The study of the abstract aspect of the sounds or *phonemes* in a given language.

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Does lack of a common (morpho-)phonological alternation make a word a lexical exception?

I am trying to understand the following passages from The Sound Pattern of English, by Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle. Convention 1: : Every segment of a lexical matrix is automatically marked ...
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48 views

“Cloth” lexical set: Is there a complete description of the possible conditioning environments?

This question is about speakers without the cot-caught merger (so, speakers who pronounce words such as “lot,” “cot,” “swat" with a distinct vowel from words such as “thought,” “caught,” “water.”) ...
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2answers
74 views

What, precisely, is a phoneme?

I'm currently enrolled in an introductory linguistics course at my school, and I am having a hard time pinning down what phonemes are. My text defines phonemes as: "A distinctive structural element ...
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4answers
81 views

Is there an easy way to type IPA?

I'm currently using http://ipa.typeit.org/full/ but it takes forever. Is there an easy way to type IPA? I've found this list of unicode keyboards over here ...
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3answers
81 views

how to produce pharyngeal sounds?

i just started self-studying arabic and i'm having trouble producing some of the sounds, specifically ض (ḍad), ظ (ẓa), ص (ṣad) and ط (ṭa). all four are pharyngealized fricatives/plosives and although ...
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1answer
80 views

How is IPrA going to change the way we transcribe prosody?

There are some proposals for IPrA (International Prosodic Alphabet, similar to IPA but for prosody). The meeting for IPrA (link to UCLA webpage on the topic) is planning to be held in BU in mid 2016. ...
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1answer
46 views

Is there a common method of transcribing prosody?

I've seen diacritics corresponding to tones (in tonal languages), but asides from that I haven't come across a system for transcribing prosody in my studies. Is there a popular convention people use?
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31 views

What is the most efficient way to compress “words”? [closed]

There are many ways a word can be expressed, or things a word is: With textual characters and a dictionary spelling, With phonetic symbols and a phonetic spelling With sound, a recording of the ...
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32 views

Why don't we use frequency change in ToBI?

As we know the ToBI system is designed to transcribe prosody and within it you can transcribe only High and Low prosody changes. The question is here Why don't we implement frequency change and/or ...
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31 views

Do both phonetics and phonology deal with diacritics? [closed]

Do both phonetics and phonology deal with diacritics? Or is studying phonology is necessary for phoneticians and vice versa in the first place? I understand that phonetics focuses more on phones, ...
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1answer
42 views

Is there a solution for the ToBI's weakness in showing speech variance?

I'm currently doing a research on the ToBI system (a system for transcribing prosody). The ToBI system is a phonological based system and does not show the variance in speech. for instance an L+H% ...
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234 views

Voiced “th” in “thank you”?

I have a friend, a native English speaker from Boston, MA, USA (I believe he is mostly Irish American), who is absolutely adamant that the first sound in "thank you" is voiced, rather than voiceless. ...
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76 views

metathesis linguistic notation

znƷæbil /Ʒnzæbil/ Ginger /znƷæbil/ /Ʒnzæbil/ /nærƷin/ /ræanƷin/ /fænilæh/ /fælinæh/ /Ʒenzir/ /znƷir/ this is the data could you plz help me? can you help me to write the metathesis ...
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1answer
66 views

The phonological rules of metathesis and epenthesis

Could you provide me with the general rule of both metathesis and epenthesis? I can write the rules regarding specific case in metathesis and epenthesis but I couldn't find out the general rule.
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1answer
18 views

How to represent labialised velars and labials in Element Theory

The contrast between velars and labials in Element Theory is represented either as, respectively, | | vs |U|, or |U| vs |U_| (headed |U|). What if a language contrast plain velars and labials with ...
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1answer
35 views

Generative phonology and segmental phonology

How can I know the difference between generative phonology and segmental phonology?
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1answer
64 views

Phoneticians versus phonologists

What is the difference between a phonetician and a phonologist? I've seen these two terms somewhere on this site but can't figure out the difference.
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2answers
47 views

Seeking a rigorous description of the phonotactics of English

Has anyone created an exposition detailing the phonotactics of English in a way which would be easy for a human to understand but also rigorous enough for it to be possible to program a piece of ...
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2answers
76 views

Can you put tone on any syllable?

I notice that Mandarin has a very simple inventory of sounds and set of possible combinations, whereas some of the languages I'm familiar with which permit more consonant clusters and other ...
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2answers
44 views

What does “psychological reality of sound” mean ?

I am taking an introduction course about linguistics. When my teacher was trying to explain the difference between phonetics and phonology she said something like: "PHONETICS is study of physical ...
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5answers
132 views

Place feature metathesis

Familiar cases of metathesis involve segments changing places, but metathesis can also operate at the subsegmental level, affecting individual features. I'm specifically interested in metathesis of ...
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3answers
185 views

Voicing as lenition

Why is voicing considered lenition under phonological criteria? To me voiced consonants seem stronger in articulation, therefore voicing should be considered fortification.
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1answer
15 views

Are underspecified segments and archiphonemes represented identically in Feature Geometry?

It seems like Feature Geometry doesn't make reference to Archiphonemes - only Underspecified Segments. Is there a theoretically-motivated reason for this, if it is true?
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8answers
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Eliminating intermediary forms to account for production and perception

If linguistic rules which describe the derivation of surface forms from underlying ones, are meant to account for both production and perception, then it seems that intermediary forms like the two ...
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2answers
37 views

Is it standard to have intermediary forms when deriving surface structures from underlying ones?

To be specific, I am analyzing a phonological process like this /maNioN/ --> [mãn.i.õn] --> [mã.ni.õn] --> [mã.nyõ?] These intermediary forms make sense according to the phonology of the language. ...
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4answers
135 views

How many of all possible English words are actually in use (have meaning)?

If we consider that there are phonological observations as to what is an English word and what probably isn't, one could come up with a dictionary of "all possible" English words, i.e. all words that ...
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1answer
36 views

Allophones of an archiphoneme

In the short article on this webpage, the author provides an explanation of nasal variation in Spanish which makes use of an archiphoneme /N/. I put the relevant excerpt below. My question about this ...
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4answers
114 views

Why givin’ instead of giving?

Why do people sometimes use givin’ instead of giving? Is it a feature of some dialect?
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1answer
63 views

What is the difference between a phonetic syllable and a phonological syllable?

I understand the difference between phonetics and phonology of course, but I have trouble distinguishing the notion of syllable on the two levels. When I'm describing syllabic phenomena, how can I ...
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1answer
41 views

Arbitrariness and coinages [closed]

What is the relationship between arbitrariness, as a property of language, and coinages? Because coinages are compound not-arbitrary words, do they not correspond to the particular property of ...
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1answer
33 views

Word initial lenition

What would be an explanation of why a phoneme would only undergo Lenition only in word initial position directly before /a/, but not in any other context? In other words, Lenition doesn't happen ...
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2answers
75 views

How is an archiphoneme represented on the phonetic level?

Consider an archiphoneme N that can be realized as n, ng, or as a nasal on a vowel depending on the context. Is this representation, below, standard i.e. with the archiphoneme as a capital letter on ...
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1answer
36 views

Treatment of final E's in loanwords to English

Karaoke (from Japanese), simile (from Latin), tu quoque (Latin), apostrophe (Ancient Greek via Latin), machete (Spanish), and other loanwords with final E sounds all end up with an /i/ at the end. ...
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82 views

Can someone please explain the basic principles of optimality theory?

i am struggling to understand optimality theory. I want to make a research paper on the definiteness system in my dialect using that theory? plz help me
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117 views

Is syllable boundary properly annotated at the phonetic or phonological level?

Should syllable boundary be indicated in the phonetic and/or phoneme transcription? /dog.gi/ [dog.gi] 'doggy' /doggi/ [dog.gi] 'doggy' Or does the choice of one of the two strategies have certain ...
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3answers
72 views

Possible to describe phonetics before phonology of an unknown language?

Hypothetically, When describing the sound system of an unknown language, is there any scenario in which you may perform a phonetic analysis before a phonological one? I guess the standard approach is ...
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0answers
56 views

Term For IPA Phonemes With Voiced/Unvoiced Pairs

Is there a term for phoneme pairs such as [p b] or [s z] which have a voiced and unvoiced variant? Additional Clarification: In an IPA table, sounds like [p] and [b] are usually paired in the same ...
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1answer
100 views

Does the French word [fij] (fille) consist of a single open syllable?

For an assignment in one of our classes, our teacher had directed us to analyze a set of french words, which included the word [fij] (fille). However, later, she instructed us not to analyze that ...
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1answer
67 views

How to measure phonetic voicing during a stop closure?

concerning Praat. I am not entirely sure on how to measure the voicing during a stop closure. I marked the consonant closure duration. (You can see part of the vowel.) However, I cannot see where the ...
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3answers
74 views

Differences between phonemic and phonetic transcriptions

As far as I know, there are three main differences between phonemic and phonetic transcriptions: Phonetic transcriptions deal with phones or sounds, which can occur across different languages and ...
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2answers
72 views

Labiodental sounds in languages

I noticed that IE languages often derive /v/ from /w/. It is a bit of a rare sound (predominantly IE?). I wonder how /v/ came about in various languages? In general, labiodentals seem to be a more ...
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4answers
132 views

Can you explain glottal stop? [closed]

It doesn't sound like a consonant. Especially at the end of words. It sounds like a shortened vowel which it follows. English word "cat" for example [kʰæʔ]
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1answer
166 views

Why don't minimal pairs like “быть” and “бить” prove that /ɨ/ and /i/ are separate phonemes in Russian?

In analyses of Russian, there's a dispute about whether the vowels /ɨ/ and /i/ (typically represented in the orthography as "ы" and "и", respectively) are separate phonemes, or if [ɨ] is an allophone ...
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2answers
39 views

Why are the elements at the ends of these sentences stressed?

Examples: They can conquer who believe they CAN. (auxiliary verb) Yes, it IS. (verb in tag question) He never grew UP. (preposition) I actually got these examples from a book. Thank you!!!
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1k views

Are there any languages without /a/ or /i/?

Arabic languages include only three vowels: /a/, /i/ and /u/. Japanese is the only language I know about that doesn't have a /u/ sound - it has /ɯ/ instead. Do there exist any languages that do not ...
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2answers
301 views

How did it happen that K was introduced to Latin alphabet in place of C and C started to mark /t͡s/ or /s/ in many languages?

I know that K has been derived from Greek kappa and C from gamma. But how did it happen that people started to use K in place of C? From what I know there were already C and G in the Latin alphabet ...
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1answer
83 views

What is X in a syllable C=consonant, V=vowel

I don't under stand (X) and (s/sh) in this sentence. As opposed to Hebrew CV(X)(C), the non-Semitic syllable structure of Israeli, (s/sh)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(s/sh)
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111 views

How to write sonorant assimilation rule? [closed]

I was wondering how the formally write the rule for assimilation; for example: Finnish mp -> mm ŋk -> ŋŋ nt -> nn lt -> ll rt -> rr I'm guessing it's assimilation when the preceeding consonant ...
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2answers
95 views

When is variation in the realisation of a phoneme allophonic variation?

The acoustic characteristics of the realisation of a given phoneme may vary depending on phonological context. For example, [v] may have a higher Zero Crossing Rate if it follows a consonant than if ...
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1answer
78 views

Is there a language with phonemic distinction of voicing within vowels?

Just as in the topic. It seems unlikely to me, I could not find anything about this on wals.info but nonetheless it seems theoretically possible since articulating vowels without voicing is doable. ...