
16 views

Are underspecified segments and archiphonemes represented identically in Feature Geometry?

It seems like Feature Geometry doesn't make reference to Archiphonemes - only Underspecified Segments. Is there a theoretically-motivated reason for this, if it is true?