graphical representations of hierarchical analyses of grammatical relations

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31 views

Which nodes are meant by 'the specifier of a null active V' and 'this VP'?

Source: p 305. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. To put some teeth to this claim then, we might propose that external arguments in actives are in fact generated in [...
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3answers
87 views

Analyzing negation with a syntactic tree [closed]

When I draw the syntactic tree of a sentence with "not", what kind of component would the "not" be? e.g. Jane did not go to school
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1answer
20 views

How is there 'no node that c-commands B that A also c-commands'?

Source: p 130, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie In this tree, A governs B. It c-commands B, and [1.] there is no node that c-commands B that A also c-...
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1answer
27 views

Why are some Word Classes not Immediately Dominated by a Phrasal Category?

Source: pp 106-107, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie [6.] iv) English Phrase Structure Rules a) CP ⟶ (C) TP b) TP ⟶ {NP/CP} (T) VP c) VP ⟶ (AdvP+) V (NP) ({NP/...
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1answer
34 views

Why must an AdvP have at least one AdvP as a Daughter Node?

Source: p 78, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. Though I am only on Chapter 4 at the time of this post, I cannot wait until Chapter 6 to understand the following. ...
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1answer
101 views

What would the correct D-structure tree look like?

I've been trying to determine the correct D-structure tree to account for the following two sentences: [All the students must be sleeping.] and [The students must all be sleeping.]. I'm especially ...
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0answers
56 views

Ambiguity tree: The doctor visited the patient drunk [closed]

I would like to ask if the trees regarding the two different readings of the sentence "The doctor visited the patient drunk" were drawn correctly. a) [VP [^NP The doctor] [V' [V visited] [NP [D the] [...
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2answers
74 views

Could anyone tell me if these syntax trees are correct? [closed]

I'm a beginner with linguistics and I'm wondering if some of the syntax trees I've made are correct. Also, how would one make trees for posessive noun phrases such as: Larry’s exciting trip to ...
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1answer
60 views

Ambiguity, PCFG grammar

I know that the sentence "time flies like an arrow" could have lots of meaning and there is an ambiguity but I draw a tree and I got confused that which meaning is more suitable for this tree. S→ NP ...
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1answer
44 views

Why not structurally distinguish a predicative complement from an object in a tree diagram?

In Dependency and/or Constituency Grammar, I think you get the same tree diagram for Sentence 1 comprising Subject - Verb - Object (I hit him.) and Sentence 2 comprising Subject - Verb - Predicative ...
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1answer
53 views

Complex Sentence

I am having difficulty figuring out how to draw a syntax tree for the sentence: "Bill reported that a student asked whether the eclipse would occur." Im confused on which word is the complementiser ...
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3answers
77 views

Drawing a phrasal constituent tree for a specific sentence

I'm trying to do some language analysis on the opening paragraph of The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, specifically looking at phrasal constituents. The first sentence is as follows: "I became what ...
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2answers
80 views

Does this sentence analyzed correctly through Tree Diagram? [closed]

Hello,I used X-bar theory to analyze this sentence ( The big brown dog with fleas watched the birds beside the hunter) The subject of the sentence is NP of pre-modifier,head and post-modifier. I ...
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2answers
128 views

How to Handle Conjunctions in Generative Syntax Tree without Abandoning Nontangling Condition

A few days ago, we had a conference on multidomination and I firstly saw an andP there. The solution was to simply abandon the conditions of well-formed phrase markers below: Single Mother Condition ...
2
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1answer
77 views

Is there a grammar of syntax that takes into account inherent syntactic ambiguity in natural languages?

Natural languages necessarily have certain inherent ambiguity. If there were a natural language without inherent ambiguity, then one could have easily adopted such a natural language and used it as a ...
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1answer
81 views

Why is syntax called “grammar outside the word ” [closed]

In my book said that syntax is grammar outside the word but i don't understand why can you explain me
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1answer
73 views

I'm having trouble with my syntax tree and wanted some help for a project! [closed]

I have to include null complementizers if they exist as well as any mission NP covert subjects. This is my sentence: The woods, always a menace even in the past, had triumphed in the end. i've been ...
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1answer
105 views

Is the wh-expression “How” an adjunct of VP?

I'm really struggling with drawing a tree representing wh-movement in "How was the plot discovered by the authorities?" In the main VP, we have "by the authorities" as an adjunct, as well as "how," ...
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2answers
104 views

How to determine an immediate constituent of a sentence [closed]

I am studying Spanish and Portuguese at university, and I am having some trouble with part of a Spanish linguistics assignment. I would be very grateful if somebody could shed some light on how to ...
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0answers
64 views

Particles and Words Affixing Heads and Phrases

In Malay, there are quite a few words and particles that can affix or modify both heads and phrases. The interrogative suffix -kah is one of them. -Kah affixing heads Tidak-kah sakit kecederaan ...
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0answers
33 views

How do I parse 'Mary might have been being impossible.' using IP and a syntax tree?

I want to specify that this homework is only graded for completion, not the right answers. So I am not looking for someone to help me win points, I am looking for a tree and then a short description ...
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5answers
62 views

Treebanks that contain both constituency and dependency parse trees

I am looking for treebanks that contain both constituency and dependency parse trees. Both should have been manually annotated (i.e. the dependency parse trees shouldn't have been obtained from the ...
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0answers
102 views

The Syntax of 'Only'

The adverb 'only' is known to be able to come in a variety of positions. The following examples demonstrate that it may be generated in positions that aren't so simple to syntactically analyse. The ...
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0answers
26 views

Correction of introductory IC analysis

I've attempted an IC analysis of the following sentences and was wondering if anyone with a bit more experience would be able to help with corrections or suggestions. Having discussed it thoroughly, ...
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1answer
92 views

syntax trees from sentences [closed]

I really do not understand how to create syntax trees. I am having a very hard time and I cannot figure out how to make trees for these three sentences. i) The cat with the long tail and the dog ...
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1answer
57 views

Finding a word tree translater for sentences that does all the work for me

I am not an expert in linguistics. I want to know if there is a site or a program that will allow me to put in complex sentences of novels that I read , then answer with a word tree labeling the ...
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0answers
49 views

Average number of independent clauses in a compound sentence

I'm working on a NLP project, where we analyze large text samples (think a novel), and produce some metrics that help us answer interesting questions about the text. One of these metrics is average ...
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2answers
117 views

Syntax presupposed by Heim and Kratzer

Heim and Kratzer's "Semantics in Generative Grammar", bases its semantics on some version of transformational syntax. However, it is remarkably inexplicit about formalising the syntax it presupposes ...
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0answers
84 views

Syntactic Tree help [closed]

Draw the syntactic tree for the deputy’s recent discovery of incriminating evidence; for full credit, you must put all specifiers, all complements, and all adjuncts in triangles & Draw the s-...
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1answer
61 views

handling ambiguity in parses

Given a sentence from http://home.uchicago.edu/~bartels/papers/Bartels-Johnson-2015-Cognition.pdf: We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two ...
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1answer
70 views

Why do you wonder who was dismissed? (Complementizer position)

(sorry about my english, I'm not a native speaker) I'm studying syntactic trees and I'm having huge difficulties understanding the tree of the following sentence: "why do you wonder who was dismissed?"...
3
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1answer
105 views

What prevents verbs from taking more than a two or three complements/arguments?

So I'm writing a term paper for my introductory syntax class on Larson's and Jackendoff's theories of the structure of double object verbs. Jackendoff argues for a more linear, tertiary branching ...
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2answers
113 views

Dependency tree with “seem”

Could someone please tell me what's the dep. tree of "John seemed to fall asleep"? The problem is I don't know if "John" depends on "seem" or "fall".
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33 views

Researching extraposition in a syntactic treebank

I'm writing a paper on extraposition in English (and other right-branching discontinuities). I have found a lot of interesting theory on this but the instructions say that if possible concrete corpus ...
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1answer
130 views

Syntax trees and comparatives? Maybe adjuncts?

Okay I'm trying to make a tree and I keep getting stuck and I'm not quite sure where. The structure I'm stuck on is something like "think of the boy as my son" or "think of the president as America's ...
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0answers
126 views

How do PCFG parsers actually work?

I'm new to NLP. I have a few doubts about PCFG parser (NLTK). My understanding is that PCFG parser will return most probable parse tree. So if I'm parsing one sentence with PCFG parser, I'll be ...
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1answer
1k views

Infinitive verbs in syntax tree

I am just a little curious about the construction of syntactic trees when they involve infinitives in English. Basically, I want to know what role does the the "to" play? I don't think it is like a ...
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2answers
767 views

How do I deal with an infinitive verb in a syntax tree?

The sentence in question is "Chomsky innocently asked Baker to comment on the changes to the theory during the lecture." I'm unsure of how to handle the "to" in "to comment." I asked my TA and she ...
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1answer
185 views

Sentences using the X bar theory [closed]

I am studying linguistics and currently have Syntax and am trying to understand the X bar theory. Could someone please draw a tree of the sentence down below for me so I could get a better ...
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0answers
67 views

Wh embedded question ambiguous trees [closed]

I am having problems drawing the trees for the following sentence. I'm interested in both the pre and post movement trees for this ambiguous sentence: Lisa wondered when Bart said she saw Nelson. If ...
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3answers
6k views

what is the difference between a complement and adjuncts

what is the difference between a complement and adjuncts. I always have a problem drawing a tree diagram for syntax structure of the sentence with placing complements with word level category and ...
2
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1answer
14k views

Drawing tree diagrams of ambiguous sentences generated by a CFG

Suppose I have the following CFG rules: S -> NP VP NP -> (D) NOM VP -> V (NP) (NP) NOM -> N NOM -> NOM PP VP -> VP PP PP -> P NP X -> X+ CONJ X How should I draw the tree ...
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0answers
140 views

Resource that gives examples of many different sentences described in tree diagrams

I've devoured the book "Beginning Syntax" by Linda Thomas, but there are areas it doesn't go into in enough depth (presumably to keep it simple). For example, modal auxiliary "ought to" - it doesn't ...
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0answers
197 views

tree diagrams of a question [closed]

I am having trouble drawing a syntax tree for 3 sentences and I would appreciate it if someone could help me. The sentences are: When did the man find the job?
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1answer
94 views

Is a sentence, composed of mainclause and subclause, represented by one or two syntax-trees?

I read, that one sentence can have different syntax-trees what is considered a phrase is dependent on the grammar used there are a lot of grammars, basically divided into two groups: phrase-...
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0answers
225 views

X-bar analysis of Copular verbs?

Can someone help me with the analysis of copular or linking verbs in X-bar theory. What would be the position of subject in sentences like "Mary is beautiful". Is "Mary" the theme of adjectival ...
4
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1answer
240 views

Earley Parser: Ambiguity

I've got a pretty basic question concerning the Earley parser: In case of syntactic ambiguity ( S -> NP VP(V NP(NP PP)) vs. S -> NP VP(VP((V NP) PP) ), are both parses stored in one chart or in two? ...
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1answer
132 views

Are imperative verbs starting a command subordinating conjunctions?

I have come across a syntax tree with a subordinate clause phrase (as opposed to just a sentence) whose left daughter is a verb in the imperative, e.g. Wash your laundry tonight. I have read this ...
2
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2answers
395 views

What exactly is the SBAR label from the Penn TreeBank?

From this list of tags: SBAR - Clause introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction. This site explains what a subordinating conjunction is. But how can you have an empty ...
2
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1answer
119 views

How to search Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns?

What is a general way to parse the trees in the Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns, e.g. perhaps I want all trees which have a plural subject and whose sister VP has a modal verb daughter. ...