Semantics is the study of meaning, used to understand expressions through language.

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Term for modifying a word to create its opposite connotation

I'm interested in knowing if there is a specific term for the phenomenon (in English) where a word with a positive connotation can be modified to create a word or phrase with a negative connotation (...
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79 views

the difference between upward and downward entailment

How does one show the difference of an upward entailment between that of a downward entailment? I have tried doing examples where the negative polarity item is moved from the verb phrase to the noun ...
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67 views

Why is “then” deictic?

Then is mentioned as deictic in many papers but I couldn't find a sufficient explanation for that. Every example I could think of involves then acting as anaphora, but how decctic? If I say: I am ...
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79 views

Are there any languages in which 'knowledge' is not a mass noun?

I would have thought there would be some, but I'd love some examples. So are there any languages in which the translation of 'knowledge'is not a mass noun?
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48 views

Is there a language that begins range expressions with the higher/later datum?

If someone were to say There were between twenty and ten people at the event. or I will be there from the fifth to the second of July. that person would sound strange indeed, because in ...
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39 views

Subdivision of Implicatures and Distinction between Semantics and Pragmatics [duplicate]

I believe the traditional Gricean view is that anything that can't be expressed in truth-conditions is pragmatics rather than semantics. I also know that there's the view excluding conventional ...
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47 views

Do “shew” and “eschew” come from the same root?

If so, are they antonyms or did one undergo a lexical shift to become the other? Also, is the /es-/ prefix used as a negator in any other English words, or is this case an exception?
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16 views

How does flexible and context-dependent Categorisation not imply fuzzy Category Boundaries?

Source: p 283, Understanding Semantics (2 ed, 2013) by Sebastian Löbner   [Continued] Likewise, the category VASE is defined by the feature that vases are for putting cut flowers in. Thus, the ...
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13 views

Why aren't derivative features included in the definition of a prototype?

Source: p 283, Understanding Semantics (2 ed, 2013) by Sebastian Löbner   Another criticism concerns the nature of the features chosen for the tests. It is questionable if the shape criterion ...
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64 views

How are brothers and sisters not KINDS of siblings?

Source: Understanding Semantics (2 ed, 2013) by Sebastian Löbner [p 217, Definition 9:] A set of expressions is a taxonomy if and only if: (i) they form a conceptual hierarchy in terms of ...
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29 views

What do the 'Perfect' and 'Perfective' Aspects share or have in common?

[ Source: ] At this point I’ve established that the perfect and the perfective are two separate concepts. However, there’s a conceptual relationship between these two even if there’s not an intrinsic ...
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19 views

How does 'Theme/Patient' differ from 'Experiencer'?

Source: p 123, Understanding Semantics (2 ed, 2013) by Sebastian Löbner To me, the Description and Examples for Thematic/Semantics Roles appear 100% interchangeable: so what are the ...
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32 views

Why was the prefix 'anti-' chosen for the terms 'antipassive' and 'anticausative'?

Source: Understanding Semantics (2 ed, 2013) by Sebastian Löbner [p 137:] The antipassive in English consists of demoting the direct object argument by omitting it. It removes the THEME/PATIENT ...
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64 views

The semantical change of сарай - “saráj” (rus., ukr.) vs. sister and donor languages: pl. 'seraj', srb-cro. 'saraj'

Much like (eng.) saray, the words derive themselves from Ottoman Turkish latinized: saray ("palace", "mansion", "castle"), which itself is derived from Persian سرای ("hall", "dwelling", "mansion", "...
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15 views

What underlying semantic notions connect 'comeback' to 'joining' or 'restarting'?

[ repartee (n.) : ] 1640s, "quick remark," from French repartie "an answering blow or thrust" (originally a fencing term), noun use of fem. past participle of Old French repartir [See Wiktionary] ...
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35 views

What underlying semantic notions connect 'less' to 'not'? [closed]

What underlying notions explain this same semantic shift from 'less' to 'not' (ie: negation)? It appears in all 4 languages below, as evidenced by the Spanish and Portuguese synonymy. I know that in ...
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50 views

How can a remark not refer to the speaker's attitude?

Source: p 34, Understanding Semantics (2 ed, 2013) by Sebastian Löbner   Interjections and exclamations can be used as complete utterances. Other expressives such as hopefully, (un)fortunately ...
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23 views

How do Phatic Phrases contain only Social Meaning and lack Descriptive Meaning?

Source: p 31, Understanding Semantics (2 ed, 2013) by Sebastian Löbner. Preface: I know little German. Sorry if I have cited too much; please feel free to refine my post. [...]  bitte >please&...
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29 views

Do people still study Frame Semantics?

Do people still study Frame Semantics? As an elective, many year ago, I took one course in a topic called Semantics. I remember my professor saying that dictionaries are problematic since they try ...
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62 views

Why is the following sentence ungrammatical? [closed]

"The man entertained by the doves his sandwich munched." Thanks for the explanation!
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48 views

What are different types of signs? [closed]

I've read somewhere that there are different types of signs like: natural signs (smoke as a sign of fire), arbitrary signs (language signs) etc. Could someone provide me with a complete list and ...
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29 views

Entailment relationship?

Is this an example of entailment? Does A entail B? A. None of Bob's friends have visited Africa. B. None of Bob's friends have visited Kenya. But B seems to survive of A is negated: A'. Some of B'...
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The Correct Research Methodology To Substantiate If an Expression is an Idiom?

Related: - Does linguistics have a concept of "set phrase" with a meaning differing from "idiom"? - In the Gospels, Can “Day of:” the Passover - be Interpreted Idiomatically? 1....
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58 views

Anticausative/unaccusative verbs - a way to express causer of the event

Can be sentence with unaccusative verb describing some state change on the subject changed to sentence (with different verb of course) which contains cause of that event on the subject position (like ...
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54 views

What is the difference between Semantics and Pragmatics? [duplicate]

I had a class today in an introductory linguistics course and some of the concepts are not clear to me. First, what is the difference between semantics and pragmatics. For example: A: "Did you ...
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50 views

Could there be such a thing as a universal logical language?

That is, are there certain conceptual primitives, such as object, action, structure, property, logic, event, quantity, partial, paradox, system, concept, etc, or connectives/judgements, such as for ...
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41 views

Generating Essay (Set of correlated sentenses) from a set of keywords

I originally belong to Computer Vision world. Recently I worked on Scene Understanding. There, I accept an image and generate a sentence explaining the contents of the scene. Now, my professor wants ...
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116 views

What are the differences between theoretical perspectives of the uses of the term “register”?

I'd be interested in asking people about their understanding of the term register and what this signifies for them. This would be a discussion about a specialised term and I'm sure there are multiple ...
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32 views

Distances and weights in semantic space

I am doing Latent Semantic Analysis on news. I have a few questions. What is the most suitable kind of distance d for similarity measurement in semantic space: cosine, Euclidean, Manhattan or other ...
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96 views

What do you understand by the term 'register'? [duplicate]

I'd be interested in asking people about their understanding of the term register and what this signifies for them. This would be a discussion about a specialised term and I'm sure there are multiple ...
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1answer
78 views

Speech acts theory: (il)Locutionary acts

I have read popular text books on this topic and watched several lectures but still I don't understand what are Locutionary and Illocutionary act (and verbs). In general how do you identify this verbs?...
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38 views

What's a good illustration of the difference between syntagmatic, paradigmatic, and attribute semantic relations?

In the book Concepts, Ontologies, and Knowledge Representation, the author makes a distinction between syntagmatic and paradigmatic semantic relations. That's clear enough - but then he raises a third ...
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65 views

Does pragmatics cut down or add to the stock of interpretations generated by the semantics?

This is a question similar to the question about the semantics/pragmatics divide, but I have a more specific interest. I'm thinking of two different ways of conceiving of the way statements come to ...
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55 views

Can 'a system of rules that assigns […] meaning in a definite way' be replaced with 'semantics'?

Source: An Introduction to Language (10 ed, 2014) by V Fromkin, R Rodman, N Hyams. I, and not the book, bolded. [p 7:] A person who knows a language has mastered [1.] a system of rules ...
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89 views

Can 'semantics' replace 'meaning' in these 7 sentences? Why or why not? [closed]

I reread 1 (which this does NOT duplicate) and the OED, and can infer that 'semantics' is a hyponym of 'meaning'; but still unable to disambiguate 'meaning' and 'semantics' in certain contexts, I am ...
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65 views

Can someone explain this sentence from Dartmouth's German page?

Was perusing the page (you can find it here), I came across the paragraph "That said, word order is a complex aspect of language, never wholly mastered by non-native speakers. What is the idea ...
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40 views

How does 'envisager de' presuppose nothing situational, but 'hésiter à' does?

Source: p 177, French prepositions à and de in infinitival complements, A pragma-semantic analysis (2008) by Lidia Fraczak, as part of Adpositions ; Pragmatic, semantic and syntactic perspectives (...
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33 views

« essayé de s’évader » : How does « essayer de » not presuppose « s'evader »? [closed]

Source: p 175, French prepositions à and de in infinitival complements, A pragma-semantic analysis (2008) by Lidia Fraczak, as part of Adpositions ; Pragmatic, semantic and syntactic perspectives (...
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How do 'what is risked' and 'potentially risky activity' differentiate « risquer å » from « risquer de » ?

Source: p 368, The semantics of ‘empty prepositions’ in French (1996) by Kemmer and Shyldkrot, as part of Cognitive Linguistics in the Redwoods: The Expansion of a New Paradigm in Linguistics edited ...
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What special relationship does 'de' reveal between a main verb and the infinitive?

Source: pp 367-368, The semantics of ‘empty prepositions’ in French (1996) by Kemmer and Shyldkrot, as part of Cognitive Linguistics in the Redwoods: The Expansion of a New Paradigm in Linguistics ...
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36 views

How does the French preposition 'de' connect to alienable possession? [closed]

Source: The semantics of ‘empty prepositions’ in French (1996) by Kemmer and Shyldkrot, as part of Cognitive Linguistics in the Redwoods: The Expansion of a New Paradigm in Linguistics edited by ...
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How does the French preposition 'de' connect to inalienablility and subordination?

Source: The semantics of ‘empty prepositions’ in French (1996) by Kemmer and Shyldkrot, as part of Cognitive Linguistics in the Redwoods: The Expansion of a New Paradigm in Linguistics edited by ...
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133 views

Can syntax be part of semantics?

Is it possible to consider a POS category of a word as semantic aspect? Assume we have unknown word. But when we know part-of-speech it can give us a hint about semantic meaning. Is that right?
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Is 'unless' semantically equivalent to the (English conjunction) exclusive 'or'?

Preface: I question this here because the author is a full-time linguist. Source: The semantics of "unless" by Brian Buccola BA (Classics, Mathematics) PhD (Linguistics) Bonus question: If “unless”...
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References and sources to help me explain the semantics of the word 'over'

So I'm doing an assignment on the semantics of the word 'over'. Everyone in our semantics class was asked by the lecturer to pick a piece of paper out of a hat, he then said that we were required to ...
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Does “I don't drink.” mean “I don't drink alcohol.” in all languages? [duplicate]

In those languages I'm a bit familiar with, the verb for drinking is very often understood as drinking alcohol, especially if its meaning "the oral intake of any fluid", wouldn't make sense. For ...
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48 views

What motivated the definition of Theme in Semantics?

Source: An Introduction to Language (10 ed, 2014) by V Fromkin, R Rodman, N Hyams [p 163:] The NP arguments in the VP, which include the subject and any objects, are semantically related in ...
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80 views

GermaNLTK: not finding files [python]

Following the instructions of GermaNLTK I tried to install the german NLTK in Python. (I want to use the synsets for semantic-taging.) But I couldn't find the files germanet.py and GermanetDBBuilder....
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how to choose a threshold for Jiang-Conrath Similarity?

I want to compare two sets of keywords. After searching I understood that Jiang-Conrath Similarity is closer correlating with human judgement. I read this definition: Jiang-Conrath Similarity ...