The study of the rules that govern the arrangement of words to create well-formed sentences in a given language.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
2answers
47 views

Syntax - difference between modifiers and complements in NPs?

Here are two NPs: their incredible story of the trip in space (complement) the noisy yellow airplanes that scared the children in the yard (post modifier) Why is it that certain nouns takes ...
-1
votes
0answers
17 views

Can you explain the setting of the headness of this example? Syntax [closed]

Can you explain the setting of the headness of this example? I tried to figure it out but I couldn't?? **man diruz be sinama raft-am I yesterday to cinema go-1S 'I went to the movies ...
4
votes
0answers
90 views

Understanding Symbols in Chomsky's *Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory*

I've been reading Chomsky's The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory, and have come up rather suddenly against a stumbling block. On page 133, he uses without explanation some notation that's ...
1
vote
4answers
164 views

What are the state-of-the-art English syntax theories there are that can explain all the English syntax phenomena?

Both Dependency Grammar (DG) and Constituency Grammar (CG) are a tool to describe the syntax of any natural language in general. The language whose syntax is to be described in DG or CG doesn't have ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Split-INFL Hypothesis and X-Bar Theory

According to the Split-INFL hypothesis, the subject of a sentence moves from the specifier of the predicate to SpecTP to satisfy the EPP and lastly to SpecAgrSP to obtain NOM case. Is there any reason ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Can syntax be part of semantics?

Is it possible to consider a POS category of a word as semantic aspect? Assume we have unknown word. But when we know part-of-speech it can give us a hint about semantic meaning. Is that right?
0
votes
2answers
35 views

References and sources to help me explain the semantics of the word 'over'

So I'm doing an assignment on the semantics of the word 'over'. Everyone in our semantics class was asked by the lecturer to pick a piece of paper out of a hat, he then said that we were required to ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Why is syntax called “grammar outside the word ” [closed]

In my book said that syntax is grammar outside the word but i don't understand why can you explain me
0
votes
0answers
33 views

How many meaningful English phrases can be created using 4 or fewer words?

Prompted by this exchange on Information Security Stack Exchange, regarding whether a passphrase consisting of 4 English words might be easier or harder to crack than a password of 8 random ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Automatically turn a question into a statement?

What's a practical way to programmatically convert questions into statements with placeholders? For example: in: 'Who is the president of the Argentina?' out: ['The president of Argentina is ____.', ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Scope of Negation and Quantifier

what is the scope of quantifier and What is the scopal relation of negation and quantifier?
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Asking for analysis of sentences [closed]

Could you tell me what the difference nominal WH clause and nominal relative clause is ? For example, nominal WH clause : no one knows what caused the accident. Nominal Relative clause: You call ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Why is C-selection called 'subcategorisation' and not only 'categorisation'?

Source: p 94, An Introduction to Language (10 ed, 2014) by V Fromkin, R Rodman, N Hyams The information about the complement types selected by particular verbs and other lexical items is ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Is there a language with a null case particle that signal a single, distinct case relation?

I've come across the idea of a null morpheme. There are languages with determiners that are case particles. Since a morpheme can be a particle, I would assume there might be languages with null ...
0
votes
2answers
42 views

Difference between grammar and syntax? [duplicate]

Is grammar the way words are formed and the way "correct English" is achieved and syntax just sentence types? And does grammar rule over syntax i.e. do we need correct grammar to create a sentence ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

What is the difference between Equi and Raising predicates?

For an essay I am writing I have to discuss Control relations, such as clause constructions and control verbs of embedded clauses in sentences and I need to discuss in more detail lexically determined ...
-1
votes
1answer
53 views

Help with an ambiguous English syntax tree (studying for a final)

Sorry if this is the wrong stackexchange site for this question. I'm studying for a final for my english linguistics class and going through example sentences that we should be able to draw syntax ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

Pseudosluicing and Isolated NPs

Fragment answers may convey a complete thought, hence being complete sentences on their own. They've been analysed to involve either sluicing or the elision of a copular construction (pseudosluicing). ...
2
votes
3answers
70 views

How can merge produce grammatical strings if mathematical sets do not have an order?

Merge takes two elements and combines them into a set. Say it takes a DP "Luke" and a V "run". We can then define a VP by going merge(DP,V) = {DP,V} "Luke run". But since sets are un-ordered, {DP,V} = ...
2
votes
3answers
84 views

Randomly Generated Languages

Disclaimer: yes, it is a bit of a discussion, but a very good one. ;) So, I would like to create a program that can randomly generate languges, for video games, television or just for fun. I'm ...
4
votes
2answers
67 views

On the Analysis of Tough-Movement

Tough-movement was said to involve object-to-subject movement back in the day. The object of the embedded clause is raised to the matrix clause: Mary1 is tough to please t1 Later, the analysis of ...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

I'm having trouble with my syntax tree and wanted some help for a project! [closed]

I have to include null complementizers if they exist as well as any mission NP covert subjects. This is my sentence: The woods, always a menace even in the past, had triumphed in the end. i've been ...
1
vote
2answers
53 views

an ambiguous wh-question with embedded clause [closed]

how is this question ambiguous? Why did Bill say that John was fired? to me it has one meaning. it asks about the reason for which bill said that john was fired! if it has another meaning that I ...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

Is the wh-expression “How” an adjunct of VP?

I'm really struggling with drawing a tree representing wh-movement in "How was the plot discovered by the authorities?" In the main VP, we have "by the authorities" as an adjunct, as well as "how," ...
1
vote
0answers
54 views

Entailments Relations

I have problem understanding the entailment logic on these examples and would like some help. Here's my answers: Sally works together with Polly. Sally works. => I think one entails other, but not ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Tools to work with definiteness

I am planning to do a research paper in the definite articles of my dialect. Can anyone provide me with any framework that is suitable for analyzing the definite articles?
1
vote
2answers
115 views

Characteristics of Theoretical Linguistics [closed]

I've been asked by my professor to do a research about the characteristics of Theoretical Linguistics, and now I'm stuck. What are these characteristics that makes theoretical linguistics a ...
2
votes
0answers
40 views

What features cause Head Movement?

Suppose a head, T, moves to C. In the minimalist program, what features cause the movement of that head? I've been looking at literature on head movement but all I can find is papers on arguments for ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Logic disambiguation in composed sentences with negative predicates and “or” conjunction

Today, I've attended a psychological test for the master thesis of a friend of mine. The target is children and adults. So don't scare if you see in the following lines that I speak about animals. I ...
1
vote
2answers
77 views

How to determine an immediate constituent of a sentence [closed]

I am studying Spanish and Portuguese at university, and I am having some trouble with part of a Spanish linguistics assignment. I would be very grateful if somebody could shed some light on how to ...
3
votes
1answer
186 views

V-to-I lowering and split IP hypothesis

English is I-lowering language, but on split IP hypothesis([AgrP [TP [VP]]]), verbs move to the head of TP: V-raising. /John often kissed Mary./ On unsplit IP(IP[VP]), [+tense] which the head of IP ...
5
votes
3answers
196 views

A syntactician “must-read” list

I'm a (mostly) self-taught linguist. I was always interested in syntax so I started with Carnie's (2013) Syntax: A generative introduction + few interviews with Chomsky (where I got the general idea ...
2
votes
1answer
81 views

Can a control verb simultaneously be a raising verb?

For example, take believes, which is a raising to object verb. However, employing various selection tests, you can observe that believes selects an experiencer subject: #the cat believes to be out ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Identifying core arguments, constituents? [closed]

In the sentence, 'It was raining' what are the core arguments? I think [It] is a core argument and [was raining] is another. This would mean that it is a NP and was raining is a VP. But if this is ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Does a copied syntactic object have to c-command what it was copied from?

I think this is the case but I can't find any sources saying so. Mind helping me out? I know Internal Merge necessarily guarantees that a copied syntactic object c-commands its lower copies, but the ...
2
votes
0answers
80 views

X-bar theory and Trees questions! Complement vs adjunct [closed]

I am having a X-bar theory test soon but unfortunately I don't got access for the answers for questions I did. Can anyone check and tell me if I'm doing right, because I'm confused with ...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

What is the difference between a subordinate clause and an embedded clause?

This article, http://www.christianlehmann.eu/publ/linkage.pdf , alluded to something called an adjoined clause, which is subordinate, but not embedded. What is the difference between a subordinate ...
3
votes
3answers
170 views

Is there any neurological/biological evidence of Merge?

To my understanding, there are some linguists that would claim Merge is a cognitive mechanism which came about suddenly at some point in our evolutionary history. Is there any neurological evidence to ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Are adjective complement clauses considered to be adverbial?

One: In school, we are often told that an adverb can modify, not only a verb, but also an adjective. So we have ... i) verb modifier: The man leaped suddenly. ii) adjective modifier: Suddenly ...
2
votes
0answers
63 views

The Syntax of 'Only'

The adverb 'only' is known to be able to come in a variety of positions. The following examples demonstrate that it may be generated in positions that aren't so simple to syntactically analyse. The ...
1
vote
1answer
88 views

Why is merge useful?

I don't quite understand why having an operation that takes two elements and combines them into a set is particularly useful in describing language. Perhaps it helps in describing how it could be that ...
2
votes
2answers
82 views

Is “old” in “old English” a complement or an adjunct?

I know that the word like old English teacher has two meanings : a teacher who is English and old, or a teacher who teaches old English. In this case, the ambiguity arises from the fact that Old ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Multiple ways of representing adjuncts

In previous syntax courses, I could have sworn that adjuncts were drawn as being daughter of X' and sister to X', so there are two X' levels Eg: In my textbook, they are represented as daughter ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

How are DPs generally structured when just encapsulating a noun?

I often see a noun such as "Jimmy" in my textbook represented as [DP_Jimmy]. But there is no more detail provided as to its internal structure. This means either the D is null such as: or that ...
2
votes
2answers
100 views

Does space count as a letter in language?

Recently I have been thinking if space counts as a letter? I mean In computer coding when space is in place it count as one character, but what about in real language, is it character also?
2
votes
0answers
25 views

Correction of introductory IC analysis

I've attempted an IC analysis of the following sentences and was wondering if anyone with a bit more experience would be able to help with corrections or suggestions. Having discussed it thoroughly, ...
2
votes
2answers
216 views

The grammatical subject, the logical subject, and something new

I'm no linguist and I'm unaware of the recent development in linguistics, let alone all the past developments, but I know some of the past developments at the very least, so I'm asking this question ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

syntax trees from sentences [closed]

I really do not understand how to create syntax trees. I am having a very hard time and I cannot figure out how to make trees for these three sentences. i) The cat with the long tail and the dog ...
3
votes
0answers
75 views

Head to head movement and features in Minimalism

Consider 2 heads a and b. b moves to head a. Does the feature [X] get on a1 by virtue of b merging to a2 by head movement? Is this kind of feature percolation still allowed in the Minimalist ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

What's the best way to combine systemic functional grammar and historical linguistics?

One last question, ladies and gentlemen, sorry about that. What's the best way to combine SFL/SFG and historical linguistics? I've just thought of diachronic genre analysis as being an interesting ...