The study of the abstract aspect of the sounds or *phonemes* in a given language.

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Arabic sin and shin sounds in Classical times

What sounds did س and ش‎ make in (early) Classical Arabic? I have heard that maybe they were not [s] and [ʃ]. Is that a widely accepted truth? If that's true, what is the evidence for that?
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1answer
35 views

Phonology - elements and features

What are the disadvantages of Element Theory in phonology? In other words, why is the theory of binary features still commonly held, even though aspects of it, such as its binarity, are untenable? Are ...
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70 views

What is this sound that can be heard in Swedish?

There seems to be a special L sound in Swedish, I've tried to find what consonant/vowel it is for a long time, but eventually I decided to ask here Two videos with the sound in it: Video 1, at ...
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1answer
59 views

What is the origin of the Icelandic Ð, ð, eth?

Icelandic's other unique letter, the thorn, is obviously Runic (and near the front of the Futhark). Eth was not defined in the "First Grammatical Treatise" of 1140-1180. It seems like both the Runic ...
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54 views

Finnish data, Consonant Gradatition

I am working on the blow Finnish data. As far as I understand there are 3 alternatives: 1) K -> 0 ( in "fault" group) 2) kk-> k (in "firplace" and "dot" group) 3) k-> k ( in "sledgehammer") The ...
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63 views

English stress, abstract analysis

I am reading introductory phonology by Bruce Hayes, in chapter 12 he proposed an abstract analysis for English stress.Based on his proposed a word like cassette has been through a process like below: ...
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3answers
216 views

What is the phonetic reason for the occurence Sun and Moon letters in Arabic?

In Arabic, letters (or more accurately phonemes) are categroised into two categories: Sun letter and Moon letter in regard to what happen if we add Al (the) to them. Moon letters don't cause any ...
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3answers
73 views

Help with palatalisation and syllabification

Does palatalisation only occur at the beginning of a given word? All textbook examples (muse, beauty...) are at the beginning. Could somebody also explain syllabification? (Lecturer hardly covered ...
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2answers
40 views

What's the explanatory value of Metrical Trees?

What's the explanatory value of metrical trees used to account for prominence relations or syllable stress? At first reflection, it seems to me like rules should be sufficient (indeed, rules and trees ...
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4answers
72 views

How do they separate phones' length?

In phonetics we use below symbols to talk about phones' length. My question is that how do we measure it? In other words, since these terms (long, half-long extra-short) are relative, how do we ...
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2answers
40 views

What is syntagmatic axis?

I sort of know that syntagmatic axis is how phonemes arrange in a language, is it true? What is it in general?
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2answers
54 views

what are natural classes and how are they classified?

I know the general concept behind natural classes but what is the philosophy for some classes like syllabic? and are there any relationship between any two classes (like being sonorant and being ...
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1answer
36 views

Paper request: study that correlates distinctive features with neuronal activation

I remember an fMRI study that came out sometime around last year (maybe even 2014) that showed a correspondence between distinctive features and neuronal activation. I can't for the life of me find ...
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49 views

Tips for pronouncing sounds that does not exist in the student's mother thongue [closed]

This is my first post here. My name is Bruno and I'm a native (Brazilian) Portuguese speaker. Besides Portuguese, I only have a rough knowledge of American English. I spite of that, I am trying to ...
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2answers
114 views

Assimilation: What is the process in which both phonemes change?

The process in which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound is called assimilation. In assimilation mostly one sound changes but what is the process in which two sounds are changed? Consider the ...
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2answers
40 views

What is the philosophy of prosodic transcription?

Why are we transcribing prosody? and what is the philosophy behind it? In general what is the purpose of it?
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1answer
55 views

How do we define foot in Mandarin Chinese?

As we known, foot is a stress-related unit. But in Mandarin, the existence of stress remains controversial, so I would like to know the formation of foot in Mandarin Chinese. Thanks.
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2answers
65 views

Is there re-syllabification in Chinese?

I'm reading prosodic phonology, and wondering if there is any re-syllabification process happening in Mandarin Chinese?
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2answers
87 views

Is there any way to draw a pitch track, sound wave, and annotation in Praat?

I can draw a combination of a Sound and a TextGrid, and the combination of a Pitch and a TextGrid, but I cannot draw the combination of all three, like it appears in the editor window. Is this a ...
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1answer
22 views

do the vocal folds vibrate when producing oral stops of zero VOT?

we usually say voiceless stops are produced with vocal folds not vibrating. but when we introduce the idea of VOT, we say VOT is a specific feature for stop consonants that measures the amount of time ...
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2answers
112 views

Has any Indic language spirantized its voiceless aspirates? If not, why not?

Many or most Indic languages possess voiceless aspirated stops. Cross-linguistically, such stops often turn into fricatives: e.g., in Indo-European, this happened in Greek, in Iranian, and probably in ...
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0answers
17 views

+constricted glottis includes ejectives and implosives, but Hayes only lists [ʔ] as [+cg] on his feature matrix. Why is that?

I've seen [+constricted glottis] described as encapsulating ejectives and implosives, but the feature matrix according to Hayes (2009) (that I pulled from his personal website over here: ...
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1answer
54 views

Chirpy, 10-year-old-girl vocalization on the media

I am 81 and have embraced vocal fry as the new modern speech. But now I hear a lot of females on the media who sound like ten-year-old girls, ---or the sound-track of a cartoon chipmunk. Chirpy. ...
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2answers
58 views

Does lack of a common (morpho-)phonological alternation make a word a lexical exception?

I am trying to understand the following passages from The Sound Pattern of English, by Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle. Convention 1: : Every segment of a lexical matrix is automatically marked ...
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2answers
134 views

“Cloth” lexical set: Is there a complete description of the possible conditioning environments?

This question is about speakers without the cot-caught merger (so, speakers who pronounce words such as “lot,” “cot,” “swat" with a distinct vowel from words such as “thought,” “caught,” “water.”) ...
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100 views

What, precisely, is a phoneme? [duplicate]

I'm currently enrolled in an introductory linguistics course at my school, and I am having a hard time pinning down what phonemes are. My text defines phonemes as: "A distinctive structural element ...
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5answers
263 views

Is there an easy way to type IPA?

I'm currently using http://ipa.typeit.org/full/ but it takes forever. Is there an easy way to type IPA? I've found this list of unicode keyboards over here ...
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5answers
156 views

how to produce pharyngeal sounds?

i just started self-studying arabic and i'm having trouble producing some of the sounds, specifically ض (ḍad), ظ (ẓa), ص (ṣad) and ط (ṭa). all four are pharyngealized fricatives/plosives and although ...
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2answers
142 views

How is IPrA going to change the way we transcribe prosody?

There are some proposals for IPrA (International Prosodic Alphabet, similar to IPA but for prosody). The meeting for IPrA (link to UCLA webpage on the topic) is planning to be held in BU in mid 2016. ...
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1answer
55 views

Is there a common method of transcribing prosody?

I've seen diacritics corresponding to tones (in tonal languages), but asides from that I haven't come across a system for transcribing prosody in my studies. Is there a popular convention people use?
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1answer
34 views

What is the most efficient way to compress “words”? [closed]

There are many ways a word can be expressed, or things a word is: With textual characters and a dictionary spelling, With phonetic symbols and a phonetic spelling With sound, a recording of the ...
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1answer
40 views

Why don't we use frequency change in ToBI?

As we know the ToBI system is designed to transcribe prosody and within it you can transcribe only High and Low prosody changes. The question is here Why don't we implement frequency change and/or ...
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48 views

Do both phonetics and phonology deal with diacritics? [closed]

Do both phonetics and phonology deal with diacritics? Or is studying phonology is necessary for phoneticians and vice versa in the first place? I understand that phonetics focuses more on phones, ...
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1answer
72 views

Is there a solution for the ToBI's weakness in showing speech variance?

I'm currently doing a research on the ToBI system (a system for transcribing prosody). The ToBI system is a phonological based system and does not show the variance in speech. for instance an L+H% ...
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2answers
309 views

Voiced “th” in “thank you”?

I have a friend, a native English speaker from Boston, MA, USA (I believe he is mostly Irish American), who is absolutely adamant that the first sound in "thank you" is voiced, rather than voiceless. ...
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90 views

metathesis linguistic notation

znƷæbil /Ʒnzæbil/ Ginger /znƷæbil/ /Ʒnzæbil/ /nærƷin/ /ræanƷin/ /fænilæh/ /fælinæh/ /Ʒenzir/ /znƷir/ this is the data could you plz help me? can you help me to write the metathesis ...
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1answer
111 views

The phonological rules of metathesis and epenthesis

Could you provide me with the general rule of both metathesis and epenthesis? I can write the rules regarding specific case in metathesis and epenthesis but I couldn't find out the general rule.
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1answer
21 views

How to represent labialised velars and labials in Element Theory

The contrast between velars and labials in Element Theory is represented either as, respectively, | | vs |U|, or |U| vs |U_| (headed |U|). What if a language contrast plain velars and labials with ...
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1answer
39 views

Generative phonology and segmental phonology

How can I know the difference between generative phonology and segmental phonology?
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1answer
82 views

Phoneticians versus phonologists

What is the difference between a phonetician and a phonologist? I've seen these two terms somewhere on this site but can't figure out the difference.
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2answers
51 views

Seeking a rigorous description of the phonotactics of English

Has anyone created an exposition detailing the phonotactics of English in a way which would be easy for a human to understand but also rigorous enough for it to be possible to program a piece of ...
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2answers
86 views

Can you put tone on any syllable?

I notice that Mandarin has a very simple inventory of sounds and set of possible combinations, whereas some of the languages I'm familiar with which permit more consonant clusters and other ...
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2answers
64 views

What does “psychological reality of sound” mean ?

I am taking an introduction course about linguistics. When my teacher was trying to explain the difference between phonetics and phonology she said something like: "PHONETICS is study of physical ...
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5answers
147 views

Place feature metathesis

Familiar cases of metathesis involve segments changing places, but metathesis can also operate at the subsegmental level, affecting individual features. I'm specifically interested in metathesis of ...
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3answers
206 views

Voicing as lenition

Why is voicing considered lenition under phonological criteria? To me voiced consonants seem stronger in articulation, therefore voicing should be considered fortification.
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1answer
16 views

Are underspecified segments and archiphonemes represented identically in Feature Geometry?

It seems like Feature Geometry doesn't make reference to Archiphonemes - only Underspecified Segments. Is there a theoretically-motivated reason for this, if it is true?
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8answers
98 views

Eliminating intermediary forms to account for production and perception

If linguistic rules which describe the derivation of surface forms from underlying ones, are meant to account for both production and perception, then it seems that intermediary forms like the two ...
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2answers
43 views

Is it standard to have intermediary forms when deriving surface structures from underlying ones?

To be specific, I am analyzing a phonological process like this /maNioN/ --> [mãn.i.õn] --> [mã.ni.õn] --> [mã.nyõ?] These intermediary forms make sense according to the phonology of the language. ...
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4answers
155 views

How many of all possible English words are actually in use (have meaning)?

If we consider that there are phonological observations as to what is an English word and what probably isn't, one could come up with a dictionary of "all possible" English words, i.e. all words that ...
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1answer
50 views

Allophones of an archiphoneme

In the short article on this webpage, the author provides an explanation of nasal variation in Spanish which makes use of an archiphoneme /N/. I put the relevant excerpt below. My question about this ...