The study of the rules that govern the arrangement of words to create well-formed sentences in a given language.

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What is the problem 'if our requirement says that the only thing that isn’t a phrase in an NP is the N itself' ?

Source: pp 208 Bottom - 209 Top. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. In the last chapter, for lack of a better place to put them, we put determiners like the, a, ...
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34 views

Semantic predicate-argument relations reflected in syntax

I am a computational linguist and work on event extraction. One of the subtasks is very similar to finding predicate-argument relations, e.g. the agent and patient of a predicate. I want to build a ...
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52 views

Is there any comprehensive list of all the possible syntactic combinations of English sentences?

In constituent analysis, we break down sentences into their main parts of speech (Det., N, Adj, V, etc.). English sentences have recursive syntactic patterns. For example, a simple sentence in English ...
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1answer
31 views

Which nodes are meant by 'the specifier of a null active V' and 'this VP'?

Source: p 305. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. To put some teeth to this claim then, we might propose that external arguments in actives are in fact generated in [...
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2answers
85 views

Are there languages with simple morphology and free word order?

It seems to me that the most languages have either complicated morphology or very strict word order. Are there languages with simple morphology and free word order (for instance, indicating ...
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25 views

how to translate preposition +which relative clauses in tamil [closed]

Hello everybody I try to undestand how to build an indirect relative clause in tamil language. I give an example here . i saw the knife _ with which the king killed the tiger_ in tamil thanks
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1answer
101 views

Why is the Romanian syntax for “Good night!” opposite to all the other Romance languages?

It's interesting to look at the phrase "Good night!" in the various languages of different language groups. The phrase is usually recognizable across related languages. (It's similar when looking at ...
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35 views

Why cannot the Intermediate Structure be again XP, instead of X'?

Source: p 167. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. We need these “intermediate” N' (pronounced “en-bar”) categories to explain the items that are conjoined in these ...
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42 views

How is it true that only 1 complement is possible?

Source: p 178, 179. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie [p 178:] 81) Adjunct rule: X' ⟶ X' (ZP) 82) Complement rule: X' ⟶ X (WP) [p 179:] What this means for ...
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53 views

Parsing a frequently used phrase as a word: Is there a name for that?

Is there a name for the phenomenon in which a phrase consisting of several words is mentally parsed as a word? Two examples are when General Patton used as the plural of "son of a bitch" the phrase "...
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87 views

What parts of speech can ‹only› be in English?

How is the word ‹only› analyzed in English? It seems unusually flexible. Consider the following few sentences, each of which use the word ‹only›. Only students read yellow books. Students are the ...
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2answers
74 views

“Ought” omission of “to” [closed]

Does anybody know anything about the distribution of the modal "ought" without "to" (in other words, "ought" taking the base infinitive). Eg: They ought to go home. vs. They ought go home. Is "...
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2answers
111 views

always | never | “all the time” - what kind of words are these?

always never "all the time" They aren't 'expletives', but they express a non-expiry. What word would describe this type of word? Context : he never brings me flowers; he's always late; you criticise ...
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86 views

Distinguishing subjects in apposition

Consider the English sentence (from the Washinton Post): "Trump is wrong that Muslims don’t do our part." In the embedded clause, is the subject 'Muslims', or the implied 'we' in 'our'? In the ...
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55 views

What is the difference between Travis' head movement constraint and Rizzi's relativized minimality?

What is the difference between the head movement constraint of Travis (1984), and the relativized minimality of Rizzi (1990)?
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36 views

Difference between dislocation, shifting, inversion, discontinuity, topicalization, scrambling

This is a really broad question, but can someone explain the difference between the following phenomena: topicalization, dislocation, shifting, inversion, discontinuity, and scrambling. Wikipedia says ...
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1answer
98 views

Topicalization of a VP in German

The phrase is "Gegeben hat Hans dem Lehrer das Buch" In order to have this sentence, I have to remove "dem Lehrer das Buch" to become adjunctions to Verb Phrase (VP) This is done because they are ...
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4answers
105 views

Languages that have morphological distinction between independent clauses with implicit subjects and independent clauses with explicit subjects?

Many languages permit an independent clause to lack an explicit subject (known as null-subject languages). Consider the following sentences taken from Spanish. Tú eres mi amiga. (You are my friend). ...
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3answers
107 views

Can we use several independent clauses to express an idea of conditional without too much limitation?

In English, generally speaking, an idea of conditional is expressed by a sentence with a dependent clause (and usually with the conjunction "if"): If it rains, the picnic will be cancelled. The ...
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16 views

Copulas and theta roles

Hi I was wondering if and if so which theta roles are being discharged to the DPs/NPs in sentences such as "these are French men". Also I was asking myself what kind of structure one would give to ...
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0answers
49 views

Is there a language that begins range expressions with the higher/later datum?

If someone were to say There were between twenty and ten people at the event. or I will be there from the fifth to the second of July. that person would sound strange indeed, because in ...
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48 views

Must subjectless infinitives exhibit subject control when used as complements(traditionally direct objects) of other verbs?

In English, the answer will be yes in most cases, but one thesis cast doubt on this. The author provided an example taken from BNC: My mother helped [PRO] to cater for the funeral tea, which were ...
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1answer
138 views

Is there a language in which the verb “to ask” can be followed by a dative case?

So far as I know, the ditransitive verb "to ask" takes two accusatives in German (fragen), and the verb "to give" takes one dative and one accusative in many languages. Is there a language in which ...
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29 views

What are the restrictions on the use of “unless”? [closed]

I have found a restriction on the use of "unless" which was difficult to explain to my students (advanced ESL). The student's sentence was I would have had to go to the bank unless you had lent me ...
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99 views

Syntactic status of 'than'

I'm not terribly familiar with the syntax of PPs, but I've noticed that a handful of them do not seem to satisfy any constituency tests, particularly 'than'. 'Than' is listed in dictionaries as both '...
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1answer
78 views

Restrictions on Wh-movement

I know that for wh-movement out of a non-root CP successive cyclic movement is needed, so moving to spec-CP of the lower CP and then from there to the root-CP, but what's the specific restriction on ...
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83 views

Syntax: VP subject internal null V head from Carnie's book

I'm going to try to ask this question in a way it doesn't look like a homework assignment, which is not, because previous message was classified off-topic. I'm reading Carnie's book, and he just ...
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56 views

Ambiguity tree: The doctor visited the patient drunk [closed]

I would like to ask if the trees regarding the two different readings of the sentence "The doctor visited the patient drunk" were drawn correctly. a) [VP [^NP The doctor] [V' [V visited] [NP [D the] [...
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1answer
41 views

Clause analysis for causative verbs

I am doing clause analysis for a corpus and am not sure how to determine the clauses for the following type of sentence: The kind of woman that makes people remember Marylin Monroe. I suppose it ...
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1answer
31 views

Looking for a list of English words that are morphologically similar, semantically different? [closed]

I need a list of English words that are morphologically similar, but when it comes to meaning, they should be completely different.
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1answer
59 views

Can “to” ever be a Prep or a Particle before “be”

Can “to” ever be a Prep or a Particle before “be”? If so can anyone think of an example?
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37 views

What is some standard analysis for “Look me in the eye”

I am looking for hints where to find a ("standard") analysis of something like this english dative construction: Look me in the eye Clearly, the "the" in this phrase is semantically scoped BY the ...
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40 views

Noun adjuncts (attributive nouns) in the x-bar scheme [closed]

What category are the two nouns for the following phrases: A) The play by Bill Roberts B) A chicken soup bowl according to distributional criteria "Roberts" and "soup" are adjectives, but should ...
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44 views

Syntax trees: Why CP and VP sometimes have only 1 node and sometimes 2 under them?

I'm reading Carnie's English Syntax and I'm having some doubts regarding the syntactic trees of some examples. For what I've understood about my doubt, it has to be with the definitions of ...
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40 views

Why “Monotonicity” Hypothesis? (Koontz-Garboden)

Should't it be "monodirectionality hypothesis"? In my understanding, this is about the one-way that material/structure can be added to a sentence-while-generated, but never deleted. (Harley 2013 ...
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67 views

What is a “nucleus” in syntax?

What exactly does the term nucleus refer to in syntax? (I'm not asking about the term in relation to phonetics or phonology). For example when syntacticians write about left dislocations and so forth ...
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2answers
74 views

Could anyone tell me if these syntax trees are correct? [closed]

I'm a beginner with linguistics and I'm wondering if some of the syntax trees I've made are correct. Also, how would one make trees for posessive noun phrases such as: Larry’s exciting trip to ...
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1answer
65 views

Why is the following sentence ungrammatical? [closed]

"The man entertained by the doves his sandwich munched." Thanks for the explanation!
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1answer
74 views

CGEL's argument on the constituent structure of certain sentences that involve 'as well as'

In CGEL on pp. 1316-1317, we find a discussion of two different uses of as well as: [70] i b. [Abstraction] [as well as impressionism] were Russian inventions.      &...
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42 views

Scope ambiguity resolution [closed]

If we have a sentential negation with the quantifier every, that would cause an ambiguity. is there any resolution to avoid that scope ambiguity?
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1answer
53 views

Complex Sentence

I am having difficulty figuring out how to draw a syntax tree for the sentence: "Bill reported that a student asked whether the eclipse would occur." Im confused on which word is the complementiser ...
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3answers
77 views

Drawing a phrasal constituent tree for a specific sentence

I'm trying to do some language analysis on the opening paragraph of The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, specifically looking at phrasal constituents. The first sentence is as follows: "I became what ...
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1answer
58 views

'treatment of the issues' and 'sensitivity to the problems': Why cannot these be Noun Phrases?

Source: p 178 Understanding Syntax (4 ed, 2014) by Prof. Maggie Tallerman PhD in Linguistics (U. Hull). The author is using (84) and (85) to introduce Bar Notation. In (84), admired has a ...
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39 views

What is the subject of the sentence?

My colleagues and I differ on what the subject is in the following sentence. About 500 cm3 of the Herschelite was hydrated at 80% RH. I think "500 cm3" is the subject of the sentence that governs ...
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21 views

What is the syntactic operation of linearization?

When I google this term I get many different definitions. At it's most fundamental is it simply the operation that transforms an expression from its deep structure (or LF) to its surface structure (or ...
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1answer
52 views

How do distinctive features work?

I'm currently working my way through a book on syntax by Andrew Carnie, and I've come up against something that isn't entirely clear to me. In a chapter about syntactic categories, Carnie writes: ...
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1answer
44 views

Why are Adjuncts called 'Adverbial Clauses'? [closed]

Hereafter abbreviate Adverbial Clauses to AC. Section 6.3.3 (p 66, An Introduction to English Syntax By Jim Miller) states that AC may not always be adverbs. So was AC misnamed; if yes, why? Or is ...
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2answers
129 views

How to Handle Conjunctions in Generative Syntax Tree without Abandoning Nontangling Condition

A few days ago, we had a conference on multidomination and I firstly saw an andP there. The solution was to simply abandon the conditions of well-formed phrase markers below: Single Mother Condition ...
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1answer
114 views

Most regular and irregular languages

I would like to know which natural languages are grammatically the most regular and irregular. There are several titbit articles on the web but none are definitive or explanatory. By regular, I want ...
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1answer
36 views

Does Syntactic Category determines Position in the sentence and the Position in the sentence determines Category?

Source: p 48, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. The following is NOT a homework question as I am not studying Linguistics but I have endeavoured to evidence my effort. ...