The study of the abstract aspect of the sounds or *phonemes* in a given language.

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What are f0 candidates stacked horizontally in all .pitch files in Praat, like this one?

Why is it that if I zoom into a .pitch file in Praat, a see those little numbers in vertical lines? What is the meaning of those suboptimal values? I guess the best candidate, in pink, is what prat ...
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1answer
60 views

Why is it possible to identify a language without hearing the words?

I have noticed that often while walking in the street in a foreign country, I will be able to recognize that someone nearby is speaking a language I'm familiar with without actually being able to make ...
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1answer
72 views

Uvular harmony?

I'm working on a conlang at the request of a script-writer who wants something very accurate. No problem for me since I spent a lot of time describing minority languages. The point is, the producers ...
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74 views

How is an intervocalic “g” pronounced in Andean Spanish?

It seems that at least in the Andes, a lot of people say e.g. [awa] for "agua"[agwa]. What's the phonological rule behind this? Is it really [w]? Why did this happen in the first place?
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2answers
65 views

Is unvoiced & unaspirated a category of speech?

I know there is 'voiced & unaspirated' and 'aspirated & unvoiced' categories of speech. I have heard there is a 3rd category. What is it?
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89 views

Jedediah → Jebediah: how?

Possibly, the name Jebediah derives from the name Jedediah. If so, then what phonological phenomenon is this an example of, and what are other examples of it?
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1answer
82 views

Is syllable a phonetic or a phonological concept?

Is syllable a phonetic or a phonological concept? Consider 'syllable counting' as a task: would that be regarded as a phonetic task or phonological tasks? Would it depend on whether words are ...
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1answer
64 views

Why is “h” of “-ham” dropped in English place names?

In English, "h" in suffix "-ham" (originated from Old English "home") are skipped when pronouncing so "-ham" sound like "-am". Examples are "Fulham", "Tottenham" etc etc. My question is what causes ...
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2answers
156 views

How many different distinctive sounds can an average human make?

If we wanted to create an all new alphabet composed of as much letters as possible, with each letter corresponding to one distinctive sound. What's the maximum amount of letters we could have? Oh and ...
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1answer
77 views

How far can we decide if there's a code-switching?

How far can we know about the appearance of code-switching? I have an example to ask. Saya baru membeli Honda CRV. In Indonesian, the way to say the letters C, R, and V are cé, ér, and vé. But ...
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2answers
262 views

Correct syllabification in (American) English

I need to figure out what the proper syllabification of words in American English is and why. PLEASE NOTE: I am interested in syllabification from a phonetic point of view, not in terms of ...
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1answer
116 views

Are there tonal languages which use a rising intonation for questions?

I know that in the case of Mandarin Chinese questions do not end with any kind of rising tone unless the last morpheme in the sentence happens to have a rising tone. For questions which don't contain ...
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1answer
94 views

What is the linguistic name of /p͡r/?

I am creating a language called Knashta, and one of the phonemes is /p͡r/. I believe this sound would be a trilled affricate, and I'm guessing that it's name would be a voiceless bilabial alveolar ...
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1answer
74 views

what would be the hypothetic result of *βεβλεπνται in Ancient Greek?

I'm talking about the third plural form of medium/passive perfect, in Ancient Greek. My grammar explains that some very simple verb like παιδεύω may be inflected that way : 1S πεπαίδευ-μαι > ...
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1answer
145 views

Phonology s to š before /i/

I'm trying to figure out the simplest rules to describe the following: [s] —> [š] / __[i] i.e. s becomes š before an /i/ At the moment I have: [+strident] -> [-anterior] / __ [+son, +high] ...
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2answers
187 views

Understanding the STRUT vowel as a listener without the split

John Wells' Lexical Sets define a FOOT vowel /ʊ/ for words like 〈full〉, 〈look〉 and 〈could〉, and a STRUT vowel /ʌ/ for words like 〈cub〉, 〈rub〉 and 〈hum〉. However, I am from the North of England and do ...
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79 views

Common misspellings: Loosing losing [closed]

Anecdotally, it seems like one of the more common misspellings on the net (besides then/than, your/you're, etc.), particularly in documents where everything else is spelled correctly, is to use ...
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47 views

Where do I get all the phonemes of RP English in audio?

I need an authoritative link or a standard which linguists use as a reference point (to compare). It would be not bad if someone knows more or less right phonemes (wav) links (with correct formants ...
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1answer
203 views

Is it possible to have an underlying phoneme in complementary distribution?

Might seem like a stupid question but I'm rather confused right now! :) Also if anyone has any answers to the following... Consider these phonetic forms of Hebrew words: [v] – [b] bika ‘lamented’ ...
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2answers
107 views

Do fricatives turn into affricates after nasal consonants, and why?

I have noticed in a word like sense, the 〈s〉 is pronounced not like a fricative but as the affricate [t͡s] because it is followed by the nasal consonant /n/. Is this phenomenon (a fricative turning ...
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1answer
88 views

Sound change charts/lists

I am looking for a summary of sound change laws of various language families. For example for Indo-European, Uralic, N. Caucasian, Semitic but also within Indo-European e.g. Germanic, Greek etc. Is ...
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130 views

IPA for Slender Irish /r'/ in Connemara Dialects

Edit: I would also be willing to reward the bounty if someone can partially answer the question by stating if my proposed IPA is possible based on the description or not. I am specifically asking ...
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104 views

What ocurrs when a non-strident consonant becomes strident in English?

What is happening when a sound in RP English usage is non-strident [ð] is replaced by a strident sound [v]? For instance, the word 'Father'.
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96 views

Linguistics resources for beginners [closed]

I'm currently reading Jackendoff's Foundations of language and I've realised that my knowledge of syntax, morphology and phonology isn't as strong as I'd like it to be. I'm coming from a psych ...
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2answers
96 views

What is the phonological process whereby a speaker uses [ʊ] as a replacement for [l]?

What is the phonological process whereby a speaker would use [ʊ] as a replacement for [l]? Some examples off the top of my head; [lɪtl] -> [lɪtʊ], [gɪgl] -> [gɪgʊ], [twɪŋkl] -> [twɪŋkʊ]
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3answers
185 views

Can a phoneme function as an allophone?

Let's say some hypothetical language had the phones [g],[k],[ʔ],[h] and we determined /g/ to be the UR of the following allophones: /g/: [g],[k],[ʔ] But upon further examination, you may be able to ...
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1answer
428 views

What's the difference between counterbleeding, bleeding and feeding?

Bleeding is when rule A prevents rule B from applying. But counterbleeding is when two rules are ordered too late to bleed. I see counterbleeding the same as feeding. Let's say you have some segment ...
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32 views

Where can I get data set for metaphony in Italian dialects?

The problem is that most sources refer to phonological data collected a long time ago. Where can I get some fresh stuff to analyze?
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1answer
323 views

Seeking examples of complementary distribution of [s] and [ʃ] in Japanese

[s] & [ʃ] are in complementary distribution within Japanese as I already know, but I don't speak Japanese and I'm finding it difficult to give examples how they are in distribution, are there any ...
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1answer
48 views

Are there good, existing software tools to determine if a given token conforms to English phonological rules?

I'm wondering if there are good software tools or libraries that can be used to evaluate how well a given token conforms to English phonological rules. Ideally open-source, freeware. In a perfect ...
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69 views

When a vowel is nasalized does it effect on how open/close + front/back it would be?

I'm trying to generalize what environments a certain set of phonemes occur, but I'm not sure if nasalization would affect where the vowel would be on the IPA vowel chart. I think my analysis of the ...
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1answer
1k views

Why is /h/ called voiceless vowel phonetically, and /h/ consonant phonologically?

Why is /h/ called voiceless vowel phonetically, and /h/ consonant phonologically?
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3answers
158 views

What feature(s) of Chinese language lead(s) to the city written in pinyin as “Kunming” to sound more like “kuiming / kweeming / kwəming”?

I'm currently hitchhiking through Yunnan, China and I've noticed that the city Kunming usually sounds more like "Kuiming" or "Kweeming" or "kwəming". Even Google Translate produces the last when you ...
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75 views

Recordings of native English speaking children/adolescents reading a text

I would like to compare the pronunciation of young non-native speakers/learners of English with that of native speakers of the same age. The target age is primary school and secondary school age, ca. ...
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1answer
1k views

Stress rules in English adjective-noun combinations

In English adjective-noun combinations the noun commonly carries the main stress: a big HOUSE a beautiful DOG An exception to this rule are adjective-noun combinations that are treated as one ...
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90 views

What is the difference between an ejective consonant and a sequence of consonant + glottal stop?

Is it just the simultaneousness? Also - can a sequence of say uvular stop and glottal stop become - diachronically - an uvular ejective? Thanks :))
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134 views

What is the consonant equivalent of Well's lexical sets for English vowels?

In Accents of English (1982), John C. Wells came up with a useful notation for English vowels that allows easy comparison of the pronunciation of English vowels in varieties of this language. This ...
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68 views

What's the difference between the Lao vowel letters “ໄ” and “ໃ”?

Lao is said to now be a language with phonetic spelling since the reform/standardization of the 1970s. During this process some consonants were made obsolete (they're still not in Unicode) because ...
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1answer
159 views

Solution to a typological problem about PIE phonology: are there any facts that contradict this view?

Traditionally, PIE phonology postulates three voiceless velar/uvular stops to PIE: */ḱ/ (c), */k/ (q), */kʷ/ (q̆) But I made a search for a PIE dictionary with come 11-15 thousand words, and found ...
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2answers
161 views

Why do so many English nouns have a Consonant-Vowel-Nasal ending?

Just a rule of thumb from my perspective (compound words are not included), such as th/t/s/z/c + /V/ + n/m: T- -tion/-sion (question, division, conclusion), TH- -than (leviathan), ...
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70 views

Gulf Arabic vowels allophones

No matter how much I browse, I cannot find any true researcher's really precise and accurate data on the issue. Actually, I cannot find any Gulf Arabic Phonology compendium, so any help will be ...
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1answer
387 views

Phonological vowel length in American English due to (t-)flapping

The following is a quote from a Wikipedia page on American English phonology and concerns flapping in American English: The flapping of intervocalic /t/ and /d/ to alveolar tap [ɾ] before ...
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4answers
535 views

Language with the least number of distinct sounds

Which is the language with the fewest distinct "sounds"?
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1answer
161 views

What is the difference between phrase prosody and sentence prosody?

What is the difference between phrase prosody and sentence prosody? I know that prosody is a phonological suprasegmental--its components, such as intonation, are more than one phoneme long. I know ...
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85 views

What is the nature of the (voiceless) aspirated “m” in Hmong?

Hmong is a dialect continuum spoken across several countries in Southeast Asia. One prominent characteristic is the "aspirated m" (IPA m̥ or mʰ) found in some varieties. This is the reason behind the ...
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2answers
324 views

Influence of Polish and Czech on the phonology of German dialects

German has for more than 1000 years been in contact with West Slavic languages, notably Polish and Czech. This is highly likely to have led to borrowing or interference between these languages, in ...
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162 views

Is a glottal stop common for vowel-initial words in Fenno-Baltic and Nordic languages?

The aforementioned languages form a certain language union, although they belong to different language families and even branches. The languages in question are all the Scandinavic languages ...
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2answers
207 views

What determines how natural a word sounds in a language?

What features of a word make a word sound natural in a language. For instance in two made up words 'mobify' sounds more natural in English than 'jlkrtz'.
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2k views

What is juncture in phonetics and/or phonology?

What is juncture in phonetics and/or phonology? From the Wikipedia article on Juncture, I gathered that juncture is a phonological (and/or phonetic?) phenomenon that allows listeners/speakers of ...
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2answers
442 views

Are there marked/“hard” phonemes that are acquired very late or never by a substantial number of speakers?

Marked phonemes are those that require more effort during articulation or are "harder" to articulate. For example, the interdental fricatives /θ/ and /ð/ are considered to be marked. Marked phonemes ...