The study of the rules that govern the arrangement of words to create well-formed sentences in a given language.

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58 views

always | never | “all the time” - what kind of words are these?

always never "all the time" They aren't 'expletives', but they express a non-expiry. What word would describe this type of word? Context : he never brings me flowers; he's always late; you criticise ...
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69 views

Distinguishing subjects in apposition

Consider the English sentence (from the Washinton Post): "Trump is wrong that Muslims don’t do our part." In the embedded clause, is the subject 'Muslims', or the implied 'we' in 'our'? In the ...
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51 views

What is the difference between Travis' head movement constraint and Rizzi's relativized minimality?

What is the difference between the head movement constraint of Travis (1984), and the relativized minimality of Rizzi (1990)?
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36 views

Difference between dislocation, shifting, inversion, discontinuity, topicalization, scrambling

This is a really broad question, but can someone explain the difference between the following phenomena: topicalization, dislocation, shifting, inversion, discontinuity, and scrambling. Wikipedia says ...
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85 views

Topicalization of a VP in German

The phrase is "Gegeben hat Hans dem Lehrer das Buch" In order to have this sentence, I have to remove "dem Lehrer das Buch" to become adjunctions to Verb Phrase (VP) This is done because they are ...
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72 views

Languages that have morphological distinction between independent clauses with implicit subjects and independent clauses with explicit subjects?

Many languages permit an independent clause to lack an explicit subject (known as null-subject languages). Consider the following sentences taken from Spanish. Tú eres mi amiga. (You are my friend). ...
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98 views

Can we use several independent clauses to express an idea of conditional without too much limitation?

In English, generally speaking, an idea of conditional is expressed by a sentence with a dependent clause (and usually with the conjunction "if"): If it rains, the picnic will be cancelled. The ...
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15 views

Copulas and theta roles

Hi I was wondering if and if so which theta roles are being discharged to the DPs/NPs in sentences such as "these are French men". Also I was asking myself what kind of structure one would give to ...
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48 views

Is there a language that begins range expressions with the higher/later datum?

If someone were to say There were between twenty and ten people at the event. or I will be there from the fifth to the second of July. that person would sound strange indeed, because in ...
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48 views

Must subjectless infinitives exhibit subject control when used as complements(traditionally direct objects) of other verbs?

In English, the answer will be yes in most cases, but one thesis cast doubt on this. The author provided an example taken from BNC: My mother helped [PRO] to cater for the funeral tea, which were ...
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102 views

Is there a language in which the verb “to ask” can be followed by a dative case?

So far as I know, the ditransitive verb "to ask" takes two accusatives in German (fragen), and the verb "to give" takes one dative and one accusative in many languages. Is there a language in which ...
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29 views

What are the restrictions on the use of “unless”?

I have found a restriction on the use of "unless" which was difficult to explain to my students (advanced ESL). The student's sentence was I would have had to go to the bank unless you had lent me ...
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4 views

Is a structure with “past past perfect” possible? [migrated]

In the following example If I hadn't have been too nice, I would still have my wallet. is past past perfect a possible structure? If so, shouldn't it be "hadn't had been"?
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72 views

Syntactic status of 'than'

I'm not terribly familiar with the syntax of PPs, but I've noticed that a handful of them do not seem to satisfy any constituency tests, particularly 'than'. 'Than' is listed in dictionaries as both '...
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1answer
73 views

Restrictions on Wh-movement

I know that for wh-movement out of a non-root CP successive cyclic movement is needed, so moving to spec-CP of the lower CP and then from there to the root-CP, but what's the specific restriction on ...
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75 views

Syntax: VP subject internal null V head from Carnie's book

I'm going to try to ask this question in a way it doesn't look like a homework assignment, which is not, because previous message was classified off-topic. I'm reading Carnie's book, and he just ...
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0answers
55 views

Ambiguity tree: The doctor visited the patient drunk [closed]

I would like to ask if the trees regarding the two different readings of the sentence "The doctor visited the patient drunk" were drawn correctly. a) [VP [^NP The doctor] [V' [V visited] [NP [D the] [...
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1answer
39 views

Clause analysis for causative verbs

I am doing clause analysis for a corpus and am not sure how to determine the clauses for the following type of sentence: The kind of woman that makes people remember Marylin Monroe. I suppose it ...
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1answer
30 views

Looking for a list of English words that are morphologically similar, semantically different? [closed]

I need a list of English words that are morphologically similar, but when it comes to meaning, they should be completely different.
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1answer
57 views

Can “to” ever be a Prep or a Particle before “be”

Can “to” ever be a Prep or a Particle before “be”? If so can anyone think of an example?
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37 views

What is some standard analysis for “Look me in the eye”

I am looking for hints where to find a ("standard") analysis of something like this english dative construction: Look me in the eye Clearly, the "the" in this phrase is semantically scoped BY the ...
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0answers
40 views

Noun adjuncts (attributive nouns) in the x-bar scheme [closed]

What category are the two nouns for the following phrases: A) The play by Bill Roberts B) A chicken soup bowl according to distributional criteria "Roberts" and "soup" are adjectives, but should ...
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42 views

Syntax trees: Why CP and VP sometimes have only 1 node and sometimes 2 under them?

I'm reading Carnie's English Syntax and I'm having some doubts regarding the syntactic trees of some examples. For what I've understood about my doubt, it has to be with the definitions of ...
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37 views

Why “Monotonicity” Hypothesis? (Koontz-Garboden)

Should't it be "monodirectionality hypothesis"? In my understanding, this is about the one-way that material/structure can be added to a sentence-while-generated, but never deleted. (Harley 2013 ...
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64 views

What is a “nucleus” in syntax?

What exactly does the term nucleus refer to in syntax? (I'm not asking about the term in relation to phonetics or phonology). For example when syntacticians write about left dislocations and so forth ...
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2answers
73 views

Could anyone tell me if these syntax trees are correct? [closed]

I'm a beginner with linguistics and I'm wondering if some of the syntax trees I've made are correct. Also, how would one make trees for posessive noun phrases such as: Larry’s exciting trip to ...
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1answer
62 views

Why is the following sentence ungrammatical? [closed]

"The man entertained by the doves his sandwich munched." Thanks for the explanation!
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73 views

CGEL's argument on the constituent structure of certain sentences that involve 'as well as'

In CGEL on pp. 1316-1317, we find a discussion of two different uses of as well as: [70] i b. [Abstraction] [as well as impressionism] were Russian inventions.      &...
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42 views

Scope ambiguity resolution [closed]

If we have a sentential negation with the quantifier every, that would cause an ambiguity. is there any resolution to avoid that scope ambiguity?
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1answer
52 views

Complex Sentence

I am having difficulty figuring out how to draw a syntax tree for the sentence: "Bill reported that a student asked whether the eclipse would occur." Im confused on which word is the complementiser ...
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3answers
72 views

Drawing a phrasal constituent tree for a specific sentence

I'm trying to do some language analysis on the opening paragraph of The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, specifically looking at phrasal constituents. The first sentence is as follows: "I became what ...
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1answer
58 views

'treatment of the issues' and 'sensitivity to the problems': Why cannot these be Noun Phrases?

Source: p 178 Understanding Syntax (4 ed, 2014) by Prof. Maggie Tallerman PhD in Linguistics (U. Hull). The author is using (84) and (85) to introduce Bar Notation. In (84), admired has a ...
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39 views

What is the subject of the sentence?

My colleagues and I differ on what the subject is in the following sentence. About 500 cm3 of the Herschelite was hydrated at 80% RH. I think "500 cm3" is the subject of the sentence that governs ...
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21 views

What is the syntactic operation of linearization?

When I google this term I get many different definitions. At it's most fundamental is it simply the operation that transforms an expression from its deep structure (or LF) to its surface structure (or ...
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1answer
52 views

How do distinctive features work?

I'm currently working my way through a book on syntax by Andrew Carnie, and I've come up against something that isn't entirely clear to me. In a chapter about syntactic categories, Carnie writes: ...
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1answer
44 views

Why are Adjuncts called 'Adverbial Clauses'? [closed]

Hereafter abbreviate Adverbial Clauses to AC. Section 6.3.3 (p 66, An Introduction to English Syntax By Jim Miller) states that AC may not always be adverbs. So was AC misnamed; if yes, why? Or is ...
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2answers
113 views

How to Handle Conjunctions in Generative Syntax Tree without Abandoning Nontangling Condition

A few days ago, we had a conference on multidomination and I firstly saw an andP there. The solution was to simply abandon the conditions of well-formed phrase markers below: Single Mother Condition ...
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97 views

Most regular and irregular languages

I would like to know which natural languages are grammatically the most regular and irregular. There are several titbit articles on the web but none are definitive or explanatory. By regular, I want ...
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1answer
36 views

Does Syntactic Category determines Position in the sentence and the Position in the sentence determines Category?

Source: p 48, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. The following is NOT a homework question as I am not studying Linguistics but I have endeavoured to evidence my effort. ...
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43 views

Egyptian Hieroglyph Interpretation (Pronounced Ahemu)

Here's an image of an egyptian hieroglyph snippet, it's pronounced ahemu: As you can see, it's referenced in an Egyptian text, Nebseni. Here's a link: http://www.masseiana.org/nebseni.htm#XCII ...
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43 views

How is 'that-trace effect' a Logic puzzle for speakers of languages without it?

Source: p 25, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie The phenomenon in (28) is sometimes called the that-trace effect. There is no disputing the fact that this ...
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52 views

Cover-term for “declarative”, “negative”, “emphatic”?

Does anybody know a cover-term for "declarative", "negative", and "emphatic"? One of my ESL-students asked me, and I cannot remember a term for this (tho' I've been teaching ESL for over 20 years). ...
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2answers
220 views

Syntax - difference between modifiers and complements in NPs?

Here are two NPs: their incredible story of the trip in space (complement) the noisy yellow airplanes that scared the children in the yard (post modifier) Why is it that certain nouns takes ...
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140 views

Understanding Symbols in Chomsky's *Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory*

I've been reading Chomsky's The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory, and have come up rather suddenly against a stumbling block. On page 133, he uses without explanation some notation that's ...
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4answers
205 views

What are the state-of-the-art English syntax theories there are that can explain all the English syntax phenomena?

Both Dependency Grammar (DG) and Constituency Grammar (CG) are a tool to describe the syntax of any natural language in general. The language whose syntax is to be described in DG or CG doesn't have ...
2
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1answer
164 views

Split-INFL Hypothesis and X-Bar Theory

According to the Split-INFL hypothesis, the subject of a sentence moves from the specifier of the predicate to SpecTP to satisfy the EPP and lastly to SpecAgrSP to obtain NOM case. Is there any reason ...
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2answers
133 views

Can syntax be part of semantics?

Is it possible to consider a POS category of a word as semantic aspect? Assume we have unknown word. But when we know part-of-speech it can give us a hint about semantic meaning. Is that right?
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59 views

References and sources to help me explain the semantics of the word 'over'

So I'm doing an assignment on the semantics of the word 'over'. Everyone in our semantics class was asked by the lecturer to pick a piece of paper out of a hat, he then said that we were required to ...
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80 views

Why is syntax called “grammar outside the word ” [closed]

In my book said that syntax is grammar outside the word but i don't understand why can you explain me
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53 views

How many meaningful English phrases can be created using 4 or fewer words?

Prompted by this exchange on Information Security Stack Exchange, regarding whether a passphrase consisting of 4 English words might be easier or harder to crack than a password of 8 random characters,...