Phrase structure is a widespread approach to the analysis and exploration of sentence structure.

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What kind of language is English, anyway?

I was watching a Japanese movie dubbed in English, with French subtitles. I was perfectly sober. Just saying. (I have read a few Japanese novels in English translation, including The Spring Snow and ...
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1answer
47 views

Constituency grammar or Phrase Structure Grammar?

In most of the literature I have encountered thus far, the terms "constituency grammar" and "phrase structure grammar" seem to be used interchangeably. Is either one of the two more acceptable or ...
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Did Chomsky originate the term “rewrite rule”?

The earliest mention of the term "rewrite rule" that I am able to find - in the context of phrase structure grammars - is in Chomsky's "Syntactic Structures" (1957). Did he originate the term?
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46 views

I'm having trouble with my syntax tree and wanted some help for a project! [closed]

I have to include null complementizers if they exist as well as any mission NP covert subjects. This is my sentence: The woods, always a menace even in the past, had triumphed in the end. i've been ...
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38 views

Identifying core arguments, constituents? [closed]

In the sentence, 'It was raining' what are the core arguments? I think [It] is a core argument and [was raining] is another. This would mean that it is a NP and was raining is a VP. But if this is ...
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43 views

What is the difference between predicate-argument structure and case structure

Predicate's arguments are just case slots, aren't they? So predicate-argument structure and case structure are just the same thing?
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1answer
117 views

Evidence for/against Lexical integrity principle

Some (mostly lexicalist) theories of syntax assume that there's a 1-to-1 relationship between the words in a sentence and the nodes in its syntax tree. It seems pretty obvious to me. Is there ...
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2answers
109 views

What heads can an adverbial phrase have?

What heads can an adverbial phrase have? Consider the following examples: I'll go to bed [soon]_AdvP. I'll go to bed [in an hour]_AdvP. I'll go to bed [when I've finished my book]_AdvP. ...
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Is there a resource where I can see the logical form of an English sentence?

There are plenty of resources to generate trees from natural language, but none to generate logical forms. Or maybe you know of some great resources to those ends?
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Researching extraposition in a syntactic treebank

I'm writing a paper on extraposition in English (and other right-branching discontinuities). I have found a lot of interesting theory on this but the instructions say that if possible concrete corpus ...
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1answer
9k views

Drawing tree diagrams of ambiguous sentences generated by a CFG

Suppose I have the following CFG rules: S -> NP VP NP -> (D) NOM VP -> V (NP) (NP) NOM -> N NOM -> NOM PP VP -> VP PP PP -> P NP X -> X+ CONJ X How should I draw the tree ...
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Is there a paradigmatic formalism for dependency grammars?

When looking on the web, wikipedia for example, at the concept of constituent, it is associated with the concept of phrase structure, and rather quickly with context-free languages (as the ...
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133 views

NPs as adverbials; how to parse them?

NPs can function as adverbials as in the following sentences: I ran a mile. I am 5 feet tall. One way to confirm this is by substituting the NPs with adverbs, e.g. "I ran fast" and "I am very ...
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5answers
579 views

Why is constituency needed, since dependency gets the job done more easily and economically?

I do dependency grammar (DG), and my personal view is that dependency gets the job done more efficiently than constituency by far. The average constituency parse (= phrase structure parse) contains ...
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1answer
94 views

Is it [Dr. [No]] or [[Dr.] No], or something else?

The question focuses on how we should structure expressions with a form of address, such as Mr., Frau, etc., or a title, such as Dr., Prof., etc., and a proper name, such as Smith, Yamada, etc. In ...
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1answer
169 views

Basic questions on X Bar

When formulating a answer to this question - please note I only have a basic high school level of English. I watched a video on X-Bar theory. I am just trying to get a basic understanding. What does ...
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2answers
537 views

Is the set of lexical rules, or phrase structure rules finite?

I'm trying to write a program that generates valid English sentences, but without specifying what structure the sentence takes. I want that to be determined by starting at a simple sentence S (NP ...
3
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2answers
216 views

Are phrase structure grammar and/or dependency grammar legitimate theories for describing the cognitive structure of syntax?

My hunch is (like always) there are people in both groups, but what was the original purpose of the theories? Are they mainly linguistic tools for describing various syntactic phenomena, rather than ...
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1answer
223 views

Why are phrase structure rules always inconsistent?

I've noticed that phrase structure rules have been very inconsistent over my studies. I've seen NP = (det)(adj)N ; NP = (det)N(PP); these definitions seem to change with context. Is it just because ...
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1answer
677 views

English Phrase Structure Rules and adjectives

I am learning about English grammar, but as a programmer, I have natually gravitated towards learning about syntactic structure. I am learning from university lecture notes which I found through ...
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1answer
64 views

What do you call the phrase/clause after a quotation in a novel?

Often in novels or reported speech, we have the quotation marked by opening and closing quotation mark. And before or after the quotation we have a phrase that states, <somebody> said or said ...
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3answers
3k views

What's the difference between recursion and embedding?

Chains of relative clauses and strings of attributive adjectives are both examples of recursion--Correct? Chains of relative clauses have each non-initial relative clause embedded within the previous ...
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1answer
1k views

Quantifier (Noun Phrase + Prepositional Phrase); what are they called?

I'm having a really hard time searching for the exact term to refer to quantifiers that are of NP+PP combinations. E.g.: a lot of, lots of, a bit of, plenty of, a number of, an amount of, etc. "Basic" ...
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What are the chief advantages & disadvantages of describing sentences with dependency vs. phrase structure trees?

What are the chief advantages & disadvantages of describing sentences with dependency vs. phrase structure (aka. constituency) trees? From what I've read, dependency grammar trees lack phrase ...
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1answer
232 views

A syntactic approach to possessives

I am currently writing an essay in linguistic typology on possessives. I got stuck in the last part, in which I am supposed to present a syntactic approach to the structure of possessives. I should ...
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2answers
432 views

How are these diagrams read?

I naively picked up a book in which the author assumes that the reader has a background in linguistics, so she often uses abbreviations without first explaining what they mean. I don't have such a ...