The study of the abstract aspect of the sounds or *phonemes* in a given language.

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Are there languages with consonant clusters that include consonants that never occur alone?

In the languages I know more about I can't think of any cases of consonant phoneme clusters that are not made up entirely of consonant phonemes which also occur on their own in the language. But I'm ...
7
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4answers
493 views

Can a vowel and a consonant be allophones of the same phoneme?

Are there languages where a vowel and a consonant can be allophones of the same phoneme?
0
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2answers
82 views

How to work with an IPA chart?

I am trying to learn French vowel sounds using this IPA chart. My question is about this chart. I use it for the first time and I am interested how comprehensive it is. Does a position at this chart ...
0
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0answers
85 views

Japanese: “osowarata”? [migrated]

These are the lyrics to a metal song about Lovecraft's The Dunwich Horror. The band tends go Classical for effect (cf. the refrain at the end: 闇にこぞりて / 我が主来ませり …). The first verse is transcribed in ...
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1answer
89 views

The true place of articulation of Korean affricates

About a month ago I began studying Korean and I am now at a stage where I have some familiarity with the writing system and the phonology. A native speaker is available to me, and while she tells me ...
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1answer
56 views

What are some alternative communities/forums that are home to engaged linguists? [closed]

I have made accounts on some forums that seem quite lackluster. Quora can be fun, but it's not really enough. Reddit fails in this regard. I would love to find a forum for discussion that I can look ...
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0answers
35 views

Symbols for IPA categories

In IPA a consonant can have different places of articulation such as Bilabial, Labio-dental, Dental etc. I want to create a IPA chart that doesn't take much space. For that purposes the words are too ...
2
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2answers
150 views

When I hear the sound “s” am I hearing [s] or /s/… or?

This is really a terminological issue. The phoneme is only in the mind of the speaker /s/ The phonological segment is that which the speaker articulates [s] What is it that the speaker "hears"? Is ...
3
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2answers
151 views

Are there languages in which lexical pitch accent and phonemic vowel length vary independently?

According to Glottopedia, lexical pitch accent happens when the only indicator of an accent (aka stress) on the syllable is pitch--elevated pitch on the accented syllable. ...
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0answers
81 views

R before TH sound?

Most of time when I say a word with r before θ or ð, my tongue slides on my palate and it goes to down mouth, behind my lower teeth. This movement produce a sound similar with tap or click, sometimes ...
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2answers
64 views

What's an interactive, hands-on creative way to show the role of prosody?

I am have been nominated to teach an accelerated course on phonology to grad students. The course emphasizes lab work and hands-on methods. What's a creative and innovative idea to demonstrate some ...
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1answer
60 views

Can the term “homorganic” be applied to vowels and glides?

As I understand it, "homorganic" means having the same place of articulation, and is said of sounds like [k] vs. [g] and [s] vs. [t]. (I couldn't find a definition from a linguistics source on the ...
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0answers
68 views

How can I use C's and V's to describe syllable structures in a way that rules out highly unlikely syllable structures?

How can I use C's and V's to describe syllable structures in a way that rules out highly unlikely syllable structures? For example, I recently looked up the fact that "The structure of the Hawaiian ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

What were allophone rules for [r] in Old English and Middle English?

I gather that [r] (trill) was realized as [ɹ] in different dialects of Old English and Middle English, but when [r] was used, was it an allophone? In other words, did [r] vary predictably with [ɹ] ...
4
votes
1answer
115 views

How did one pronounce an 'r' in Old English?

I'm wondering how the rhotic consonant was pronounced by the ancient Anglo-Saxons. Was it pronounced as an alveolar like Modern English or more like the trill Scots use in certain words? Were there ...
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1answer
68 views

Why are f0 candidates stacked vertically in all .pitch files in Praat, like this one?

Why is it that, if I zoom into a .pitch file in Praat, the little numbers (pitch candidates) that are displayed are stacked into vertical lines?
4
votes
1answer
86 views

Why is it possible to identify a language without hearing the words?

I have noticed that often while walking in the street in a foreign country, I will be able to recognize that someone nearby is speaking a language I'm familiar with without actually being able to make ...
1
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1answer
77 views

Uvular harmony?

I'm working on a conlang at the request of a script-writer who wants something very accurate. No problem for me since I spent a lot of time describing minority languages. The point is, the producers ...
3
votes
0answers
78 views

How is an intervocalic “g” pronounced in Andean Spanish?

It seems that at least in the Andes, a lot of people say e.g. [awa] for "agua"[agwa]. What's the phonological rule behind this? Is it really [w]? Why did this happen in the first place?
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2answers
75 views

Is unvoiced & unaspirated a category of speech?

I know there is 'voiced & unaspirated' and 'aspirated & unvoiced' categories of speech. I have heard there is a 3rd category. What is it?
3
votes
1answer
93 views

Jedediah → Jebediah: how?

Possibly, the name Jebediah derives from the name Jedediah. If so, then what phonological phenomenon is this an example of, and what are other examples of it?
3
votes
1answer
100 views

Is syllable a phonetic or a phonological concept?

Is syllable a phonetic or a phonological concept? Consider 'syllable counting' as a task: would that be regarded as a phonetic task or phonological tasks? Would it depend on whether words are ...
0
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1answer
67 views

Why is “h” of “-ham” dropped in English place names?

In English, "h" in suffix "-ham" (originated from Old English "home") are skipped when pronouncing so "-ham" sound like "-am". Examples are "Fulham", "Tottenham" etc etc. My question is what causes ...
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2answers
267 views

How many different distinctive sounds can an average human make?

If we wanted to create an all new alphabet composed of as much letters as possible, with each letter corresponding to one distinctive sound. What's the maximum amount of letters we could have? Oh and ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

How far can we decide if there's a code-switching?

How far can we know about the appearance of code-switching? I have an example to ask. Saya baru membeli Honda CRV. In Indonesian, the way to say the letters C, R, and V are cé, ér, and vé. But ...
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2answers
323 views

Correct syllabification in (American) English

I need to figure out what the proper syllabification of words in American English is and why. PLEASE NOTE: I am interested in syllabification from a phonetic point of view, not in terms of ...
4
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1answer
124 views

Are there tonal languages which use a rising intonation for questions?

I know that in the case of Mandarin Chinese questions do not end with any kind of rising tone unless the last morpheme in the sentence happens to have a rising tone. For questions which don't contain ...
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1answer
95 views

What is the linguistic name of /p͡r/?

I am creating a language called Knashta, and one of the phonemes is /p͡r/. I believe this sound would be a trilled affricate, and I'm guessing that it's name would be a voiceless bilabial alveolar ...
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1answer
77 views

what would be the hypothetic result of *βεβλεπνται in Ancient Greek?

I'm talking about the third plural form of medium/passive perfect, in Ancient Greek. My grammar explains that some very simple verb like παιδεύω may be inflected that way : 1S πεπαίδευ-μαι > ...
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1answer
148 views

Phonology s to š before /i/

I'm trying to figure out the simplest rules to describe the following: [s] —> [š] / __[i] i.e. s becomes š before an /i/ At the moment I have: [+strident] -> [-anterior] / __ [+son, +high] ...
3
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2answers
266 views

Understanding the STRUT vowel as a listener without the split

John Wells' Lexical Sets define a FOOT vowel /ʊ/ for words like 〈full〉, 〈look〉 and 〈could〉, and a STRUT vowel /ʌ/ for words like 〈cub〉, 〈rub〉 and 〈hum〉. However, I am from the North of England and do ...
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0answers
82 views

Common misspellings: Loosing losing [closed]

Anecdotally, it seems like one of the more common misspellings on the net (besides then/than, your/you're, etc.), particularly in documents where everything else is spelled correctly, is to use ...
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0answers
55 views

Where do I get all the phonemes of RP English in audio?

I need an authoritative link or a standard which linguists use as a reference point (to compare). It would be not bad if someone knows more or less right phonemes (wav) links (with correct formants ...
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1answer
260 views

Is it possible to have an underlying phoneme in complementary distribution?

Might seem like a stupid question but I'm rather confused right now! :) Also if anyone has any answers to the following... Consider these phonetic forms of Hebrew words: [v] – [b] bika ‘lamented’ ...
3
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2answers
116 views

Do fricatives turn into affricates after nasal consonants, and why?

I have noticed in a word like sense, the 〈s〉 is pronounced not like a fricative but as the affricate [t͡s] because it is followed by the nasal consonant /n/. Is this phenomenon (a fricative turning ...
4
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1answer
90 views

Sound change charts/lists

I am looking for a summary of sound change laws of various language families. For example for Indo-European, Uralic, N. Caucasian, Semitic but also within Indo-European e.g. Germanic, Greek etc. Is ...
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0answers
140 views

IPA for Slender Irish /r'/ in Connemara Dialects

Edit: I would also be willing to reward the bounty if someone can partially answer the question by stating if my proposed IPA is possible based on the description or not. I am specifically asking ...
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0answers
128 views

What ocurrs when a non-strident consonant becomes strident in English?

What is happening when a sound in RP English usage is non-strident [ð] is replaced by a strident sound [v]? For instance, the word 'Father'.
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0answers
104 views

Linguistics resources for beginners [closed]

I'm currently reading Jackendoff's Foundations of language and I've realised that my knowledge of syntax, morphology and phonology isn't as strong as I'd like it to be. I'm coming from a psych ...
3
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2answers
102 views

What is the phonological process whereby a speaker uses [ʊ] as a replacement for [l]?

What is the phonological process whereby a speaker would use [ʊ] as a replacement for [l]? Some examples off the top of my head; [lɪtl] -> [lɪtʊ], [gɪgl] -> [gɪgʊ], [twɪŋkl] -> [twɪŋkʊ]
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3answers
211 views

Can a phoneme function as an allophone?

Let's say some hypothetical language had the phones [g],[k],[ʔ],[h] and we determined /g/ to be the UR of the following allophones: /g/: [g],[k],[ʔ] But upon further examination, you may be able to ...
4
votes
1answer
531 views

What's the difference between counterbleeding, bleeding and feeding?

Bleeding is when rule A prevents rule B from applying. But counterbleeding is when two rules are ordered too late to bleed. I see counterbleeding the same as feeding. Let's say you have some segment ...
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0answers
37 views

Where can I get data set for metaphony in Italian dialects?

The problem is that most sources refer to phonological data collected a long time ago. Where can I get some fresh stuff to analyze?
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1answer
396 views

Seeking examples of complementary distribution of [s] and [ʃ] in Japanese

[s] & [ʃ] are in complementary distribution within Japanese as I already know, but I don't speak Japanese and I'm finding it difficult to give examples how they are in distribution, are there any ...
0
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1answer
49 views

Are there good, existing software tools to determine if a given token conforms to English phonological rules?

I'm wondering if there are good software tools or libraries that can be used to evaluate how well a given token conforms to English phonological rules. Ideally open-source, freeware. In a perfect ...
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0answers
70 views

When a vowel is nasalized does it effect on how open/close + front/back it would be?

I'm trying to generalize what environments a certain set of phonemes occur, but I'm not sure if nasalization would affect where the vowel would be on the IPA vowel chart. I think my analysis of the ...
10
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1answer
2k views

Why is /h/ called voiceless vowel phonetically, and /h/ consonant phonologically?

Why is /h/ called voiceless vowel phonetically, and /h/ consonant phonologically?
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3answers
165 views

What feature(s) of Chinese language lead(s) to the city written in pinyin as “Kunming” to sound more like “kuiming / kweeming / kwəming”?

I'm currently hitchhiking through Yunnan, China and I've noticed that the city Kunming usually sounds more like "Kuiming" or "Kweeming" or "kwəming". Even Google Translate produces the last when you ...
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0answers
78 views

Recordings of native English speaking children/adolescents reading a text

I would like to compare the pronunciation of young non-native speakers/learners of English with that of native speakers of the same age. The target age is primary school and secondary school age, ca. ...
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1answer
1k views

Stress rules in English adjective-noun combinations

In English adjective-noun combinations the noun commonly carries the main stress: a big HOUSE a beautiful DOG An exception to this rule are adjective-noun combinations that are treated as one ...