The study of the abstract aspect of the sounds or *phonemes* in a given language.

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Phonology s to š before /i/

I'm trying to figure out the simplest rules to describe the following: [s] —> [š] / __[i] i.e. s becomes š before an /i/ At the moment I have: [+strident] -> [-anterior] / __ [+son, +high] ...
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1answer
79 views

Understanding the STRUT vowel as a listener without the split

John Wells' Lexical Sets define a FOOT vowel /ʊ/ for words like 〈full〉, 〈look〉 and 〈could〉, and a STRUT vowel /ʌ/ for words like 〈cub〉, 〈rub〉 and 〈hum〉. However, I am from the North of England and do ...
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73 views

Common misspellings: Loosing losing [closed]

Anecdotally, it seems like one of the more common misspellings on the net (besides then/than, your/you're, etc.), particularly in documents where everything else is spelled correctly, is to use ...
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27 views

Where do I get all the phonemes of RP English in audio?

I need an authoritative link or a standard which linguists use as a reference point (to compare). It would be not bad if someone knows more or less right phonemes (wav) links (with correct formants ...
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1answer
148 views

Is it possible to have an underlying phoneme in complementary distribution?

Might seem like a stupid question but I'm rather confused right now! :) Also if anyone has any answers to the following... Consider these phonetic forms of Hebrew words: [v] – [b] bika ‘lamented’ ...
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2answers
95 views

Do fricatives turn into affricates after nasal consonants, and why?

I have noticed in a word like sense, the 〈s〉 is pronounced not like a fricative but as the affricate [t͡s] because it is followed by the nasal consonant /n/. Is this phenomenon (a fricative turning ...
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1answer
81 views

Sound change charts/lists

I am looking for a summary of sound change laws of various language families. For example for Indo-European, Uralic, N. Caucasian, Semitic but also within Indo-European e.g. Germanic, Greek etc. Is ...
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121 views

IPA for Slender Irish /r'/ in Connemara Dialects

Edit: I would also be willing to reward the bounty if someone can partially answer the question by stating if my proposed IPA is possible based on the description or not. I am specifically asking ...
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84 views

What ocurrs when a non-strident consonant becomes strident in English?

What is happening when a sound in RP English usage is non-strident [ð] is replaced by a strident sound [v]? For instance, the word 'Father'.
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92 views

Linguistics resources for beginners [closed]

I'm currently reading Jackendoff's Foundations of language and I've realised that my knowledge of syntax, morphology and phonology isn't as strong as I'd like it to be. I'm coming from a psych ...
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2answers
90 views

What is the phonological process whereby a speaker uses [ʊ] as a replacement for [l]?

What is the phonological process whereby a speaker would use [ʊ] as a replacement for [l]? Some examples off the top of my head; [lɪtl] -> [lɪtʊ], [gɪgl] -> [gɪgʊ], [twɪŋkl] -> [twɪŋkʊ]
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3answers
157 views

Can a phoneme function as an allophone?

Let's say some hypothetical language had the phones [g],[k],[ʔ],[h] and we determined /g/ to be the UR of the following allophones: /g/: [g],[k],[ʔ] But upon further examination, you may be able to ...
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1answer
300 views

What's the difference between counterbleeding, bleeding and feeding?

Bleeding is when rule A prevents rule B from applying. But counterbleeding is when two rules are ordered too late to bleed. I see counterbleeding the same as feeding. Let's say you have some segment ...
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26 views

Where can I get data set for metaphony in Italian dialects?

The problem is that most sources refer to phonological data collected a long time ago. Where can I get some fresh stuff to analyze?
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1answer
279 views

Seeking examples of complementary distribution of [s] and [ʃ] in Japanese

[s] & [ʃ] are in complementary distribution within Japanese as I already know, but I don't speak Japanese and I'm finding it difficult to give examples how they are in distribution, are there any ...
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1answer
46 views

Are there good, existing software tools to determine if a given token conforms to English phonological rules?

I'm wondering if there are good software tools or libraries that can be used to evaluate how well a given token conforms to English phonological rules. Ideally open-source, freeware. In a perfect ...
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67 views

When a vowel is nasalized does it effect on how open/close + front/back it would be?

I'm trying to generalize what environments a certain set of phonemes occur, but I'm not sure if nasalization would affect where the vowel would be on the IPA vowel chart. I think my analysis of the ...
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1answer
849 views

Why is /h/ called voiceless vowel phonetically, and /h/ consonant phonologically?

Why is /h/ called voiceless vowel phonetically, and /h/ consonant phonologically?
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3answers
143 views

What feature(s) of Chinese language lead(s) to the city written in pinyin as “Kunming” to sound more like “kuiming / kweeming / kwəming”?

I'm currently hitchhiking through Yunnan, China and I've noticed that the city Kunming usually sounds more like "Kuiming" or "Kweeming" or "kwəming". Even Google Translate produces the last when you ...
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71 views

Recordings of native English speaking children/adolescents reading a text

I would like to compare the pronunciation of young non-native speakers/learners of English with that of native speakers of the same age. The target age is primary school and secondary school age, ca. ...
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1answer
683 views

Stress rules in English adjective-noun combinations

In English adjective-noun combinations the noun commonly carries the main stress: a big HOUSE a beautiful DOG An exception to this rule are adjective-noun combinations that are treated as one ...
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79 views

What is the difference between an ejective consonant and a sequence of consonant + glottal stop?

Is it just the simultaneousness? Also - can a sequence of say uvular stop and glottal stop become - diachronically - an uvular ejective? Thanks :))
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99 views

What is the consonant equivalent of Well's lexical sets for English vowels?

In Accents of English (1982), John C. Wells came up with a useful notation for English vowels that allows easy comparison of the pronunciation of English vowels in varieties of this language. This ...
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61 views

What's the difference between the Lao vowel letters “ໄ” and “ໃ”?

Lao is said to now be a language with phonetic spelling since the reform/standardization of the 1970s. During this process some consonants were made obsolete (they're still not in Unicode) because ...
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137 views

Solution to a typological problem about PIE phonology: are there any facts that contradict this view?

Traditionally, PIE phonology postulates three voiceless velar/uvular stops to PIE: */ḱ/ (c), */k/ (q), */kʷ/ (q̆) But I made a search for a PIE dictionary with come 11-15 thousand words, and found ...
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2answers
148 views

Why do so many English nouns have a Consonant-Vowel-Nasal ending?

Just a rule of thumb from my perspective (compound words are not included), such as th/t/s/z/c + /V/ + n/m: T- -tion/-sion (question, division, conclusion), TH- -than (leviathan), ...
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65 views

Gulf Arabic vowels allophones

No matter how much I browse, I cannot find any true researcher's really precise and accurate data on the issue. Actually, I cannot find any Gulf Arabic Phonology compendium, so any help will be ...
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1answer
260 views

Phonological vowel length in American English due to (t-)flapping

The following is a quote from a Wikipedia page on American English phonology and concerns flapping in American English: The flapping of intervocalic /t/ and /d/ to alveolar tap [ɾ] before ...
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4answers
414 views

Language with the least number of distinct sounds

Which is the language with the fewest distinct "sounds"?
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1answer
109 views

What is the difference between phrase prosody and sentence prosody?

What is the difference between phrase prosody and sentence prosody? I know that prosody is a phonological suprasegmental--its components, such as intonation, are more than one phoneme long. I know ...
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72 views

What is the nature of the (voiceless) aspirated “m” in Hmong?

Hmong is a dialect continuum spoken across several countries in Southeast Asia. One prominent characteristic is the "aspirated m" (IPA m̥ or mʰ) found in some varieties. This is the reason behind the ...
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2answers
255 views

Influence of Polish and Czech on the phonology of German dialects

German has for more than 1000 years been in contact with West Slavic languages, notably Polish and Czech. This is highly likely to have led to borrowing or interference between these languages, in ...
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131 views

Is a glottal stop common for vowel-initial words in Fenno-Baltic and Nordic languages?

The aforementioned languages form a certain language union, although they belong to different language families and even branches. The languages in question are all the Scandinavic languages ...
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2answers
188 views

What determines how natural a word sounds in a language?

What features of a word make a word sound natural in a language. For instance in two made up words 'mobify' sounds more natural in English than 'jlkrtz'.
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953 views

What is juncture in phonetics and/or phonology?

What is juncture in phonetics and/or phonology? From the Wikipedia article on Juncture, I gathered that juncture is a phonological (and/or phonetic?) phenomenon that allows listeners/speakers of ...
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2answers
324 views

Are there marked/“hard” phonemes that are acquired very late or never by a substantial number of speakers?

Marked phonemes are those that require more effort during articulation or are "harder" to articulate. For example, the interdental fricatives /θ/ and /ð/ are considered to be marked. Marked phonemes ...
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1answer
308 views

How do sentence intonation and (syllable-based) tone interact in tone languages?

Tone languages use intonation to distinguish words. For example, in Mandarin Chinese mā with a mid tone means mom mǎ with a rising tone means horse Intonation languages do not make such ...
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300 views

How can I distinguish different consonants in Praat/acoustic analysis?

How can I distinguish different consonants based on acoustic information/spectrographic analysis such as in Praat? Is there a list of acoustic cues for different consonants like there is for average ...
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6answers
401 views

Is there any proof that diphthongs exist?

I was always taught that a word contains as much syllables as it has vowels. By definition, a vowel is a sound that produces a syllable. On the other hand, in English phonology, by definition, ...
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344 views

Common problems in second language pronunciation

Transfer of some phonetic/phonological features from the first language to a second language is common in second language acquisition. For example, aspiration is not phonemic in English. Voiceless ...
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348 views

Theories on L1 transfer/interference in L2 pronunciation/phonetics/phonology

What theories explain the transfer of phonetic and phonological features from the first language to a second or foreign language? How do these theories differ from each other? Such theories should ...
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1answer
253 views

How does vowel harmony typically arise in a language?

How does vowel harmony typically arise in a language? Here's a definition of vowel harmony from the WALS chapter on Vowel Quality Inventories: http://wals.info/chapter/2. "When a language is ...
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3answers
292 views

The “writer / rider” distinction

In some dialects of English (for example: General American), “writer” is said to be pronounced differently from “rider” due to the following two phonological rules (done in this order): Vowels are ...
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106 views

Given two vowel phonemes that contrast by length alone, will their phonetic realizations typically have different vowel qualities?

Given two vowel phonemes that contrast by length alone, will their phonetic realizations typically have different vowel qualities? For example, if a language has two vowel phonemes, /ɑ:/ and /ɑ/, ...
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81 views

What are the allophones of /ɹ/ in General Western English?

What are the allophones of /ɹ/ in General Western English? By General Western English, I mean the dialect of English that is spoken by people raised in Seattle, WA; Portland, OR; and other ...
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1answer
454 views

Is the concept of 'long vowel' still relevant in modern English phonology?

It seems to me that despite the fact that Middle English long vowels have long since shifted dramatically, their descendants still pattern like long vowels in modern English. Since there's really very ...
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1answer
283 views

Why do the sounds [ks] have their own single letter 'X' in European languages?

It seems that the original intent of the letter 'X' was to pronounce the phoneme [k^h] in Classical Greek but evolved over time to be [ks]. My question is: How come there are so many European ...
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3answers
228 views

Is there use of a trilled “L” sound in any language? Is a trilled “L” even possible?

I've seen nothing on a trilled "L" sound anywhere. I've tried producing the trilled "L" sound and I can get something that seems similar. Is it possible to trill an "L" and if so are there any ...
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2answers
89 views

How many moras in [steak]? I produced two moras.

I drew the syllable structure for steak, and I deduced that 'st' is one cluster and forms part of the onset instead of the rhyme. So that leaves the rhyme with eI and k which will give me two moras. ...
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128 views

Why the english past tense -ed pronounced differently in some words?

Why is the suffix for [looked] and [hugged] pronounced differently. How can I explain this process via Feature Geometry? [EDIT] I know the following words respectively sound as follows lʊkt and ...