The study of the abstract aspect of the sounds or *phonemes* in a given language.

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75 views

What is autosegmental phonology?

I am an armchair music theorist and trying to read about John Goldsmith's theory of autosegmental phonology. Can someone summarize the basic principles behind his theory for a linguistic layman?
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90 views

Why is /f/ easier to pronounce than /p/?

[Source:] Assistant Professor of Linguistics Andrew McKenzie, University of Kansas In particular, there is no real reason why certain changes happen while others don't. For instance, the * p ...
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27 views

Schwa syncope in “hundred”

My girlfriend noticed that I say when I pronounce a word like 'hundred' it sounds like I'm deleting the schwa sound in the final syllable and pronouncing the word mroe like, "hundrd". Does this fall ...
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44 views

Are there phonetic symbols for grunts/growls and would place be glottal?

I don't know if grunts/growls are considered a legitimate part of a linguistic system, but they get used from time to time to convey things like, "I'm gonna kill you" or an angry "Yes!" so I thought ...
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38 views

Why isn't “N” considered a partial vowel

I'm wondering if N could be a partial vowel much like Y is. Since, at least to my understanding, vowels are used in between many consonant to make a word flow without having to pause, so why isn't n a ...
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69 views

Are there languages that disallow initial vowels and lack glottal stop?

Which, if any, of the world's languages have both the following features? Syllable-initial vowels are disallowed; all syllables must begin with a consonant. There is no glottal stop phoneme.
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39 views

Vowel-Backing in English?

Has anybody heard of vowel-backing in English? In East-Central Alabama, USA, I have observed forms such as: suckint ['sOkh Inˀ] for "second" butter ['bOD ɚ] for "better" woonda ['wUnd ә] for ...
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1answer
57 views

What are the possible impetuses for loss of Middle English shwa?

I'm wondering what some possible catalysts/ reasons for loss of final -e /ǝ/ in Middle English might have been (For instance, OE /tɑlu/ > ME /taːlǝ/ > MnE tale /teɪl/). I'm wondering because to my ...
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63 views

Confusion matrix for consonant clusters in English?

I was wondering if anybody knew of a confusion matrix for consonant clusters in the English language. I've seen CV, VC, and CVC phoneme/syllable confusion matrices, but never any with any sort of ...
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1answer
28 views

Making a balanced word list systematically using COCA and CMUdict

I am trying to find words in English that mirror the conditioning environments for spirantization of /b, d, g/ in Spanish. I am balancing for proceeding phone, lexical stress, word-internal vs. ...
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1answer
37 views

I am looking for a good chart that maps Orthography to Phonemes for General North American English

I am looking for a chart (or good reference) that shows every possible orthographic representation for each phoneme (in General North American English; I don't care about the low-back merger). ...
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85 views

Is there a comprehensive list of all (or many) phonological rules (specifically allophonic) of the English language available anywhere online?

It would be very helpful to have for a programming project I'm working on involving grapheme-to-phoneme translation. I've been able to find many rules for phonemes but not too many for allophones.
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199 views

The phonetic interaction between the F and the T in “often”

In the word often, the labiodental non-sibilant fricative f precedes the alveolar stop t, which is then followed by en. The Oxford Dictionaries Online offers two accepted pronunciations: /ˈɒf(ə)n/ ...
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3answers
93 views

Why does word-initial upsilon always have a rough breathing?

How did a rough breathing develop before all words starting with an upsilon in Ancient Greek? This is a commonly noted fact about the distribution of these sounds (or rather spellings), but I’m having ...
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70 views

Does word TA comes from historically, or a psychically to many languages on earth?

Does word TA comes from historically, or a psychically to many languages on earth? Ta, sumerian -root Ta, english -thank Ta, mongolian -grateful and respectful calling of "you" etc
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284 views

Phonology vs phonetics : /ʁɔz/ vs [ʁoz]

It's written on French Wikipedia that the noun “rose” is represented in phonology by /ʁɔz/ whereas Wiktionary is claiming that it should be /ʁoz/. In both case, the associated representation in common ...
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198 views

What's the evidence for and against isochrony?

The question What evidence is currently known that favors or disfavors the hypothesis that a regular beat of some kind—that is, an “isochrony”—plays some important role in languages? I've run across ...
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73 views

How to transcribe allophones of /ɒ/ in Boston English

In contemporary Boston speech and probably also in Maine it seems to me that the realization of /ɒ/ is widely much less constricted, and in some realizations allophonically more fronted/centralized ...
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1answer
42 views

stress of function words in English

Generally speaking, what are conditions under which function words in English are to be stressed. I am working on weak/strong/contracted forms in English and the textbook states that WFs are to be ...
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58 views

What human speech sounds could the canine vocal tract produce?

If dogs had brains with the same capacity for language as humans, but retained their canine vocal tracts, what human speech sounds could they produce? And what speech sounds could they produce that ...
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2answers
87 views

How do I start analysing a spectrogram?

I was recently given a diagram of a spectrogram as part of an assignment. I'm not asking for answers, but rather, how do I start analysing one? All the formants seem rather unclear to me, and as an ...
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49 views

Word classes reliant on phonological form?

1) Are there any documented languages in which a certain word class corresponds to a particular phonological structure? A. CVC(VC) = Noun In Polish, the word kot 'cat' (CVC) corresponds to a ...
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1answer
37 views

Do well-formedness constraints just refer to prosodic structure?

In reading the literature on Optimality Theory, e.g. Kager (1999), every reference to well-formedness constraints refers to prosodic structure, especially syllable structure. It seems to me that ...
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2answers
116 views

What characterises Hebrew spoken by native English speakers?

I was watching episode 8 of Srugim's third season and noticed, beginning at approximately 19:50 (at least in the Hulu upload), this very minor character whose Hebrew sounded weirdly "off" to me. From ...
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3answers
51 views

Survey: Do you know of an introductory phonology text that presents a clear account of juncture?

Which introductory texts on phonology contain a clear account of juncture? I have heard that juncture is a set of suprasegmental phenomenon that conveys the boundaries between words, phrases, clauses ...
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1answer
44 views

Is it accurate to think of OT and auto-segmental phonology as offering explanations on how phones are derived from phonemes?

OT offers a tool to see how a surface structure is derived from an underlying one. Autosegmental phonology also allows us to see how a surface form can be derived from an underlying representation. ...
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2answers
288 views

what is the feature notation for total assimilation?

I know the Arabic definite article /l/ is a common example of this, as it assimilates to the following consonant if it's coronal. This would probably be easier in auto-segmental notation but how would ...
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3answers
125 views

Determining underlying representation

I'm really confused about how to determine underlying representation. Every thing I read seems to contradict the last. Trying desperately to solve this problem and I just seem to be going in circles ...
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2answers
82 views

What's a good example of the explanatory power of autosegmental phonology… for first year undergrads?

Our university is making a crash coarse in phonology for first year students so, while there is a dedicated phono module, there's also this streamlined overview of phonological theory. My job is to ...
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34 views

Theoretical implications of different models of distinctive features

There are multiple models of distinctive features. Wikipedia distinguishes between three main approaches: Acoustic: Jakobson and colleagues defined them in acoustic terms,[11] Articulatory: ...
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1answer
80 views

Do languages with long clusters have minimal vowel or consonant inventories?

I assume, considering the Onset principle, that there are not many languages that have a structure with VV or VVV but are there languages that have a CV.VV structure? If there is, I would assume that ...
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112 views

What feature classes do ʙ r ʀ belong to?

I am unsure which features would be inclusive of trills, any information is greatly appreciated! Also, if anyone knows of a feature chart online that includes trills and could link to it that would be ...
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104 views

Glottal stops that aren't tenuis

Is any language known to contain a glottal stop [ʔ] that isn't tenuis? For example, an aspirated glottal stop [ʔʰ], a palatalized glottal stop [ʔʲ], or a labialized glottal stop [ʔʷ]. CORRECTION: It ...
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3answers
149 views

Which languages contrast /ɕ/ and /ʃ/?

According to Wikipedia, there's a phonemic contrast between /ɕ/ and /ʃ/ in Ubykh, North Qiang, South Qiang and Luxembourgish (though they are merging). Do any other languages exhibit this distinction? ...
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1answer
80 views

Why are non-stop nasals so rare?

Almost every language has at least two nasal stops (usually /n/ and /m/), and a language that lacks any nasal stops is extremely rare. And yet, also very rare is any kind of nasal that isn't a stop, ...
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43 views

Are there Tai languages (or Tai-Kadai) which have a voiced velar stop phoneme?

Thai and Lao each have three series of stops, unvoiced unaspirated, aspirated, and voiced. For labials and alveolars, all three exist, but for velars there is no voiced stop. Is this the case for ...
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1answer
104 views

Why do French/German speakers round [ð] to /z/ while Italian/Hebrew speakers round it to /d/?

More generally, what factors determine which phoneme a non-phonemic foreign sound gets rounded to in a specific language when there are multiple possibilities available? Is the choice always ...
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1answer
61 views

Is there a phonotactics hierarchy?

For example, Japanese is (C)V(N) [plus that geminated stops across syllable boundaries thing], while Mandarin is (C)(G)(V)(G)(/n/ or /ŋ/) and Polynesian languages are just (C)V. Is there a gradation ...
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73 views

What are the foundational papers in computational phonology?

I'm working on a paper on the history of computational phonology. As I understand it, Chomsky & Halle's SPE acted as a catalyst for research in the field, namely by laying the foundations for ...
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1answer
206 views

What is an example of a language or dialect that contains triphthongs?

I spent some time on a research project examining spectrograms and coding vowels for speakers of American English from a few rural regions in the state of Oklahoma. I noticed that certain speakers ...
2
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1answer
123 views

Is there a vowel equivalent to the bilabial approximant?

/j/ is the semivocalic equivalent of /i/, /w/ of /u/, /ɥ/ of /y/, /ɰ/ of /ɯ/, and so forth, and I've also seen /ɹ/ described as the semivocalic equivalent of /ɚ/. Considering all of this, it seems ...
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65 views

Can Malay or Indonesian ever have an /n/ followed by a /g/?

Malay and Indonesian are considered to be very phonetically spelled with the usually cited exception being that orthographic "e" can represent either /e/ or /ə/. In both orthographies the sound /ŋ/ ...
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3answers
82 views

What is the IPA notation for Chinese zuo4cuo4 做错?

zuo4cuo4 is the pinyin-notation for 做错 = doing wrong. To my ear zuo4 and cuo4 sound very similar. I need the IPA notation to understand the difference in articulation.
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1answer
73 views

Is the labiodental flap used only in the beginning of words?

In 2005, the IPA phonetical alphabet got extended by including the labiodental flap. The wikipedia-page shows a good overview. However, I am wondering if the labiodental flap is restricted to be ...
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109 views

Phonological Differences Between Given Names and Surnames [closed]

I'm writing a CRF parser that splits a name string into components. For example, Bob Belcher => <GivenName>Bob</GivenName> <Surname>Belcher</Surname> Belcher, Bob => ...
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57 views

What phonologically redundant features can capture the characteristic of a voice more specifically?

Background-Explanation: A sound can be described by a list of articulatory features: If the list is sufficient to determine the function of the sound in a particular language, it matches the ...
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2answers
172 views

Are the unreleased stops in cantonese discernable by listening?

Background-Info: In contrast to mandarin Chinese, which can only have a few consonants at the and of a syllable, e.g. man, mang, Cantonese syllables can contain p,t,k at their end. Nevertheless, ...
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1answer
81 views

Size of phonemic inventory of individual speakers across different accents and dialects of English

This started out as a trivially simple question: How many phonemes are there in the different dialects and accents of English? I just needed a simple reference for a point about the teaching of ...
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1answer
137 views

How do I hear “shimmer”?

How would you impressionistically guess if a voice has a high degree of "shimmer" (as opposed to a lot of "jitter"). I know these variable have to do with hoarseness or breathiness, but I have ...
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83 views

What languages use grammaticalized spoonerisms?

Here I define a "spoonerism" as the exchange of onset sounds between initially accented words in a phrase: "sh(oving l)eopard" instead of "loving shepherd" "f(ighting a l)iar" instead of "lighting a ...