Words, phrases, and acronyms specific to the study of linguistics.

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Possessive determiner depending on grammatical gender of owner

Consider possessive determiners when the owner is a third person. In many languages, the determiner depends on the natural gender of the speaker (English: he-she-it) or, in languages with grammatical ...
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2answers
76 views

Term for a similar word that cannot stand for it in every context?

I once learned a term meaning a similar word that cannot stand for it in every context, i.e. a synonym that doesn't work in every instance the original word can (not a hypernym). What is this term?
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89 views

Relationship between “see” and “look”

I'm interested in how "see" and "look" relate to each other. I think "hear" and "listen" is similar. Is there specific linguistic terminology that describes how the words relate to each other? To me ...
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1answer
55 views

What is the linguistics term for descriptive names?

I would like to read more about descriptive personal names, such as "Red Cloud", "His-Horse-is-Crazy", "Salmon Eater", "Twilight Sparkle", "Rainbow Dash", "One who yawns", "Sitting Bull", "One man ...
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59 views

Can the term “homorganic” be applied to vowels and glides?

As I understand it, "homorganic" means having the same place of articulation, and is said of sounds like [k] vs. [g] and [s] vs. [t]. (I couldn't find a definition from a linguistics source on the ...
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62 views

What is the consensus regarding the term “gliding vowel”?

I write educational resources about Japanese. In my explanations, I try to avoid using overly technical terms so as to avoid scaring my readers, who tend to be people without a linguistic background. ...
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44 views

Linguistic consultants

I'm writing an article that benefitted from a native-speaking linguistic consultant. I have several linguistic consultants, but this gal in particular really did a lot. She even helped train the other ...
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95 views

What's the opposite of a pejorative suffix?

Many languages have a suffix (or some other alteration) that gives a pejorative meaning to a word. For example, in Spanish: pájaro "bird" + -aco → pajarraco "big, ugly bird" What do you call a ...
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39 views

What currency does the term “flip sense verb” have in linguistics?

In a recent comment on the question Ergative Verbs and some discussion about them, jlawler introduced a term I had not previously encountered: The rose smells good is completely different; this ...
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40 views

What are the names of the study of words and of the study of sentences in English?

What is the name of the study of words in English? How do you call the study of sentences in English? Does English grammar or linguistics concerns about the study of units larger than sentences? ...
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37 views

What's the term for N-PP expressions such as “lady-in-waiting”?

Does anyone know or can suggest a term for the following expressions: lady-in-waiting brother-in-law sergent-at-arms bride-to-be etc. Expressions like those above are special for (at ...
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38 views

(in)definite articles

Do any languages distinguish between indefinite and definite articles thus: one beer 1sg-drink `I drank A beer.' beer 1sg-drink `I drank THE/A beer.' That is, is it possible for a language to mark ...
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102 views

Term for omitted pronouns?

In informal German, e.g. spoken conversation or text chat, it is possible to omit certain personal pronouns and sometimes inflected forms of sein ‘to be’, too (similar to Russian). Ich gehe ...
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68 views

words between polar antonyms - what are they called?

Polar antonyms, (graded antonyms?) are those that are opposite of each other, yet may possess a range of words/states between them; Tiny, small, medium, large, huge. Is there a word or term for any ...
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56 views

Do phrase structure rules for natural languages explicitly mark which constituents can consist of coordinated constituents of the same type?

I'm only beginning to review phrase structure rules, so let's take a very basic example: "A sentence consists of a noun phrase + a verb phrase." S --> NP + VP Now the NP can consist of "NP + NP," ...
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212 views

What really makes adverbs different from adjectives?

I just tried to answer a question that amounted to knowing whether adverbs can be inflected. Then, doing a bit of search for examples, I came up with the impression that, in many cases, I could not ...
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139 views

What are the necessary and sufficient characteristics of a word to be considered as nominal?

Clearly there are morphological "tendencies" (case inflection, no TAM marking) -- but what about the semantic or syntactic characteristics (even if they are just tendencies and not universal)? I ...
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50 views

What term do linguists use to denote the predicate minus the arguments of the verb?

I would like a term used by linguists that stands for the predicate minus the arguments of the verb. One possible candidate is “verb group.” This link, ...
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91 views

Jedediah → Jebediah: how?

Possibly, the name Jebediah derives from the name Jedediah. If so, then what phonological phenomenon is this an example of, and what are other examples of it?
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136 views

“He left the room angry” Is this a resultative adjunct?

He entered the room drunk. He left the room angry. I have heard that both drunk and angry are the examples of what is called resultative adjuncts. Is this correct? What does the term mean?
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67 views

Name for statements with exhaustible meaning?

I'm new to linguistics and I'm having trouble finding out if there's any existing literature on statements that have exhaustible meaning. By exhaustible meaning, I'm trying to get at something like ...
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1answer
43 views

Whats the difference between the expression “They do not inflect” and “They are defective”

What I understand is that Defective verbs do not inflect. Am trying to understand what the difference is between being defective and not inflecting - from reading the below wiki extract I cannot see ...
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87 views

The notion of monotonicity

I am slightly confused bu the notion of upward-monotonicity and downward-monotonicity. I cannot understand what exactly can be defined as upward-monoty and down-ward-monotony, is this definition of ...
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65 views

What is “accommodation” in phonetics?

What is "accommodation" in English? What types of accommodation are there? I've tried to search in the Internet, but I could not find proper information.
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50 views

What is the difference between “idiom and proverb”? [closed]

For example 'Kick the bucket." Is it an idiom or proverb? How can I recognize them?
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50 views

What's the difference between word vectors, word representations and vector embeddings?

I have seen word vectors, word representations and vector embedding in those papers (and in a few other places): https://www.cs.toronto.edu/~amnih/papers/wordreps.pdf : words embeddings ...
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200 views

What is the word for a word which can mean anything you want it to?

I am sure I have come across such a term, but I forgot it. It is about words such as "thingamajig" in English, or "таковата" in Bulgarian. When you can't think of a better name, you just use this ...
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49 views

What's the technical term for illocative parenthesis?

I want to know whether there is a technical term, preferably an accepted one, for the following type of parenthesis (bold): (1) You are, I believe, not healthy. The (bold) parenthesis always ...
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66 views

Brief question of terminology for reflexive noun phrases?

In a sentence such as "Which picture of himself will John hate?", what is considered the reflexive noun phrase (as it pertains to Condition A of traditional Binding Theory)? I know it'd normally be ...
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112 views

Markdown for linguistics?

Is there a Markdown dialect or other minimal markup language that is tailored to the needs of linguists (of all sorts)? I would expect it do treat the following constructs: An asterisk directly ...
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131 views

What “the hell” is this?

Take the following examples: For the hell of it! How the hell... What the hell... Where the hell... Who the hell... The hell you are! Is there any linguistic term with respect to "the hell". "on ...
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57 views

Adjective terms for modifier of a preceding subject and modifier of following noun?

I am wondering if there is a term for an adjective that modifies a preceding subject (e.g. I am happy.) and one that modifies what follows (e.g. I am a happy person.).
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What's the name of a lexeme's “surface form”?

Phonemes are realized through phones, morphemes are realized with morphs. What is the corresponding word for a lexeme? A casual google search isn't telling me much.
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56 views

Thesaurus for linguistic and NLP terms

Does there exist any reference thesaurus for linguistic and NLP terms? I know that Wikipedia articles often contain synonyms, but I would like to have a mere thesaurus that I could go through easily ...
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1answer
68 views

Basic questions on X Bar

When formulating a answer to this question - please note I only have a basic high school level of English. I watched a video on X-Bar theory. I am just trying to get a basic understanding. What does ...
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1answer
96 views

What does 'sense' mean in layman's terms?

Sense: the system of paradigmatic and syntagmatic relationships between a lexical unit and other lexical units in a language I looked up the technical terms; then the technical terms used to ...
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103 views

What is the difference in word pairs like “scary” and “scared” [closed]

Take the word pairs "scary" and "scared", or "pleasing" and "pleased". The former adjectives give the impression of inspiring the particular emotion, and the latter adjectives are the emotion itself. ...
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81 views

What is the linguistic name of [r͡ʙ]?

I am creating a language with the sound [r͡ʙ]. The only name I can come up for this sound would be a simultaneous bilabial and alveolar trill. Is there anything more scientific than that? It cannot ...
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159 views

Is there an accepted objective criterion of “grammaticality”?

I'm not a linguist, but I took "linguistics 101" in college, and remain interested in the subject. One aspect of the linguistics field that has baffled me for years is the fact that much of the ...
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138 views

Are “part of speech” and “syntactic type” the same concept?

Are "part of speech" and "syntactic type" the same concept? If not, what are their differences?
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1answer
88 views

Differences of 'Meta-linguistic' & 'reflexive' statements

I'm currently using John Lyons' 'Semantics' vol 1. In the section 1.3 Object-language and Meta language, after he defines those concepts, he tries to show the difference between meta-linguistic and ...
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254 views

What's the difference between open/closed class words and functional/lexical categories?

These two classifications seem to point to the same types of words.
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76 views

Does the classification of languages “agglutinating” concern itself with inflectional morphology, derivational morphology, or both?

I had always thought that the terms "agglutinative" and "agglutination" referred to the typology of the inflection in a language. But on another question here there seem to be a number of comments ...
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3answers
154 views

Are Japanese honorific お and ご prefixes, particles, or both?

In Japanese there are two morphemes which are used before certain nouns as part of the honorific system: お (o) ご (go) Which terms can be used to refer to these out of "prefix" and "particle"? I ...
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285 views

Are 'reference', 'sense', 'connotation', 'denotation', 'intension', and 'extension' mutually distinct terms?

Assumptions Reference: a unique and real entity that an expression represents. Sense: a facet of a referent that an expression represents. Connotation: the settled emotional content of an ...
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2answers
55 views

Words and phrases [closed]

What word would you use to describe words and groups of consecutively occurring words, such as: the it i am it is for a in the last why did I would prefer a word that would make sense to even ...
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106 views

Head word for Synonyms and Word Families?

::UPDATED:: Dictionaries will often present a single word, and then inflected/derived relational forms (such as "house", and then provide listings for "houses", "housed" and "housing"). I'm looking ...
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What is the difference between native language, first language, mother tongue and L1?

Note: I'm not a linguist, and I realize I might be treading in a grey area here. I'm wondering what the differences (and/or similarities) between native language, first language, mother tongue and L1 ...
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83 views

L1 memories being recalled in my L2

The situation is as follows: I have been studying my L2 for approximately 4 years. I have spent a total of 10 months immersed in the L2 environment. My current stint has been for 5 months and ...
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105 views

Is this a form of ellipsis: If (you are) hungry, you should say so?

I am currently working on the following phenomenon: (1) a. If (you are) hungry, you should say so. b. He touches his nose when (he is) exaggerating. c. Where (it is) cheap, watermelon sells well. ...