Words, phrases, and acronyms specific to the study of linguistics.

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Gold Part-Of-Speech tags

I've read this term in many papers in NLP: (Gold POS tags). what does it mean? Thanks.
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53 views

Lexical diversification

What is the precise scientific name for the following phenomenon: Spanish: Los tios = aunt + uncle English: aunt + uncle There is no single expression in English which encompasses both the meaning ...
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25 views

Adverbs vs intensifiers

Last year I had a prof who denied the existence of adverbs, and instead posited a class of words that were labelled "intensifiers". Many words that would have been otherwise been labeled as an adverb ...
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94 views

What's the difference between structural and generative linguistics?

It seems to me that generative linguistics presupposes the structuralist tradition. Are there any major differences between these two methods?
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74 views

What is the linguistic term for an environment where parents teach a second language to their children in lieu of the parents' native language?

For example, Lebanon is an Arabic-speaking country. However, many parents insist on speaking to their children exclusively in English or French and refuse or severely limit the use of Arabic. Is there ...
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99 views

Opposite of “intensifier”?

I really like apples. I don't really like apples. In sentences #1, 'really' acts as an intensifier. Using "teacher talk", I would say that 'really' softens the sentence, but I can't think of a ...
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45 views

Are there different Terms for “Synonyms” when distinguishing inflectable Words from particular inflected Forms?

I am thinking of two slightly different concepts, both of which I would refer to as synonymy. As I would like to distinguish the concepts in a text, I am looking for two distinct words. First, I will ...
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68 views

Book suggestions for linguistics for Computer Science people

I am asked to do some NLP tasks on a language which is agglutinative. I am finding these terms difficult to understand since my background is different. I am looking for some nice books that give a ...
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83 views

What is the difference between a filler word and a discourse marker?

What is the difference between a filler and a discourse marker? There are words that seem fall into both categories. The Wikipedia article on the latter is sparse and lacks examples, but what it does ...
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61 views

Is there a term for sentence ending phrases like “if that is the right word”

I'm an amateur looking for help! I talk about "heads" and "tails". Other examples of tails are "don't you think?" "do you see what I mean", "or something similar". They are phrases L2 beginners can ...
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56 views

Are different “aspects” of a Polish verb the same lexeme or different lexemes?

Polish verbs have two "aspects", imperfective and perfective, which means you use a different word depending on whether the activity you're describing is ongoing or habitual, or if it's definite or ...
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33 views

What is A-movement ? Can I find a short essay that can explain it?

I have been trying to get a summarized idea about A-movement. I wish you could help me out with this . Thanks
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56 views

What exactly is the SBAR label from the Penn TreeBank?

From this list of tags: SBAR - Clause introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction. This site explains what a subordinating conjunction is. But how can you have an empty ...
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72 views

“The meaning of words depends solely on mental concepts inside the human brain”

What does "the meaning of words depends solely on mental concepts inside the human brain" illustrate? An internalist or externalist position ? Brief reason why. Thanks !
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39 views

Which grammar framework the terms “predicate/ complement/ adjunct” belong to?

From wiki, there're a number of grammar frameworks. Which framework the terms "predicate/ complement/ adjunct" belong to?
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72 views

What are phi features?

How are some interpretable and some not? Where do they come from? There is a claim that in some languages, like Hebrew, finite T can have either a 'full' set or a partial set - but how is that ...
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96 views

What is the difference between a word root and a word stem?

What is the difference between a word's root and a word's stem?
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42 views

For what reason is the term part of sentence not considered a linguistic standard?

Whenever I browse through a book on grammar teaching of a particular language, there is a good chance I'll encounter the term part of sentence. Actually, I can not remember having peeked into such a ...
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24 views

What is the name for the set of all texts expressing the same event?

suppose you want to express an event like "a man picking up an apple from the dirty floor and puts it onto the table", you have many possible ways to formulate a text expressing this even, for ...
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45 views

How do people of Southern hemisphere refer to seasons? [closed]

I wonder whether they call "winter" the December, January and February or the opposite, the June, July and August?
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31 views

What is the purpose of pertainyms?

I came across this term accidentally by reading a question on this forum. When i tried to search for it via google i only got very short definition from various dictionaries. Could you explain in ...
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56 views

What linguistic key terms are necessary to be understood in order to understand the idea behind discours analysis? [closed]

I was asked to get an understanding for what discours analysis is. As for now, this terms has no meaning to me at all, i ve tried to read about the concept in different off-and online encyclopdias, ...
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88 views

Is there a language without words which correspond to the concepts 'I', 'They', 'We'

I was wondering if a language exists without the ability to express the notions of 'I', 'We', 'they' etc. Would it be possible to communicate without these concepts being expressible as a ...
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67 views

How to find origin of a borrowed word?

For example what is the origin of name Catherine? Etymology Dictionary says that: it's from French Catherine, from Medieval Latin Katerina, from Latin Ecaterina, from Greek Aikaterine. The -h- was ...
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281 views

What is it called in linguistics when you change a word from one part of speech to another?

So, what is it called when, for instance, the following happens: mad(noun) > madly (adv) > madlyness (noun)
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88 views

Is there a special term describing mental translation between L1 and L2?

Is there a special term to describe the mental translation of a word? E.g. when one sees a recently learned term, they may think of the L1 meaning rather than directly think of the concept.
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In the context of vocabulary learning, what is “facile access”?

I am reading a book about vocabulary learning. They use the term "facile access". I tried searching dictionaries, etc., found many usages, but no explanations for the meaning. What is the meaning?
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What is the role of watching articulation in learning pronunciation?

It's obviously easier to pronounce and, perhaps even acquire, a sound or sequence not present in one's native language if one watches carefully a speaker's mouth. What is this phenomena called? Where ...
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59 views

Is there a term ending in “-nym,” that signifies terms that all have the same hypernym?

We have terms like hyponym and hypernym, which convey the relationships "subcategories" and "supercategory". Metaphorically, one could think of such relationships as similar to parent/children ...
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73 views

What is the term for pairs of words with converse meanings such as (gave<>got) and (bought<>sold)?

I'm seriously struggling to identify a name for the relationship between such words. They are transactional terms,of which there are two parts. They may even show tense. John gave me an apple. I ...
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77 views

Would an acronym be classified as an icon or an index?

I wonder whether an acronym should be considered as an icon or an index. On the one hand, an acronym is similar to what it stands for, on the other hand, there is often (but not always) a formulaic ...
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95 views

Why is a matrix clause called “matrix”?

I understand what a matrix clause is, but was curious why it's called a "matrix" clause.
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54 views

Center of a set of words

Is there any available algorithm that can take a set of words and attempt to find a word that best represents the "center of mass" of all those words? This would be easy if we can define a distance ...
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73 views

What does the term cascade refer to in syntax?

In Uriagereka's 1999 article, Multiple Spell-out, the term cascade is used in several places. I just conjecture its meaning but don't get exact one. What does a cascade mean in syntax.
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60 views

How are “spectral properties” distinct from “linguistic properties”?

As a linguist, I have a good idea of what linguistic properties of a sound can be: be they describable in terms of distinctive features or whatever. But what, then, are spectral properties? It's not ...
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67 views

Possessive determiner depending on grammatical gender of owner

Consider possessive determiners when the owner is a third person. In many languages, the determiner depends on the natural gender of the speaker (English: he-she-it) or, in languages with grammatical ...
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2answers
79 views

Term for a similar word that cannot stand for it in every context?

I once learned a term meaning a similar word that cannot stand for it in every context, i.e. a synonym that doesn't work in every instance the original word can (not a hypernym). What is this term?
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106 views

Relationship between “see” and “look”

I'm interested in how "see" and "look" relate to each other. I think "hear" and "listen" is similar. Is there specific linguistic terminology that describes how the words relate to each other? To me ...
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60 views

What is the linguistics term for descriptive names?

I would like to read more about descriptive personal names, such as "Red Cloud", "His-Horse-is-Crazy", "Salmon Eater", "Twilight Sparkle", "Rainbow Dash", "One who yawns", "Sitting Bull", "One man ...
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76 views

Can the term “homorganic” be applied to vowels and glides?

As I understand it, "homorganic" means having the same place of articulation, and is said of sounds like [k] vs. [g] and [s] vs. [t]. (I couldn't find a definition from a linguistics source on the ...
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74 views

What is the consensus regarding the term “gliding vowel”?

I write educational resources about Japanese. In my explanations, I try to avoid using overly technical terms so as to avoid scaring my readers, who tend to be people without a linguistic background. ...
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45 views

Linguistic consultants

I'm writing an article that benefitted from a native-speaking linguistic consultant. I have several linguistic consultants, but this gal in particular really did a lot. She even helped train the other ...
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121 views

What's the opposite of a pejorative suffix?

Many languages have a suffix (or some other alteration) that gives a pejorative meaning to a word. For example, in Spanish: pájaro "bird" + -aco → pajarraco "big, ugly bird" What do you call a ...
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45 views

What currency does the term “flip sense verb” have in linguistics?

In a recent comment on the question Ergative Verbs and some discussion about them, jlawler introduced a term I had not previously encountered: The rose smells good is completely different; this ...
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41 views

What are the names of the study of words and of the study of sentences in English?

What is the name of the study of words in English? How do you call the study of sentences in English? Does English grammar or linguistics concerns about the study of units larger than sentences? ...
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37 views

What's the term for N-PP expressions such as “lady-in-waiting”?

Does anyone know or can suggest a term for the following expressions: lady-in-waiting brother-in-law sergent-at-arms bride-to-be etc. Expressions like those above are special for (at ...
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42 views

(in)definite articles

Do any languages distinguish between indefinite and definite articles thus: one beer 1sg-drink `I drank A beer.' beer 1sg-drink `I drank THE/A beer.' That is, is it possible for a language to mark ...
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112 views

Term for omitted pronouns?

In informal German, e.g. spoken conversation or text chat, it is possible to omit certain personal pronouns and sometimes inflected forms of sein ‘to be’, too (similar to Russian). Ich gehe ...
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96 views

words between polar antonyms - what are they called?

Polar antonyms, (graded antonyms?) are those that are opposite of each other, yet may possess a range of words/states between them; Tiny, small, medium, large, huge. Is there a word or term for any ...
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Do phrase structure rules for natural languages explicitly mark which constituents can consist of coordinated constituents of the same type?

I'm only beginning to review phrase structure rules, so let's take a very basic example: "A sentence consists of a noun phrase + a verb phrase." S --> NP + VP Now the NP can consist of "NP + NP," ...