The study of the abstract aspect of the sounds or *phonemes* in a given language.

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Is there a comprehensive list of all (or many) phonological rules (specifically allophonic) of the English language available anywhere online?

It would be very helpful to have for a programming project I'm working on involving grapheme-to-phoneme translation. I've been able to find many rules for phonemes but not too many for allophones.
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36 views

How to search for words or word roots and definitions phonetically when the language is unknown?

I am searching for a particular word (in this case nahz or naaz) that may be of an ancient root or dialect of a Semitic language. Is there any methodology that helps to isolate the definition(s) or ...
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1answer
76 views

The phonetic interaction between the F and the T in “often”

In the word often, the labiodental non-sibilant fricative f precedes the alveolar stop t, which is then followed by en. The Oxford Dictionaries Online offers two accepted pronunciations: /ˈɒf(ə)n/ ...
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3answers
80 views

Why does word-initial upsilon always have a rough breathing?

How did a rough breathing develop before all words starting with an upsilon in Ancient Greek? This is a commonly noted fact about the distribution of these sounds (or rather spellings), but I’m having ...
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1answer
67 views

Does word TA comes from historically, or a psychically to many languages on earth?

Does word TA comes from historically, or a psychically to many languages on earth? Ta, sumerian -root Ta, english -thank Ta, mongolian -grateful and respectful calling of "you" etc
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2answers
264 views

Phonology vs phonetics : /ʁɔz/ vs [ʁoz]

It's written on French Wikipedia that the noun “rose” is represented in phonology by /ʁɔz/ whereas Wiktionary is claiming that it should be /ʁoz/. In both case, the associated representation in common ...
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2answers
170 views

What's the evidence for and against isochrony?

The question What evidence is currently known that favors or disfavors the hypothesis that a regular beat of some kind—that is, an “isochrony”—plays some important role in languages? I've run across ...
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1answer
36 views

How to transcribe allophones of /ɒ/ in Boston English

In contemporary Boston speech and probably also in Maine it seems to me that the realization of /ɒ/ is widely much less constricted, and in some realizations allophonically more fronted than RP /ɒ/. ...
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1answer
33 views

stress of function words in English

Generally speaking, what are conditions under which function words in English are to be stressed. I am working on weak/strong/contracted forms in English and the textbook states that WFs are to be ...
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53 views

What human speech sounds could the canine vocal tract produce?

If dogs had brains with the same capacity for language as humans, but retained their canine vocal tracts, what human speech sounds could they produce? And what speech sounds could they produce that ...
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2answers
70 views

How do I start analysing a spectrogram?

I was recently given a diagram of a spectrogram as part of an assignment. I'm not asking for answers, but rather, how do I start analysing one? All the formants seem rather unclear to me, and as an ...
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0answers
45 views

Word classes reliant on phonological form?

1) Are there any documented languages in which a certain word class corresponds to a particular phonological structure? A. CVC(VC) = Noun In Polish, the word kot 'cat' (CVC) corresponds to a ...
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1answer
33 views

Do well-formedness constraints just refer to prosodic structure?

In reading the literature on Optimality Theory, e.g. Kager (1999), every reference to well-formedness constraints refers to prosodic structure, especially syllable structure. It seems to me that ...
3
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2answers
110 views

What characterises Hebrew spoken by native English speakers?

I was watching episode 8 of Srugim's third season and noticed, beginning at approximately 19:50 (at least in the Hulu upload), this very minor character whose Hebrew sounded weirdly "off" to me. From ...
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3answers
47 views

Survey: Do you know of an introductory phonology text that presents a clear account of juncture?

Which introductory texts on phonology contain a clear account of juncture? I have heard that juncture is a set of suprasegmental phenomenon that conveys the boundaries between words, phrases, clauses ...
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1answer
32 views

Is it accurate to think of OT and auto-segmental phonology as offering explanations on how phones are derived from phonemes?

OT offers a tool to see how a surface structure is derived from an underlying one. Autosegmental phonology also allows us to see how a surface form can be derived from an underlying representation. ...
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2answers
209 views

what is the feature notation for total assimilation?

I know the Arabic definite article /l/ is a common example of this, as it assimilates to the following consonant if it's coronal. This would probably be easier in auto-segmental notation but how would ...
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3answers
109 views

Determining underlying representation

I'm really confused about how to determine underlying representation. Every thing I read seems to contradict the last. Trying desperately to solve this problem and I just seem to be going in circles ...
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2answers
74 views

What's a good example of the explanatory power of autosegmental phonology… for first year undergrads?

Our university is making a crash coarse in phonology for first year students so, while there is a dedicated phono module, there's also this streamlined overview of phonological theory. My job is to ...
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2answers
33 views

Theoretical implications of different models of distinctive features

There are multiple models of distinctive features. Wikipedia distinguishes between three main approaches: Acoustic: Jakobson and colleagues defined them in acoustic terms,[11] Articulatory: ...
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1answer
69 views

Do languages with long clusters have minimal vowel or consonant inventories?

I assume, considering the Onset principle, that there are not many languages that have a structure with VV or VVV but are there languages that have a CV.VV structure? If there is, I would assume that ...
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1answer
81 views

What feature classes do ʙ r ʀ belong to?

I am unsure which features would be inclusive of trills, any information is greatly appreciated! Also, if anyone knows of a feature chart online that includes trills and could link to it that would be ...
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2answers
92 views

Glottal stops that aren't tenuis

Is any language known to contain a glottal stop [ʔ] that isn't tenuis? For example, an aspirated glottal stop [ʔʰ], a palatalized glottal stop [ʔʲ], or a labialized glottal stop [ʔʷ]. CORRECTION: It ...
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3answers
126 views

Which languages contrast /ɕ/ and /ʃ/?

According to Wikipedia, there's a phonemic contrast between /ɕ/ and /ʃ/ in Ubykh, North Qiang, South Qiang and Luxembourgish (though they are merging). Do any other languages exhibit this distinction? ...
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1answer
78 views

Why are non-stop nasals so rare?

Almost every language has at least two nasal stops (usually /n/ and /m/), and a language that lacks any nasal stops is extremely rare. And yet, also very rare is any kind of nasal that isn't a stop, ...
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37 views

Are there Tai languages (or Tai-Kadai) which have a voiced velar stop phoneme?

Thai and Lao each have three series of stops, unvoiced unaspirated, aspirated, and voiced. For labials and alveolars, all three exist, but for velars there is no voiced stop. Is this the case for ...
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1answer
94 views

Why do French/German speakers round [ð] to /z/ while Italian/Hebrew speakers round it to /d/?

More generally, what factors determine which phoneme a non-phonemic foreign sound gets rounded to in a specific language when there are multiple possibilities available? Is the choice always ...
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1answer
60 views

Is there a phonotactics hierarchy?

For example, Japanese is (C)V(N) [plus that geminated stops across syllable boundaries thing], while Mandarin is (C)(G)(V)(G)(/n/ or /ŋ/) and Polynesian languages are just (C)V. Is there a gradation ...
2
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0answers
70 views

What are the foundational papers in computational phonology?

I'm working on a paper on the history of computational phonology. As I understand it, Chomsky & Halle's SPE acted as a catalyst for research in the field, namely by laying the foundations for ...
3
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1answer
191 views

What is an example of a language or dialect that contains triphthongs?

I spent some time on a research project examining spectrograms and coding vowels for speakers of American English from a few rural regions in the state of Oklahoma. I noticed that certain speakers ...
2
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1answer
114 views

Is there a vowel equivalent to the bilabial approximant?

/j/ is the semivocalic equivalent of /i/, /w/ of /u/, /ɥ/ of /y/, /ɰ/ of /ɯ/, and so forth, and I've also seen /ɹ/ described as the semivocalic equivalent of /ɚ/. Considering all of this, it seems ...
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64 views

Can Malay or Indonesian ever have an /n/ followed by a /g/?

Malay and Indonesian are considered to be very phonetically spelled with the usually cited exception being that orthographic "e" can represent either /e/ or /ə/. In both orthographies the sound /ŋ/ ...
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3answers
80 views

What is the IPA notation for Chinese zuo4cuo4 做错?

zuo4cuo4 is the pinyin-notation for 做错 = doing wrong. To my ear zuo4 and cuo4 sound very similar. I need the IPA notation to understand the difference in articulation.
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1answer
72 views

Is the labiodental flap used only in the beginning of words?

In 2005, the IPA phonetical alphabet got extended by including the labiodental flap. The wikipedia-page shows a good overview. However, I am wondering if the labiodental flap is restricted to be ...
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0answers
107 views

Phonological Differences Between Given Names and Surnames [closed]

I'm writing a CRF parser that splits a name string into components. For example, Bob Belcher => <GivenName>Bob</GivenName> <Surname>Belcher</Surname> Belcher, Bob => ...
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2answers
53 views

What phonologically redundant features can capture the characteristic of a voice more specifically?

Background-Explanation: A sound can be described by a list of articulatory features: If the list is sufficient to determine the function of the sound in a particular language, it matches the ...
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2answers
154 views

Are the unreleased stops in cantonese discernable by listening?

Background-Info: In contrast to mandarin Chinese, which can only have a few consonants at the and of a syllable, e.g. man, mang, Cantonese syllables can contain p,t,k at their end. Nevertheless, ...
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1answer
77 views

Size of phonemic inventory of individual speakers across different accents and dialects of English

This started out as a trivially simple question: How many phonemes are there in the different dialects and accents of English? I just needed a simple reference for a point about the teaching of ...
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1answer
112 views

How do I hear “shimmer”?

How would you impressionistically guess if a voice has a high degree of "shimmer" (as opposed to a lot of "jitter"). I know these variable have to do with hoarseness or breathiness, but I have ...
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81 views

What languages use grammaticalized spoonerisms?

Here I define a "spoonerism" as the exchange of onset sounds between initially accented words in a phrase: "sh(oving l)eopard" instead of "loving shepherd" "f(ighting a l)iar" instead of "lighting a ...
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0answers
34 views

Dictionary of English Dialects

I am working on simulating what changing the English orthography (s.t. it would be (more) transparent) would do to the reading process. A natural question that arises is: If the spelling is tailored ...
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1answer
106 views

What features distinguish the true diphthongs of English?

How are the true diphthongs of English distinguished from each other and other vowels with traditional distinctive features theory?
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1answer
117 views

What are examples of Haudricourt's tonogenesis in Chinese?

As far as I know, tonogenesis occurs when consonants merge. The merging of initial consonants results in register tones and the merging of final consonants results in contour tones. What are concrete ...
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4answers
203 views

Are there languages with consonant clusters that include consonants that never occur alone?

In the languages I know more about I can't think of any cases of consonant phoneme clusters that are not made up entirely of consonant phonemes which also occur on their own in the language. But I'm ...
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5answers
701 views

Can a vowel and a consonant be allophones of the same phoneme?

Are there languages where a vowel and a consonant can be allophones of the same phoneme?
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2answers
114 views

How to work with an IPA chart?

I am trying to learn French vowel sounds using this IPA chart. My question is about this chart. I use it for the first time and I am interested how comprehensive it is. Does a position at this chart ...
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1answer
138 views

The true place of articulation of Korean affricates

About a month ago I began studying Korean and I am now at a stage where I have some familiarity with the writing system and the phonology. A native speaker is available to me, and while she tells me ...
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1answer
68 views

What are some alternative communities/forums that are home to engaged linguists? [closed]

I have made accounts on some forums that seem quite lackluster. Quora can be fun, but it's not really enough. Reddit fails in this regard. I would love to find a forum for discussion that I can look ...
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0answers
44 views

Symbols for IPA categories

In IPA a consonant can have different places of articulation such as Bilabial, Labio-dental, Dental etc. I want to create a IPA chart that doesn't take much space. For that purposes the words are too ...
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3answers
193 views

When I hear the sound “s” am I hearing [s] or /s/… or?

This is really a terminological issue. The phoneme is only in the mind of the speaker /s/ The phonological segment is that which the speaker articulates [s] What is it that the speaker "hears"? Is ...