The study of the rules that govern the arrangement of words to create well-formed sentences in a given language.

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Restrictions on Wh-movement

I know that for wh-movement out of a non-root CP successive cyclic movement is needed, so moving to spec-CP of the lower CP and then from there to the root-CP, but what's the specific restriction on ...
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26 views

research on idioms [on hold]

Hello dear colleagues, One of my requirements on final semestar of my BA in linguistic is to create a research proposal on idioms, implicit vs explicit learning in SLA, therefore I read alot of ...
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57 views

Syntax: VP subject internal null V head from Carnie's book

I'm going to try to ask this question in a way it doesn't look like a homework assignment, which is not, because previous message was classified off-topic. I'm reading Carnie's book, and he just ...
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53 views

Ambiguity tree: The doctor visited the patient drunk [closed]

I would like to ask if the trees regarding the two different readings of the sentence "The doctor visited the patient drunk" were drawn correctly. a) [VP [^NP The doctor] [V' [V visited] [NP [D the] ...
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1answer
36 views

Clause analysis for causative verbs

I am doing clause analysis for a corpus and am not sure how to determine the clauses for the following type of sentence: The kind of woman that makes people remember Marylin Monroe. I suppose it ...
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1answer
30 views

Looking for a list of English words that are morphologically similar, semantically different? [closed]

I need a list of English words that are morphologically similar, but when it comes to meaning, they should be completely different.
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1answer
55 views

Can “to” ever be a Prep or a Particle before “be”

Can “to” ever be a Prep or a Particle before “be”? If so can anyone think of an example?
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36 views

What is some standard analysis for “Look me in the eye”

I am looking for hints where to find a ("standard") analysis of something like this english dative construction: Look me in the eye Clearly, the "the" in this phrase is semantically scoped BY the ...
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39 views

Noun adjuncts (attributive nouns) in the x-bar scheme [closed]

What category are the two nouns for the following phrases: A) The play by Bill Roberts B) A chicken soup bowl according to distributional criteria "Roberts" and "soup" are adjectives, but should ...
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40 views

Syntax trees: Why CP and VP sometimes have only 1 node and sometimes 2 under them?

I'm reading Carnie's English Syntax and I'm having some doubts regarding the syntactic trees of some examples. For what I've understood about my doubt, it has to be with the definitions of ...
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26 views

About gerundive nominalizations and possessor NPs. (3 questions)

Mary brought a letter to me. Mary's bringing a letter to me. 1.In the second sentence, bringing is a gerund. Is the sentence syntactically correct? 2.Is the possessor NP Mary's the subject of ...
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36 views

Why “Monotonicity” Hypothesis? (Koontz-Garboden)

Should't it be "monodirectionality hypothesis"? In my understanding, this is about the one-way that material/structure can be added to a sentence-while-generated, but never deleted. (Harley 2013 ...
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60 views

What is a “nucleus” in syntax?

What exactly does the term nucleus refer to in syntax? (I'm not asking about the term in relation to phonetics or phonology). For example when syntacticians write about left dislocations and so forth ...
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2answers
68 views

Could anyone tell me if these syntax trees are correct? [closed]

I'm a beginner with linguistics and I'm wondering if some of the syntax trees I've made are correct. Also, how would one make trees for posessive noun phrases such as: Larry’s exciting trip to ...
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1answer
62 views

Why is the following sentence ungrammatical? [closed]

"The man entertained by the doves his sandwich munched." Thanks for the explanation!
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73 views

CGEL's argument on the constituent structure of certain sentences that involve 'as well as'

In CGEL on pp. 1316-1317, we find a discussion of two different uses of as well as: [70] i b. [Abstraction] [as well as impressionism] were Russian inventions. ...
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42 views

Scope ambiguity resolution [closed]

If we have a sentential negation with the quantifier every, that would cause an ambiguity. is there any resolution to avoid that scope ambiguity?
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48 views

Complex Sentence

I am having difficulty figuring out how to draw a syntax tree for the sentence: "Bill reported that a student asked whether the eclipse would occur." Im confused on which word is the complementiser ...
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2answers
54 views

Drawing a phrasal constituent tree for a specific sentence

I'm trying to do some language analysis on the opening paragraph of The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, specifically looking at phrasal constituents. The first sentence is as follows: "I became what ...
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1answer
58 views

'treatment of the issues' and 'sensitivity to the problems': Why cannot these be Noun Phrases?

Source: p 178 Understanding Syntax (4 ed, 2014) by Prof. Maggie Tallerman PhD in Linguistics (U. Hull). The author is using (84) and (85) to introduce Bar Notation. In (84), admired has a ...
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38 views

What is the subject of the sentence?

My colleagues and I differ on what the subject is in the following sentence. About 500 cm3 of the Herschelite was hydrated at 80% RH. I think "500 cm3" is the subject of the sentence that governs ...
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18 views

What is the syntactic operation of linearization?

When I google this term I get many different definitions. At it's most fundamental is it simply the operation that transforms an expression from its deep structure (or LF) to its surface structure (or ...
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1answer
52 views

How do distinctive features work?

I'm currently working my way through a book on syntax by Andrew Carnie, and I've come up against something that isn't entirely clear to me. In a chapter about syntactic categories, Carnie writes: ...
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1answer
44 views

Why are Adjuncts called 'Adverbial Clauses'? [closed]

Hereafter abbreviate Adverbial Clauses to AC. Section 6.3.3 (p 66, An Introduction to English Syntax By Jim Miller) states that AC may not always be adverbs. So was AC misnamed; if yes, why? Or is ...
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2answers
91 views

How to Handle Conjunctions in Generative Syntax Tree without Abandoning Nontangling Condition

A few days ago, we had a conference on multidomination and I firstly saw an andP there. The solution was to simply abandon the conditions of well-formed phrase markers below: Single Mother Condition ...
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91 views

Most regular and irregular languages

I would like to know which natural languages are grammatically the most regular and irregular. There are several titbit articles on the web but none are definitive or explanatory. By regular, I want ...
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35 views

Does Syntactic Category determines Position in the sentence and the Position in the sentence determines Category?

Source: p 48, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. The following is NOT a homework question as I am not studying Linguistics but I have endeavoured to evidence my effort. ...
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43 views

Egyptian Hieroglyph Interpretation (Pronounced Ahemu)

Here's an image of an egyptian hieroglyph snippet, it's pronounced ahemu: As you can see, it's referenced in an Egyptian text, Nebseni. Here's a link: http://www.masseiana.org/nebseni.htm#XCII ...
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41 views

How is 'that-trace effect' a Logic puzzle for speakers of languages without it?

Source: p 25, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie The phenomenon in (28) is sometimes called the that-trace effect. There is no disputing the fact that this ...
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50 views

Cover-term for “declarative”, “negative”, “emphatic”?

Does anybody know a cover-term for "declarative", "negative", and "emphatic"? One of my ESL-students asked me, and I cannot remember a term for this (tho' I've been teaching ESL for over 20 years). ...
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2answers
162 views

Syntax - difference between modifiers and complements in NPs?

Here are two NPs: their incredible story of the trip in space (complement) the noisy yellow airplanes that scared the children in the yard (post modifier) Why is it that certain nouns takes ...
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137 views

Understanding Symbols in Chomsky's *Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory*

I've been reading Chomsky's The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory, and have come up rather suddenly against a stumbling block. On page 133, he uses without explanation some notation that's ...
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4answers
203 views

What are the state-of-the-art English syntax theories there are that can explain all the English syntax phenomena?

Both Dependency Grammar (DG) and Constituency Grammar (CG) are a tool to describe the syntax of any natural language in general. The language whose syntax is to be described in DG or CG doesn't have ...
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154 views

Split-INFL Hypothesis and X-Bar Theory

According to the Split-INFL hypothesis, the subject of a sentence moves from the specifier of the predicate to SpecTP to satisfy the EPP and lastly to SpecAgrSP to obtain NOM case. Is there any reason ...
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1answer
117 views

Can syntax be part of semantics?

Is it possible to consider a POS category of a word as semantic aspect? Assume we have unknown word. But when we know part-of-speech it can give us a hint about semantic meaning. Is that right?
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2answers
45 views

References and sources to help me explain the semantics of the word 'over'

So I'm doing an assignment on the semantics of the word 'over'. Everyone in our semantics class was asked by the lecturer to pick a piece of paper out of a hat, he then said that we were required to ...
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75 views

Why is syntax called “grammar outside the word ” [closed]

In my book said that syntax is grammar outside the word but i don't understand why can you explain me
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50 views

How many meaningful English phrases can be created using 4 or fewer words?

Prompted by this exchange on Information Security Stack Exchange, regarding whether a passphrase consisting of 4 English words might be easier or harder to crack than a password of 8 random ...
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45 views

Automatically turn a question into a statement?

What's a practical way to programmatically convert questions into statements with placeholders? For example: in: 'Who is the president of the Argentina?' out: ['The president of Argentina is ____.', ...
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1answer
95 views

Scope of Negation and Quantifier

what is the scope of quantifier and What is the scopal relation of negation and quantifier?
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33 views

Asking for analysis of sentences [closed]

Could you tell me what the difference nominal WH clause and nominal relative clause is ? For example, nominal WH clause : no one knows what caused the accident. Nominal Relative clause: You call ...
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1answer
36 views

Why is C-selection called 'subcategorisation' and not only 'categorisation'?

Source: p 94, An Introduction to Language (10 ed, 2014) by V Fromkin, R Rodman, N Hyams The information about the complement types selected by particular verbs and other lexical items is ...
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101 views

Is there a language with a null case particle that signal a single, distinct case relation?

I've come across the idea of a null morpheme. There are languages with determiners that are case particles. Since a morpheme can be a particle, I would assume there might be languages with null ...
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2answers
57 views

Difference between grammar and syntax? [duplicate]

Is grammar the way words are formed and the way "correct English" is achieved and syntax just sentence types? And does grammar rule over syntax i.e. do we need correct grammar to create a sentence ...
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1answer
52 views

What is the difference between Equi and Raising predicates?

For an essay I am writing I have to discuss Control relations, such as clause constructions and control verbs of embedded clauses in sentences and I need to discuss in more detail lexically determined ...
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1answer
63 views

Help with an ambiguous English syntax tree (studying for a final)

Sorry if this is the wrong stackexchange site for this question. I'm studying for a final for my english linguistics class and going through example sentences that we should be able to draw syntax ...
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2answers
55 views

Pseudosluicing and Isolated NPs

Fragment answers may convey a complete thought, hence being complete sentences on their own. They've been analysed to involve either sluicing or the elision of a copular construction (pseudosluicing). ...
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4answers
105 views

How can merge produce grammatical strings if mathematical sets do not have an order?

Merge takes two elements and combines them into a set. Say it takes a DP "Luke" and a V "run". We can then define a VP by going merge(DP,V) = {DP,V} "Luke run". But since sets are un-ordered, {DP,V} = ...
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3answers
94 views

Randomly Generated Languages

Disclaimer: yes, it is a bit of a discussion, but a very good one. ;) So, I would like to create a program that can randomly generate languges, for video games, television or just for fun. I'm ...
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83 views

On the Analysis of Tough-Movement

Tough-movement was said to involve object-to-subject movement back in the day. The object of the embedded clause is raised to the matrix clause: Mary1 is tough to please t1 Later, the analysis of ...