graphical representations of hierarchical analyses of grammatical relations

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Is a sentence, composed of mainclause and subclause, represented by one or two syntax-trees?

I read, that one sentence can have different syntax-trees what is considered a phrase is dependent on the grammar used there are a lot of grammars, basically divided into two groups: ...
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0answers
24 views

What linguistic subfield(s) deals with the esthetics of syntax?

In advance, to prevent missunderstanding, I want to underline, that I am not talking about Prescriptive Grammar. A certain idea, event, chain of events or a whole story can be realised in more than ...
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0answers
62 views

X-bar analysis of Copular verbs?

Can someone help me with the analysis of copular or linking verbs in X-bar theory. What would be the position of subject in sentences like "Mary is beautiful". Is "Mary" the theme of adjectival ...
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1answer
56 views

Earley Parser: Ambiguity

I've got a pretty basic question concerning the Earley parser: In case of syntactic ambiguity ( S -> NP VP(V NP(NP PP)) vs. S -> NP VP(VP((V NP) PP) ), are both parses stored in one chart or in two? ...
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1answer
44 views

Are imperative verbs starting a command subordinating conjunctions?

I have come across a syntax tree with a subordinate clause phrase (as opposed to just a sentence) whose left daughter is a verb in the imperative, e.g. Wash your laundry tonight. I have read this ...
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1answer
36 views

What exactly is the SBAR label from the Penn TreeBank?

From this list of tags: SBAR - Clause introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction. This site explains what a subordinating conjunction is. But how can you have an empty ...
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1answer
23 views

How to search Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns?

What is a general way to parse the trees in the Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns, e.g. perhaps I want all trees which have a plural subject and whose sister VP has a modal verb daughter. ...
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1answer
58 views

Do all languages share the same set of parts of sentence?

I know, that there is a relation between part of sentence and part of speech, namely elements from parts of speech can be combined following certain rules in order to be used as a part of sentence ...
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0answers
12 views

What part of sentence is “then” in “then, he started to read a book.”?

If i try to analyze the sentence "Then,he started to read a book." into part of sentences, i only can analyze the part "he started to read a book." as: he (Subject) started to read (predicate) a ...
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1answer
77 views

Is this tree diagram correct? [closed]

the sentence is: Lucy reported that scientists wonder if the medicine will work /Users/tcalnitsky/Desktop/assignment2.jpg
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2answers
54 views

dependency or constituency treebank?

Most Treebank conversion which I found in the web are from constituency treebank to dependency treebank, I wonder why there is little jobs in the opposite direction? Does it mean that nowadays ...
3
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2answers
178 views

Why are syntax trees binary trees?

In p.26 of An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis by Sportiche et al. (2013), the authors specify that syntax trees aren't allowed to have more than two children: We never find morphological trees ...
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50 views

Is there a data set of elementary typical phrases translated in different languages?

To be more explicit, I think about a collection of "abstract" sentences which could be categorized in such a way that they would be easily identified in any language. For example, some typical phrases ...
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1answer
91 views

What is the structure of the sentence “For Bill to have been arrested so soon was disappointing.” according to the GB theory

Please consider the following: (0) For Bill to have been arrested so soon was disappointing. (1) ?It was disappointing for Bill to have been arrested so soon. If the sentence (1) is grammatical, it ...
2
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1answer
83 views

NPs as adverbials; how to parse them?

NPs can function as adverbials as in the following sentences: I ran a mile. I am 5 feet tall. One way to confirm this is by substituting the NPs with adverbs, e.g. "I ran fast" and "I am very ...
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2answers
74 views

The complement of postmodifying prepositional phrases compounded by “and”

How does one parse "the need for and development of education"? "Education" naturally acts as the complement of both the prepositions "for" and "of", and the prepositions surely postmodify the nouns ...
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0answers
68 views

I am looking for some examples of syntax trees [closed]

Do you know of any good videos or sites with a variety of syntax trees. I am looking for examples to practice. I found one or two videos on youtube but not as many as I expected.
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1answer
75 views

Please help me parse the subject complement of

The 2 questions are on the diagram. In question 1 - I emphasize "function as" because my understanding is that (in English) a predicate nominative - even though it can take the form of a preposition ...
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3answers
290 views

Are linking/copula verbs only followed by Adjectives and Nouns?

The diagram is from a lesson given by someone on YT. My question is with regard to the Adv phrases that follow the linking/copula verb. My understanding is that only predicate adjectives or predicate ...
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5answers
238 views

Why is dependency parsing so much faster than constituency parsing?

For example, Cer, Daniel M., et al. "Parsing to Stanford Dependencies: Trade-offs between Speed and Accuracy." LREC. 2010. : Why is dependency parsing so much faster than constituency parsing?
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2answers
133 views

In what situation a constituency-based tree cannot be constructed from a dependency-based tree?

I am confused regarding the distinction dependency- vs. constituency-based tree: to me they look like they encompass the same information but presented differently. E.g. in the Wikipedia example the ...
2
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1answer
152 views

Help with syntax trees [closed]

I am having trouble creating a syntax tree for the following sentence: Ginny thinks Harry is dreamy. "Harry is dreamy" is clearly a sentence. However, I am confused what "is" should be. I think it ...
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0answers
315 views

How to analyze this sentence in a tree diagram?

I tried to draw a tree diagram of this sentence In 1816 they were purchased by the British government and from then on displayed in the British Museum. but it leads nowhere. I think I'm fine ...
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0answers
197 views

Multiple Adjectives in an X-Bar Tree

I'm having some trouble integrating phrases with multiple adjectives into x-bar trees. Based on what I can understand from the textbook, I would get something like this (apologies for the verb ...
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2answers
243 views

Almost half crazy vs Almost half sane

Forgive me if it is not the right place to ask this question in SE sites. I am mostly active on SO but I thought it might be a better fit here. I enrolled in a class this semester and there was a ...
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1answer
92 views

About that translation of Tesniere's “Elements” - is it into English?

I saw that member Tim Osborne said he is working on a translation of Tesniere's "Elements". Is that translation to English? If so, when will the publication be available? Also, if any member can ...
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2answers
2k views

X-Bar theory and Trees

I am studying linguistics and now this semester my subject is Syntax. I tried a few times to draw a tree using X-Bar theory and Dp's but I couldn't achieve. Can someone please draw a tree of the ...
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2answers
180 views

Syntactic representation of Across-the-board Extraction

I am reading a book on Government and Binding theory [1] and just finished a chapter on big pro (PRO). At the end of the chapter there is an exercise. Different sentences are written with faulty ...
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1answer
768 views

Problem understanding binding theory and c-command

I am reading about binding theory and I have a little problem. The book (1) says that: A binds B iff: (i) A c-commands B; (ii) A and B are co-indexed. and c-commanding is defined as the ...
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2answers
240 views

Deep structure tree VP help

I'm struggling to diagram the following sentence: The activist continued to protest. I understand the basic structure and what movement is taking place but I'm confused as to how to diagram the ...
2
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2answers
712 views

How widespread are Reed-Kellogg sentence diagrams?

A couple decades ago when I was in middle school in Colorado, I was briefly taught to diagram sentences using the Reed-Kellogg system. I have heard that the practice of teaching sentence diagramming ...
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0answers
193 views

Difficulty with creating Syntax Trees (d and s structure)?

Can someone please help with drawing the following tree in s-structure. "Which fat pig did the small sheet bite behind the barn?" How would I do so if you are suppressing the structures of all ...
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0answers
356 views

How to make Syntax trees for these sentences?

I am having trouble drawing a syntax tree for these sentences and I would appreciate it if someone could help me right now. Why did Ella, one of my friends, who always comes on time to the class ...
2
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1answer
1k views

Help with syntax trees for sentences [closed]

I am trying to understand syntax trees for sentences, i have been working through linguistics by myself and am having trouble understanding the structure of syntax trees (English is my second ...
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0answers
41 views

Semi-automatic annotation tool like '@nnotate'

Is there an annotation tool for linguistic structure that compares to @nnotate? One of the major features of annotate is the annotation is semi-automatic, i.e., it uses a language model to make ...
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0answers
93 views

Hypotheses for floating quantifier's positions in generative grammar

Regarding the floating quantifiers' theory on external argument's movement. These data raises two different problems: a) The dogs ALL should have been petted. b) *The dogs should have been ALL ...
3
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2answers
669 views

I am having troubles drawing a syntax tree for the sentence “networking helps you grow your business”. Can anyone help me?

I do not know if "helps" is a verb, an auxiliary verb, a tense, a complementizer phrase, or something else. Could someone attach a picture of the correct tree?
2
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1answer
393 views

What do you call the non-terminal nodes of a syntax tree?

Suppose I have the following syntax tree: Is there a term for the nodes identified by "S", "NP", "VP", and "V"? For a generic tree, I guess you would just call them "non-terminal nodes" or "branch ...
4
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2answers
169 views

Conjunctive NPs in Montague Grammars

I'm considering the sentence Some man and some woman visited a garden Obviously it's not 100% unambiguous how many gardens there are, but I think most people would agree there is just one common ...
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3answers
2k views

What are the chief advantages & disadvantages of describing sentences with dependency vs. phrase structure trees?

What are the chief advantages & disadvantages of describing sentences with dependency vs. phrase structure (aka. constituency) trees? From what I've read, dependency grammar trees lack phrase ...
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1answer
281 views

Is 'should' a Tense?

I'm trying to write a syntax tree structure of a sentence with the word 'should'. It's a long sentence, so to simply, let's take this sentence instead: I should play the piano. I'm not sure ...
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1answer
663 views

Having trouble drawing a tree diagram

I'm having trouble drawing a tree diagram for the following sentence: Chrissy believed that the earrings she bought for Sue were real silver. In the task we have to divide the sentence into its ...
5
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2answers
874 views

Basic syntax notation: noun phrase vs determiner phrase

I'm a first-semester student in linguistics and I need clarifications regarding the following trees: (1) and (2) My course notes seem to stick with the first kind of notation but when I read ...
3
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1answer
353 views

Syntax: How can this tree be built?

I am working through "Contemporary Linguistics" on my own. It's been going pretty well, but I have a question about building syntax trees. I understand the tree here for "The dog might bite that ...
5
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4answers
667 views

Syntax trees for unaccusatives, unergatives and ergatives verbs (MP) within the split VP framework

The course I'm taking is based on Radford's Analysing English Sentences (2009). I'm having a lot of trouble analysing sentences within the split VP framework. There are very few examples in the book ...
5
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1answer
856 views

Immediate constituent analysis

Practicing immediate constituent analysis using a "toy" context-free phrase structure grammar of English is a great way to introduce undergraduate students to syntactic analysis. In the context of a ...
5
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0answers
439 views

Do “only if…” and “if… only then…” have the same LF representation?

I'm currently writing a term paper where I am comparing if... then..., only if..., and if... only then... statements. I've noticed that only if p q and if p, only then q have the same truth ...
8
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3answers
256 views

How often does an individual encounter a novel linguistic construction?

I've heard it said that most utterances we encounter on a day-to-day basis are novel. That is, the individual has never heard that exact sentence before in their life. My intuition is that the ...
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2answers
18k views

Syntax trees for sentences

I am having trouble drawing a syntax tree for 3 sentences and I would appreciate it if someone could help me. The sentences are: This giraffe reads books about psychopharmacology. Monarchs will fly ...