The study of the rules that govern the arrangement of words to create well-formed sentences in a given language.

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53 views

Syntax-semantics interface

In books on generative syntax it is often said that LF itself becomes an input to the so-called syntax-semantics interface to satisfy some conditions (e.g. to get rid of uninterpretable values). But ...
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1answer
37 views

How to parse 'in as much' and similar syntagmas?

[OED] inasmuch {adverb} = [Etymology:] originally 3 words in as much (in northern Middle English in als mikel), subsequently sometimes written as 2 words, in asmuch, and now (especially since ...
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1answer
44 views

What are the general ways adopted by most people to learn english syntax precisely?

Understanding english syntax mathematically—which demands strictness—is what I want to achieve. However, a wide range of choices I can make upon selecting a book covering related fields makes me ...
2
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2answers
49 views

What are the most authoratative references on the notion of shallow parsing?

What are the most authoratative references on the notion of shallow parsing (also known as text chunking) in NLP? I am looking for definitions, examples, and discussion of strings of words that ...
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0answers
30 views

How can we account for head-final PPs and VPs in Classical Chinese?

According to Koopman (1983), there is an explanation for why Chinese, despite being a head-final language, has SVO and prepositional features. She suggested that Chinese assigns Case to the right but ...
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3answers
108 views

How would one make a sentence without using “words”

Say I were making a language and I wanted to convey, through writing, anything that a real language could convey, except I didn't want to convey what I wanted to say by using words. Also, in this ...
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1answer
52 views

How do you learn to rewrite clauses with double negation or hypernegation? [closed]

Per p 24, A Student's Introduction to English Grammar (2005), by Huddleston & Pullum, Polarity is the name of the system contrasting positive and negative clauses. I ask this question in ...
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1answer
56 views

In languages with robust case systems, such as Latin, Russian, and Finnish, is there a case in which appositives commonly occur?

In English appositive constructions, noun phrases can be juxtaposed to convey the fact that they are co-referential. "I, Don Quixote," "John, the baker," "the art-object, a bronzed umbrella," and ...
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0answers
23 views

About ECMs and considering Adjective Phrases as predicates

I'll just jump right to it. I'm given the following sentence - "We remembered the scary dream", with the instructions to draw an X-Bar, and decide whether this is an ECM or a normal control type. ...
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0answers
59 views

Syntactic Tree help [closed]

Draw the syntactic tree for the deputy’s recent discovery of incriminating evidence; for full credit, you must put all specifiers, all complements, and all adjuncts in triangles & Draw the ...
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0answers
37 views

Classical Greek vs. Colwell's Rule vs. Subset Proposition [closed]

Question: In Classical Greek, how is identification of Subject / Predicate Nominatives, (and Definite-ness), accomplished in constructs consisting of "Untagged/Anarthrous Nominatives w/tagged ...
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1answer
27 views

INFL as Maximal Projection [closed]

Argument that advanced for the emergence of INFL as the maximum projection in sentential construction under the X-bar theory
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91 views

German object raising?

In the following sentence, why is Disesen Artike in the front? Does this means it is being raised from some other position in the sentence? Diesen Artikel wird der Burgermeister gelesen ...
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0answers
24 views

are words more independent from syntax in non-analytical languages? Does this affect language processing?

When we think about the morphology and syntax, the debate arises. Even if they are protagonist parts of linguistic debates, and even if they are usually address separately, the importance of each ...
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1answer
71 views

How do I diagram this sentence in a tree diagram? [closed]

You must complete your research paper before I can give you a grade. *Having challenges with before.
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0answers
87 views

Has Ray Jackendoff's Parallel Architecture paradigm received a formal review or criticism(s) from Chomsky and/or others?

(obligatory differentiation from a co-occurring question: In the HFC/PJ discussion alluded to in my other question, RJ's Parallel Architecture does not appear to have been reviewed. Thus, the ...
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1answer
77 views

What prevents verbs from taking more than a two or three complements/arguments?

So I'm writing a term paper for my introductory syntax class on Larson's and Jackendoff's theories of the structure of double object verbs. Jackendoff argues for a more linear, tertiary branching ...
3
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5answers
132 views

Is the concept of a verb-subject complete sentence a cultural/linguistic invariant?

In english, a 'complete sentence' seems to refer to having at least a single, complete clause — i.e. a subject (noun) and verb — e.g. "I run". This seems to be engrained in the concept of a complete ...
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2answers
56 views

Analogs of Lambek grammar that can encode structural ambiguity?

My understanding (mistaken, see below) is that in basic lambek/categorial grammar, the basic objects are strings. Does anyone know of variants where one can have multiple trees for the same string?
3
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0answers
65 views

Why is 'internal Merge' possible at all in a theory that rests on Economy and Strict Cyclicity?

In his March 2014 MIT lectures, Chomsky continues to claim that 'internal Merge', which yields the traditionally problematic 'displacement' property, is, in fact, the simplest and most economical ...
1
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1answer
102 views

Evidence for/against Lexical integrity principle

Some (mostly lexicalist) theories of syntax assume that there's a 1-to-1 relationship between the words in a sentence and the nodes in its syntax tree. It seems pretty obvious to me. Is there ...
4
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3answers
131 views

Vocatives and Case Assignment

Vocatives, which are basically nouns that refer to the person to whom the speech event is directed, are said to be detached from the sentences in which they occur. Mary, I hate you. I don't think I ...
4
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1answer
122 views

Where can I find a list of abbreviations used in tree diagrams of sentences?

When I visited the EzTreeSee website at http://eztreesee.coli.uni-saarland.de/ and entered "Mary had a little lamb," I immediately encountered abbreviations that I had never seen before, to wit... ...
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2answers
77 views

Dependency tree with “seem”

Could someone please tell me what's the dep. tree of "John seemed to fall asleep"? The problem is I don't know if "John" depends on "seem" or "fall".
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2answers
62 views

How do dependency grammars account for information structure

In phrase structure grammars, discourse functions (topic, focus) have structural positions (cf. topicalization in English, right-edge focus in Russian, clause-initial focus in Welsh, preverbal focus ...
0
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1answer
78 views

Suggestions for subjects about syntax [closed]

My professor asked us to do a presentation about syntax..and don't know which topic I should present...it'll be a 20 min. presentation. I hope someone could help me with list of topics so I could ...
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1answer
69 views

Thematic roles adjunct

I am a little confused when it comes to giving a theta role to some of my sentences. I got: James got a ball yesterday. where James has the role as BENEFICIARY. Got is the main predicate. a ball is ...
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3answers
135 views

How do formal theories analyse the syntax of polysynthetic languages?

How is syntax of polysynthetic languages (e.g. Inuktitut, Mohawk) represented in formal theories of syntax? In many cases, a sentence consists of only one or two words so the syntax tree is rather ...
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3answers
83 views

Formalization of information structure

There are many different accounts of "information structure" ("information packaging", "topic-comment", "theme-rheme distinction"). Is there a "frameworkless" formal definition of what topic/focus is? ...
3
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2answers
73 views

Are there languages, other than Mandarin, in which negation differs depending on the time interval at which a non-event fails to occur?

Assuming that languages do not create complexities in vain, the existence in Mandarin of two different propositional negation devices - via “bù”, an adverb, and “méi” or “méiyou” (verbs) - seems to ...
4
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2answers
58 views

Is it common to analyze grammatically motivated vowel alternation as an occurence of discontinuous morphemes?

For example, are the triconsonantal roots in Arabic (like k-t-b --write) considered to be discontinuous morphemes? How about the English roots (s-ng -- sing, sang, sung, song) and (beg-n -- begin, ...
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4answers
89 views

Syntax and linguistics

I know that syntax deals with the ways words are put together to form phrases and sentences, I would like to know how does it relate to linguistics more broadly.
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2answers
61 views

What heads can an adverbial phrase have?

What heads can an adverbial phrase have? Consider the following examples: I'll go to bed [soon]_AdvP. I'll go to bed [in an hour]_AdvP. I'll go to bed [when I've finished my book]_AdvP. ...
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1answer
84 views

Wordplay in ancient texts

I learned once that ancient texts (for example in Latin) did not separate words. Was that always true or only in specific kinds of documents and writings. Since I have been a bit interested in ...
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1answer
112 views

Nominative Case Assignment and VP-Internal Subjects

From what I've learnt, structural case is assigned in certain structural configurations. For example, nominative case is assigned by tensed I/T to nominals in SpecIP/TP. Therefore, the case filter ...
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0answers
37 views

Parallel dependency grammars

Is there something like ParGram but dependency-based? Note that I'm not looking for a corpus but for a formal grammar (set of rules) with a parser and a corpus of test sentences.
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2answers
91 views

How is the dative case for help being used here?

Swiss-German has dative and accusative case-marking for its objects. In the sentence "I gave him the book," "him" must be marked as dative and "the book" must be marked as accusative. It's clear that ...
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2answers
119 views

Where did generative semantics go wrong? Why was their conception of language faulty?

Where did generative semantics go wrong? Why was their conception of language faulty? What were the main weaknesses of generative semantics adherents' claim that "a grammar starts with a description ...
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2answers
139 views

Distinguishing between types of ellipsis where different parts of a sentence remain

How can I distinguish between elipsis type 1, 2 and 3, below? Type 1 and type 2 "nice day" and "sleeping dog" are both NPs. Type 3 "very sexy" in an AdjP. [Have a] nice day! [I see] a sleeping ...
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23 views

Researching extraposition in a syntactic treebank

I'm writing a paper on extraposition in English (and other right-branching discontinuities). I have found a lot of interesting theory on this but the instructions say that if possible concrete corpus ...
2
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1answer
119 views

Is lambda calculus only applicable if syntax trees are binary branching?

Lambda expressions are evaluated "hierarchically"--we resolve functions in the daughter node before we resolve functions in the mother node. In a given constituency, a sister node may define a ...
0
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1answer
70 views

Syntax trees and comparatives? Maybe adjuncts?

Okay I'm trying to make a tree and I keep getting stuck and I'm not quite sure where. The structure I'm stuck on is something like "think of the boy as my son" or "think of the president as America's ...
3
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2answers
95 views

How is case assigned in elliptical answers?

I am interested in cross-linguistic variation in case assignment to single-NP elliptical answers – for example “What did they see?”; “A goat”. By “case” I mean a distinct form of a word selected to ...
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1answer
121 views

Interrogatives and Copulas in Malay

In Malay, the wh-phrase in interrogatives remains in-situ, but may move to the left periphery of the clause. Declarative Malay: Awak makan ayam Gloss: You eat chicken Eng: You eat chicken ...
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4answers
142 views

Is word order a method of implementing case in English language

I often read that English retains 'vestigal' case markers, particularly for the genitive, although some argue that 's is a clitic. Pronouns remain the largest source of marked words indicating the ...
0
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2answers
79 views

Where can I find formal grammars?

Where can I find formal grammars? By 'formal grammar' I mean 'a mathematically precise set of rules that generate all (or at least a significant portion of) the grammatical sentences of a language.' ...
0
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1answer
310 views

Infinitive verbs in syntax tree

I am just a little curious about the construction of syntactic trees when they involve infinitives in English. Basically, I want to know what role does the the "to" play? I don't think it is like a ...
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2answers
203 views

How do I deal with an infinitive verb in a syntax tree?

The sentence in question is "Chomsky innocently asked Baker to comment on the changes to the theory during the lecture." I'm unsure of how to handle the "to" in "to comment." I asked my TA and she ...
0
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1answer
91 views

Sentences using the X bar theory [closed]

I am studying linguistics and currently have Syntax and am trying to understand the X bar theory. Could someone please draw a tree of the sentence down below for me so I could get a better ...
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0answers
37 views

Alternative subject positions in Spanish questions, economy and markedness

The following six Spanish sentences are different versions of the question/different questions corresponding to the unmarked declarative sentence Alguien más podría haber estado usando su ordenador (= ...