The study of the abstract aspect of the sounds or *phonemes* in a given language.

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Vowel Shift and Affixes

It is well known that morphology influences phonology to a certain extent. This can be seen with how vowels that should shift do not shift when the words are affixed by certain morphemes. Some affixes ...
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39 views

Sound files for Lithuanian pitch accent distinctions?

I'm looking for sound files that illustrate the distinction between the two pitch contours of long vowels and diphthongs in Lithuanian, e.g. kóšė (falling pitch) vs. kõšė (rising pitch). Does anyone ...
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288 views

Why are “economics” and “economist” stressed on different syllables while both of them have the same number of syllables?

According to rule No. 4 in this link, the suffix "-ist" does not affect the stress of a word. Hence the stress assignment rule σ → [+stress] / ___ ((˘) σ) ]word should apply to both words. What makes ...
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66 views

Donkey and Monkey: why has the pronunciation of donkey changed? (Distinctive features?)

It is said that donkey may have been from "dun" /ˈdʌn/ (http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/donkey ) If that were true, I was wondering why donkey's pronunciation has changed from ...
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108 views

Assimilation Help

The practice question is below. I am having trouble understanding what assimilation means in this context. Also, I don't understand why unbelievable is pronounced umbelievable when spoken fast via ...
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30 views

Where can I find auditory records of Chinese Mandarin within 1930-1970?

I am doing research on pure Chinese and I need a auditory recording made between 1930-1970. I searched for subject of anthropology in Hong Kong local library and found nothing material in auditory ...
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80 views

Any languages without the following list of consonants?

I was wondering if there are any living languages without any of the following: /ɬ/ or /ɮ/, postaveolars and palatals—with the exception of /j/? Again, a list of the excluded consonants are- ...
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73 views

Are there languages which require aspiration for some stops?

I'm developing a phonology for a conlang. Many languages distinguish aspirated and unaspirated stops as different phonemes e.g. /p/ vs /ph/. Are there any languages, however, which lack an unaspirated ...
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125 views

Elision in “Good point” --> / gʊ pɔɪnt/ or not?

Is there an omission in pronouncing the word "good" when it happens with words starting with /p/ /b/? I mean, is it pronounced as /gu poınt/ in good point or like /gud poınt/? If there is, is it due ...
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32 views

Lots of quick phonetic questions for General American English

So, very quick questions about phonology in GAE. Does GAE have the [ʍ] (the 'hua') sound? What about the (non-clustered) [x], [ʒ], or [o]? Thanks!
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Can a vowel be a consonant?

So, I know there are certain consonants in the IPA that have vowel-like properties, and can therefor be used as vowels, such as [n], [m], and [l]. Examples include [pnt], or [ʒlf]. So, in the loosest ...
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44 views

Recording of nonsyllabic voiceless schwa?

I'm not sure if the nonsyllabic voiceless schwa (ə̯̊ ) occurs in any natural language, but are there any recordings of it being said out there, nonetheless? I would like to learn how to say it. Maybe ...
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176 views

Are there minimal pairs between normal length and long vowels in English?

Are there minimal pairs between vowels of normal length such as a and vowels of long length such as aː?
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50 views

Is the Schwa in English rounded or unrounded?

Wikipedia says that in principle the Schwa sound can be both rounded and unrounded. Can it be both in English, or does English always does one or the other?
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29 views

Arabic sin and shin sounds in Classical times

What sounds did س and ش‎ make in (early) Classical Arabic? I have heard that maybe they were not [s] and [ʃ]. Is that a widely accepted truth? If that's true, what is the evidence for that?
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38 views

Phonology - elements and features

What are the disadvantages of Element Theory in phonology? In other words, why is the theory of binary features still commonly held, even though aspects of it, such as its binarity, are untenable? Are ...
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94 views

What is this sound that can be heard in Swedish?

There seems to be a special L sound in Swedish, I've tried to find what consonant/vowel it is for a long time, but eventually I decided to ask here Two videos with the sound in it: Video 1, at 3:19,...
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64 views

What is the origin of the Icelandic Ð, ð, eth?

Icelandic's other unique letter, the thorn, is obviously Runic (and near the front of the Futhark). Eth was not defined in the "First Grammatical Treatise" of 1140-1180. It seems like both the Runic ...
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54 views

Finnish data, Consonant Gradatition

I am working on the blow Finnish data. As far as I understand there are 3 alternatives: 1) K -> 0 ( in "fault" group) 2) kk-> k (in "firplace" and "dot" group) 3) k-> k ( in "sledgehammer") The ...
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2answers
76 views

English stress, abstract analysis

I am reading introductory phonology by Bruce Hayes, in chapter 12 he proposed an abstract analysis for English stress.Based on his proposed a word like cassette has been through a process like below: ...
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3answers
224 views

What is the phonetic reason for the occurence Sun and Moon letters in Arabic?

In Arabic, letters (or more accurately phonemes) are categroised into two categories: Sun letter and Moon letter in regard to what happen if we add Al (the) to them. Moon letters don't cause any ...
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75 views

Help with palatalisation and syllabification

Does palatalisation only occur at the beginning of a given word? All textbook examples (muse, beauty...) are at the beginning. Could somebody also explain syllabification? (Lecturer hardly covered ...
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40 views

What's the explanatory value of Metrical Trees?

What's the explanatory value of metrical trees used to account for prominence relations or syllable stress? At first reflection, it seems to me like rules should be sufficient (indeed, rules and trees ...
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4answers
72 views

How do they separate phones' length?

In phonetics we use below symbols to talk about phones' length. My question is that how do we measure it? In other words, since these terms (long, half-long extra-short) are relative, how do we ...
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42 views

What is syntagmatic axis?

I sort of know that syntagmatic axis is how phonemes arrange in a language, is it true? What is it in general?
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56 views

what are natural classes and how are they classified?

I know the general concept behind natural classes but what is the philosophy for some classes like syllabic? and are there any relationship between any two classes (like being sonorant and being ...
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40 views

Paper request: study that correlates distinctive features with neuronal activation

I remember an fMRI study that came out sometime around last year (maybe even 2014) that showed a correspondence between distinctive features and neuronal activation. I can't for the life of me find it....
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60 views

Tips for pronouncing sounds that does not exist in the student's mother thongue [closed]

This is my first post here. My name is Bruno and I'm a native (Brazilian) Portuguese speaker. Besides Portuguese, I only have a rough knowledge of American English. I spite of that, I am trying to ...
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2answers
122 views

Assimilation: What is the process in which both phonemes change?

The process in which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound is called assimilation. In assimilation mostly one sound changes but what is the process in which two sounds are changed? Consider the ...
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2answers
40 views

What is the philosophy of prosodic transcription?

Why are we transcribing prosody? and what is the philosophy behind it? In general what is the purpose of it?
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57 views

How do we define foot in Mandarin Chinese?

As we known, foot is a stress-related unit. But in Mandarin, the existence of stress remains controversial, so I would like to know the formation of foot in Mandarin Chinese. Thanks.
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66 views

Is there re-syllabification in Chinese?

I'm reading prosodic phonology, and wondering if there is any re-syllabification process happening in Mandarin Chinese?
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93 views

Is there any way to draw a pitch track, sound wave, and annotation in Praat?

I can draw a combination of a Sound and a TextGrid, and the combination of a Pitch and a TextGrid, but I cannot draw the combination of all three, like it appears in the editor window. Is this a ...
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22 views

do the vocal folds vibrate when producing oral stops of zero VOT?

we usually say voiceless stops are produced with vocal folds not vibrating. but when we introduce the idea of VOT, we say VOT is a specific feature for stop consonants that measures the amount of time ...
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113 views

Has any Indic language spirantized its voiceless aspirates? If not, why not?

Many or most Indic languages possess voiceless aspirated stops. Cross-linguistically, such stops often turn into fricatives: e.g., in Indo-European, this happened in Greek, in Iranian, and probably in ...
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18 views

+constricted glottis includes ejectives and implosives, but Hayes only lists [ʔ] as [+cg] on his feature matrix. Why is that?

I've seen [+constricted glottis] described as encapsulating ejectives and implosives, but the feature matrix according to Hayes (2009) (that I pulled from his personal website over here: http://www....
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55 views

Chirpy, 10-year-old-girl vocalization on the media

I am 81 and have embraced vocal fry as the new modern speech. But now I hear a lot of females on the media who sound like ten-year-old girls, ---or the sound-track of a cartoon chipmunk. Chirpy. What'...
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62 views

Does lack of a common (morpho-)phonological alternation make a word a lexical exception?

I am trying to understand the following passages from The Sound Pattern of English, by Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle. Convention 1: : Every segment of a lexical matrix is automatically marked [+n]...
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136 views

“Cloth” lexical set: Is there a complete description of the possible conditioning environments?

This question is about speakers without the cot-caught merger (so, speakers who pronounce words such as “lot,” “cot,” “swat" with a distinct vowel from words such as “thought,” “caught,” “water.”) I’...
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100 views

What, precisely, is a phoneme? [duplicate]

I'm currently enrolled in an introductory linguistics course at my school, and I am having a hard time pinning down what phonemes are. My text defines phonemes as: "A distinctive structural element ...
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5answers
333 views

Is there an easy way to type IPA?

I'm currently using http://ipa.typeit.org/full/ but it takes forever. Is there an easy way to type IPA? I've found this list of unicode keyboards over here (http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?...
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5answers
163 views

how to produce pharyngeal sounds?

i just started self-studying arabic and i'm having trouble producing some of the sounds, specifically ض (ḍad), ظ (ẓa), ص (ṣad) and ط (ṭa). all four are pharyngealized fricatives/plosives and although ...
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143 views

How is IPrA going to change the way we transcribe prosody?

There are some proposals for IPrA (International Prosodic Alphabet, similar to IPA but for prosody). The meeting for IPrA (link to UCLA webpage on the topic) is planning to be held in BU in mid 2016. ...
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1answer
55 views

Is there a common method of transcribing prosody?

I've seen diacritics corresponding to tones (in tonal languages), but asides from that I haven't come across a system for transcribing prosody in my studies. Is there a popular convention people use?
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35 views

What is the most efficient way to compress “words”? [closed]

There are many ways a word can be expressed, or things a word is: With textual characters and a dictionary spelling, With phonetic symbols and a phonetic spelling With sound, a recording of the ...
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Why don't we use frequency change in ToBI?

As we know the ToBI system is designed to transcribe prosody and within it you can transcribe only High and Low prosody changes. The question is here Why don't we implement frequency change and/or ...
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55 views

Do both phonetics and phonology deal with diacritics? [closed]

Do both phonetics and phonology deal with diacritics? Or is studying phonology is necessary for phoneticians and vice versa in the first place? I understand that phonetics focuses more on phones, ...
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72 views

Is there a solution for the ToBI's weakness in showing speech variance?

I'm currently doing a research on the ToBI system (a system for transcribing prosody). The ToBI system is a phonological based system and does not show the variance in speech. for instance an L+H% ...
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2answers
317 views

Voiced “th” in “thank you”?

I have a friend, a native English speaker from Boston, MA, USA (I believe he is mostly Irish American), who is absolutely adamant that the first sound in "thank you" is voiced, rather than voiceless. ...
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90 views

metathesis linguistic notation

znƷæbil /Ʒnzæbil/ Ginger /znƷæbil/ /Ʒnzæbil/ /nærƷin/ /ræanƷin/ /fænilæh/ /fælinæh/ /Ʒenzir/ /znƷir/ this is the data could you plz help me? can you help me to write the metathesis ...