graphical representations of hierarchical analyses of grammatical relations

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how do i draw the drawing trees for syntactic ambiguity section? Linguistics for everyone book chapter 8 [closed]

How do i draw the drawing trees for the sentences "The boy with the hat sat on a mushroom with green spots", "the white horse ran out the door on monday.", and "the ladybug with six spots the ...
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19 views

Researching extraposition in a syntactic treebank

I'm writing a paper on extraposition in English (and other right-branching discontinuities). I have found a lot of interesting theory on this but the instructions say that if possible concrete corpus ...
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1answer
42 views

Syntax trees and comparatives? Maybe adjuncts?

Okay I'm trying to make a tree and I keep getting stuck and I'm not quite sure where. The structure I'm stuck on is something like "think of the boy as my son" or "think of the president as America's ...
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0answers
14 views

How do PCFG parsers actually work?

I'm new to NLP. I have a few doubts about PCFG parser (NLTK). My understanding is that PCFG parser will return most probable parse tree. So if I'm parsing one sentence with PCFG parser, I'll be ...
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0answers
39 views

Infinitive verbs in syntax tree

I am just a little curious about the construction of syntactic trees when they involve infinitives in English. Basically, I want to know what role does the the "to" play? I don't think it is like a ...
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2answers
76 views

How do I deal with an infinitive verb in a syntax tree?

The sentence in question is "Chomsky innocently asked Baker to comment on the changes to the theory during the lecture." I'm unsure of how to handle the "to" in "to comment." I asked my TA and she ...
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1answer
39 views

Sentences using the X bar theory [closed]

I am studying linguistics and currently have Syntax and am trying to understand the X bar theory. Could someone please draw a tree of the sentence down below for me so I could get a better ...
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0answers
27 views

Wh embedded question ambiguous trees [closed]

I am having problems drawing the trees for the following sentence. I'm interested in both the pre and post movement trees for this ambiguous sentence: Lisa wondered when Bart said she saw Nelson. If ...
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2answers
108 views

what is the difference between a complement and adjuncts

what is the difference between a complement and adjuncts. I always have a problem drawing a tree diagram for syntax structure of the sentence with placing complements with word level category and ...
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1answer
756 views

Drawing tree diagrams of ambiguous sentences generated by a CFG

Suppose I have the following CFG rules: S -> NP VP NP -> (D) NOM VP -> V (NP) (NP) NOM -> N NOM -> NOM PP VP -> VP PP PP -> P NP X -> X+ CONJ X How should I draw the tree ...
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0answers
96 views

Resource that gives examples of many different sentences described in tree diagrams

I've devoured the book "Beginning Syntax" by Linda Thomas, but there are areas it doesn't go into in enough depth (presumably to keep it simple). For example, modal auxiliary "ought to" - it doesn't ...
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0answers
58 views

tree diagrams of a question [closed]

I am having trouble drawing a syntax tree for 3 sentences and I would appreciate it if someone could help me. The sentences are: When did the man find the job?
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1answer
59 views

Is a sentence, composed of mainclause and subclause, represented by one or two syntax-trees?

I read, that one sentence can have different syntax-trees what is considered a phrase is dependent on the grammar used there are a lot of grammars, basically divided into two groups: ...
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0answers
35 views

What linguistic subfield(s) deals with the esthetics of syntax?

In advance, to prevent missunderstanding, I want to underline, that I am not talking about Prescriptive Grammar. A certain idea, event, chain of events or a whole story can be realised in more than ...
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0answers
90 views

X-bar analysis of Copular verbs?

Can someone help me with the analysis of copular or linking verbs in X-bar theory. What would be the position of subject in sentences like "Mary is beautiful". Is "Mary" the theme of adjectival ...
3
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1answer
91 views

Earley Parser: Ambiguity

I've got a pretty basic question concerning the Earley parser: In case of syntactic ambiguity ( S -> NP VP(V NP(NP PP)) vs. S -> NP VP(VP((V NP) PP) ), are both parses stored in one chart or in two? ...
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1answer
77 views

Are imperative verbs starting a command subordinating conjunctions?

I have come across a syntax tree with a subordinate clause phrase (as opposed to just a sentence) whose left daughter is a verb in the imperative, e.g. Wash your laundry tonight. I have read this ...
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1answer
66 views

What exactly is the SBAR label from the Penn TreeBank?

From this list of tags: SBAR - Clause introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction. This site explains what a subordinating conjunction is. But how can you have an empty ...
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1answer
36 views

How to search Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns?

What is a general way to parse the trees in the Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns, e.g. perhaps I want all trees which have a plural subject and whose sister VP has a modal verb daughter. ...
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2answers
124 views

Do all languages share the same set of parts of sentence?

I know, that there is a relation between part of sentence and part of speech, namely elements from parts of speech can be combined following certain rules in order to be used as a part of sentence ...
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1answer
105 views

Is this tree diagram correct? [closed]

the sentence is: Lucy reported that scientists wonder if the medicine will work /Users/tcalnitsky/Desktop/assignment2.jpg
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2answers
74 views

dependency or constituency treebank?

Most Treebank conversion which I found in the web are from constituency treebank to dependency treebank, I wonder why there is little jobs in the opposite direction? Does it mean that nowadays ...
3
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2answers
263 views

Why are syntax trees binary trees?

In p.26 of An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis by Sportiche et al. (2013), the authors specify that syntax trees aren't allowed to have more than two children: We never find morphological trees ...
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0answers
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Is there a data set of elementary typical phrases translated in different languages?

To be more explicit, I think about a collection of "abstract" sentences which could be categorized in such a way that they would be easily identified in any language. For example, some typical phrases ...
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1answer
105 views

What is the structure of the sentence “For Bill to have been arrested so soon was disappointing.” according to the GB theory

Please consider the following: (0) For Bill to have been arrested so soon was disappointing. (1) ?It was disappointing for Bill to have been arrested so soon. If the sentence (1) is grammatical, it ...
2
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1answer
94 views

NPs as adverbials; how to parse them?

NPs can function as adverbials as in the following sentences: I ran a mile. I am 5 feet tall. One way to confirm this is by substituting the NPs with adverbs, e.g. "I ran fast" and "I am very ...
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2answers
79 views

The complement of postmodifying prepositional phrases compounded by “and”

How does one parse "the need for and development of education"? "Education" naturally acts as the complement of both the prepositions "for" and "of", and the prepositions surely postmodify the nouns ...
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78 views

I am looking for some examples of syntax trees [closed]

Do you know of any good videos or sites with a variety of syntax trees. I am looking for examples to practice. I found one or two videos on youtube but not as many as I expected.
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1answer
96 views

Please help me parse the subject complement of

The 2 questions are on the diagram. In question 1 - I emphasize "function as" because my understanding is that (in English) a predicate nominative - even though it can take the form of a preposition ...
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3answers
428 views

Are linking/copula verbs only followed by Adjectives and Nouns?

The diagram is from a lesson given by someone on YT. My question is with regard to the Adv phrases that follow the linking/copula verb. My understanding is that only predicate adjectives or predicate ...
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5answers
334 views

Why is dependency parsing so much faster than constituency parsing?

For example, Cer, Daniel M., et al. "Parsing to Stanford Dependencies: Trade-offs between Speed and Accuracy." LREC. 2010. : Why is dependency parsing so much faster than constituency parsing?
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2answers
157 views

In what situation a constituency-based tree cannot be constructed from a dependency-based tree?

I am confused regarding the distinction dependency- vs. constituency-based tree: to me they look like they encompass the same information but presented differently. E.g. in the Wikipedia example the ...
2
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1answer
179 views

Help with syntax trees [closed]

I am having trouble creating a syntax tree for the following sentence: Ginny thinks Harry is dreamy. "Harry is dreamy" is clearly a sentence. However, I am confused what "is" should be. I think it ...
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0answers
380 views

How to analyze this sentence in a tree diagram?

I tried to draw a tree diagram of this sentence In 1816 they were purchased by the British government and from then on displayed in the British Museum. but it leads nowhere. I think I'm fine ...
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262 views

Multiple Adjectives in an X-Bar Tree

I'm having some trouble integrating phrases with multiple adjectives into x-bar trees. Based on what I can understand from the textbook, I would get something like this (apologies for the verb ...
2
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2answers
262 views

Almost half crazy vs Almost half sane

Forgive me if it is not the right place to ask this question in SE sites. I am mostly active on SO but I thought it might be a better fit here. I enrolled in a class this semester and there was a ...
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1answer
98 views

About that translation of Tesniere's “Elements” - is it into English?

I saw that member Tim Osborne said he is working on a translation of Tesniere's "Elements". Is that translation to English? If so, when will the publication be available? Also, if any member can ...
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2answers
3k views

X-Bar theory and Trees

I am studying linguistics and now this semester my subject is Syntax. I tried a few times to draw a tree using X-Bar theory and Dp's but I couldn't achieve. Can someone please draw a tree of the ...
2
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2answers
202 views

Syntactic representation of Across-the-board Extraction

I am reading a book on Government and Binding theory [1] and just finished a chapter on big pro (PRO). At the end of the chapter there is an exercise. Different sentences are written with faulty ...
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1answer
1k views

Problem understanding binding theory and c-command

I am reading about binding theory and I have a little problem. The book (1) says that: A binds B iff: (i) A c-commands B; (ii) A and B are co-indexed. and c-commanding is defined as the ...
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2answers
254 views

Deep structure tree VP help

I'm struggling to diagram the following sentence: The activist continued to protest. I understand the basic structure and what movement is taking place but I'm confused as to how to diagram the ...
2
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2answers
764 views

How widespread are Reed-Kellogg sentence diagrams?

A couple decades ago when I was in middle school in Colorado, I was briefly taught to diagram sentences using the Reed-Kellogg system. I have heard that the practice of teaching sentence diagramming ...
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0answers
214 views

Difficulty with creating Syntax Trees (d and s structure)?

Can someone please help with drawing the following tree in s-structure. "Which fat pig did the small sheet bite behind the barn?" How would I do so if you are suppressing the structures of all ...
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0answers
391 views

How to make Syntax trees for these sentences?

I am having trouble drawing a syntax tree for these sentences and I would appreciate it if someone could help me right now. Why did Ella, one of my friends, who always comes on time to the class ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Help with syntax trees for sentences [closed]

I am trying to understand syntax trees for sentences, i have been working through linguistics by myself and am having trouble understanding the structure of syntax trees (English is my second ...
2
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0answers
42 views

Semi-automatic annotation tool like '@nnotate'

Is there an annotation tool for linguistic structure that compares to @nnotate? One of the major features of annotate is the annotation is semi-automatic, i.e., it uses a language model to make ...
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0answers
97 views

Hypotheses for floating quantifier's positions in generative grammar

Regarding the floating quantifiers' theory on external argument's movement. These data raises two different problems: a) The dogs ALL should have been petted. b) *The dogs should have been ALL ...
3
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2answers
759 views

I am having troubles drawing a syntax tree for the sentence “networking helps you grow your business”. Can anyone help me?

I do not know if "helps" is a verb, an auxiliary verb, a tense, a complementizer phrase, or something else. Could someone attach a picture of the correct tree?
2
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1answer
453 views

What do you call the non-terminal nodes of a syntax tree?

Suppose I have the following syntax tree: Is there a term for the nodes identified by "S", "NP", "VP", and "V"? For a generic tree, I guess you would just call them "non-terminal nodes" or "branch ...
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2answers
170 views

Conjunctive NPs in Montague Grammars

I'm considering the sentence Some man and some woman visited a garden Obviously it's not 100% unambiguous how many gardens there are, but I think most people would agree there is just one common ...