Semantics is the study of meaning, used to understand expressions through language.

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Can every language express any lexical aspect?

Wikipedia tells about the difference and relation between lexical aspect and grammatical aspect. Whereas the lexical aspect is a specific way to put focus onto how to observe an event on a semantic ...
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82 views

Why do time adverbials like “yesterday” have a different distribution than adverbials like “always?”

Consider these two sentences below, which employ some kind of temporal adverbial / adjunct. (I) Yesterday John won the Turkey Raffle. (II) John always wins the Turkey Raffle. My question is, why ...
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55 views

What Sprachgesetze are suggested by Quantitative Linguistics on semantic level?

Sprachgesetze, verbatimally laws of language, are stochastic statements about features of a language based on empirical evaluation of a corpus. The Sprachgesetze I found are mainly quantitative ...
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79 views

Can the entropy per word be caculated precisely?And relation among information theory, semantics, and pragmatics

What we have gotten about the expected per word entropy of random yet grammatical text is just some upper bound of the the expected per word entropy, because we have not found the exact way to compute ...
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27 views

How many different relations exist for a semantic net?

I have encountered a few random sources, that explains to a layman what a semantic net is. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ONV38l39PsE this source explains, there are three different relations ...
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32 views

How is semantic change coped with in judiciary? [closed]

What difficulties induced by semantic change do jurists have to encounter while formulating new texts and using old texts?
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22 views

Is binary branching incompatible with exclusive disjunctions?

I've read that binary branching is not compatible with exclusive disjunctions, because the resulting disjunction will always be true if the total number of objects in the sequence is odd and will ...
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41 views

What are semantic loans from Turkey Turkish into languages from Europe? [closed]

As for Germany, the Turks started to migrate as temporarily workers, but finally stayed. If you talk with Turks or hear them talking, you might notice how frequently they use the German word "Ehre" ...
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26 views

Thematic roles - are they same in paraphrases?

Is the subject in these two sentences have the same thematic role - natural force ? The wind closed the door. The wind caused that door closed. Is true that in general sentences which have ...
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30 views

How many levels to approach language exist in linguistics?

I know only a few,like semantic level to approach its very meaning, the morphology level to understand how single words are build, syntax level to understand the inner structure of sentences. I ...
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75 views

Is there a good introduction to subjectivity in language?

Since the topic of "subjectivity in language" is all new to me, I am looking for an introduction to the topic that 1) gives an overview of the phenomena usually associated with the topic ...
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26 views

VerbNet semantic roles and preposition groups - how to determine matches

Using verbnet to test whether a sentence matches a frame, how does one determine whether the semantic role specified in the verbnet frame is appearing in the sentence or not? e.g. on this verbnet ...
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29 views

Center of a set of words

Is there any available algorithm that can take a set of words and attempt to find a word that best represents the "center of mass" of all those words? This would be easy if we can define a distance ...
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75 views

Redundancy needing definition [closed]

He was the first who finished last. He was the first who finished second. ............................ third. Is this kind of silly statement some kind of pleonasm? There's only one who takes ...
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121 views

Given a verb get a noun that corresponds to subject or object

I have verbs and I would like to find their corresponding noun for either subject or object. e.g. run:subject -> runner kill:subject -> killer kill:object -> dead I also would have groups of them ...
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89 views

What is the scope of negation (again)?

I recently asked a question concerning the scope of negation. I received helpful feedback from a number of linguists who frequent this forum. My efforts to discern the scope of negation continue, and ...
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145 views

Do individuals have an Occam’s razor for word meanings?

Background and Example On the German Stack Exchange, we had a lengthy discussion regarding the meaning of the word Gefäß. It was undisputed that a Gefäß is: an item which can contain liquids ...
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88 views

Are theta roles universal?

Is the theta role in one language (ex. English) - L1 the same as in another language - L2, when this two sentence are about the same ? Can anybody give me example, when they are different ?
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217 views

What is the scope of negation?

A recent question posed by another user observed that the following sentence is ambiguous: (1) Arthur does not discipline his children because he loves them. This sentence can mean either that ...
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78 views

Term for a similar word that cannot stand for it in every context?

I once learned a term meaning a similar word that cannot stand for it in every context, i.e. a synonym that doesn't work in every instance the original word can (not a hypernym). What is this term?
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100 views

Relationship between “see” and “look”

I'm interested in how "see" and "look" relate to each other. I think "hear" and "listen" is similar. Is there specific linguistic terminology that describes how the words relate to each other? To me ...
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2answers
156 views

What is the difference between assertive and non-assertive words?

What is the difference between assertive and non-assertive words? I haven't been able to find an answer in my online linguistics sources such as the SIL Glossary of Linguistics Terms. The only ...
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133 views

NP + “had better” + Infinitive V

It just occurred to me that this construction is very peculiar. Pronoun: I had better get going. NP: The cat had better be home. Expletive: There had better be food on the table. ...
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100 views

Theory behind the semantics of predicates

My goal is to build semantic representation of Russian sentences, i.e. to extract verb predicates and fill in the actant words. The tool I have is some kind of a shallow syntactic parser which works ...
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118 views

Nouns and Interrogative Complements

In English, there are many different verbs which can combine with clausal complements. These verbs can be further sub-categorised as to whether they embed a propositional that-clause, or an embedded ...
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1answer
97 views

Is the semantic component of a generative grammar especially difficult to incorporate in psycholinguistic proccessing models?

It is often said that it is difficult to match up the structure rules of a grammar with psychologically realistic models of competence. I was wondering if the semantic component was especially ...
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46 views

What are the composition rules of these sentences?

let the cat out of the bag, take off clothes, burn the candle at both ends For example: the C-Rule of "bring home the bacon" is: VC("the bacon",NP,AJ2)VA([home],A,AJ1); Here is also a good ...
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100 views

Do these errors affect how native speakers understand these sentences?

I'm working on a research concerning error analysis. I want to ask whether these errors would affect what meaning a native speaker will interpret these sentences as conveying? In magic realism it’s ...
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Why are kinship terms typical examples of inalienablity but not meronomy?

According to Chappell & McGregor (1996: 4) there are four typically types of inalienably possessed nouns: spatial relationships such as the ’top’ or ’front’ of something physical parts, ...
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82 views

Composite truth tables for sentence relations (entailment, synonymy,etc.)

I'm using John Saeed's 'Semantics'. Now in chap 4 I see he is trying to formalize sentence relations such as entailment, synonymy, contradiction, etc., by some kind of different truth tables he calls ...
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93 views

What to call the content of pronouns

English and most Indo-European languages have gender-based pronouns, it can be seen he (3SG: +masculine) or she (3SG: +feminine) in English. Some other languages do not have gender-based pronouns but ...
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141 views

What are the necessary and sufficient characteristics of a word to be considered as nominal?

Clearly there are morphological "tendencies" (case inflection, no TAM marking) -- but what about the semantic or syntactic characteristics (even if they are just tendencies and not universal)? I ...
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68 views

Name for statements with exhaustible meaning?

I'm new to linguistics and I'm having trouble finding out if there's any existing literature on statements that have exhaustible meaning. By exhaustible meaning, I'm trying to get at something like ...
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103 views

The notion of monotonicity

I am slightly confused bu the notion of upward-monotonicity and downward-monotonicity. I cannot understand what exactly can be defined as upward-monoty and down-ward-monotony, is this definition of ...
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59 views

Production of mind maps

On SpanishD!ct, an interesting discussion about the use of mind maps in language learning has arisen. (This has been trimmed down from a question on ELL.) Are there mind maps such as these that are ...
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47 views

Is there a way to distinguish habitualis from generic interpretation?

I'm looking for a way to classify a given sentence as either habitualis or generic in a language where neither is a grammatical category. Thus, it should be a some semantic feature of the sentence. ...
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154 views

Which languages conflate (imperfective) past and irrealis, and why?

In English, the "simple past" form of a verb can sometimes be used to convey irrealis meanings, without any preterite sense: If I was rich, I'd buy a Porsche. If you only knew! I'd like to be able ...
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100 views

How do idioms and metaphors fit into the principle of compositionality?

The principle of compositionality is formulated as: The meaning of a complex expression is a function of the meaning of its parts and of the syntactic rules by which they are combined. ...
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158 views

Two sentences with the same meaning

I am looking for a statistical or linguistic method that could give the degree of similarity between the meaning of two sentences. I have found in literature many distance measures (euclidean ...
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73 views

How to express semantics in functions

As I understand it, the function is assigned the predicate ( e.g. let f(x) denote [[ _ is red]] ), the domain is the set of all possible referents and the range is the set of all possible ...
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97 views

Differences of 'Meta-linguistic' & 'reflexive' statements

I'm currently using John Lyons' 'Semantics' vol 1. In the section 1.3 Object-language and Meta language, after he defines those concepts, he tries to show the difference between meta-linguistic and ...
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Is there an established distinction between semantic and syntactic predicates?

My question is probing to learn whether semanticists (and syntacticians) draw a distinction between what I am calling here semantic and syntactic predicates. The question concerns the status of the NP ...
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43 views

Abbreviation taking the meaning of the whole expression

In English and some other languages (such as Portuguese and possibly Italian), the word "calculus" is actually an abbreviation from "differential and integral calculus" that has taken the meaning of ...
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149 views

What thematic roles are played by the subject of an intransitive verb?

I am not familiar with the concept of thematic roles, just what is on wikipedia. Here is what I have come up with. agent: The man runs patient: The man was tripped. experiencer: The man falls. My ...
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109 views

Why does this pronomial not refer?

Consider the following interlocution, Maria: "A man fell off the cliff!" Tabish: "He didn't fall, he was pushed." My professor concluded, This shows that pronouns cannot be the same as the ...
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47 views

Analysis of Evidentials

If I analyse evidential devices, is it lexical or propositional level of analysis? I would say it is propositional level, because, for instance, modal verbs being taken out of context may have ...
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1answer
276 views

How I can identify semantic features?

Actually, I want to know what are the factors to notice in determining semantic features of different parts of speech. I recognize some of them like +/- animate, +/- human, +/- male, and +/- young. ...
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254 views

English vs. Esperanto (in grammar, vocabulary, semantics)

I know Esperanto is constructed on the basis of Romance languages; but what are the main differences and similarities between English and Esperanto? Especially from the following aspects: grammar ...
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100 views

Establishing the most common “semantic units” in a corpus

I have a corpus concerning spoken English, where the most common words include: you, the, i, to, a. However, I'm not only interested in words but also groups of consecutive words where the meaning is ...
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86 views

Multiple words with a single meaning

What is the technical term from a group of consecutive words with a single associated meaning? For example, phrasal verbs like: "get out" and idioms like: "on the other hand".