Words, phrases, and acronyms specific to the study of linguistics.

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What are the differences between phonology, phonetics, and prosody?

I already read this but it omits prosody. The inclusion of prosody confuses me and beclouds the other two terms (again). Please explain as though I were 10 years old. [Source:] Phonetics is the ...
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1answer
47 views

Is 'irrealis' not an official word? [closed]

I was trying to find an online audible audio pronuncer (ie vocaliser) for and the etymology of the word irrealis in irrealis mood. To my shock, the word is absent in OED, ODO, even Memidex.com. 1. ...
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50 views

'modal' vs 'mode' vs 'modality' vs 'mood'

TL;DR (Actual Question:) I'm wildered; so please explain as though I were 10 years old. What are the similarities and differences? This doesn`t compare all 4 nouns simultaneously. A Student's ...
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48 views

How does the subjunctive "under' + 'join'?

[Etymonline:] ... from sub "under" (see sub-) + iungere "to join" (see jugular). ... [OED:] ... The subjunctive mood was so called because it was regarded as specially appropriate to ...
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3answers
50 views

How do participles partake of a noun?

[1.] [Etymonline'] from particeps "sharing, partaking" (see participation). In grammatical sense, the Latin translates Greek metokhe "sharer, partaker," and the notion is of a word "partaking" of ...
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51 views

How to classify and differentiate emic units?

[Source:] [Posted: Sat Jul 26, 2008 6:41 am] [By user 'Guijarro'] In my worldview, a MORPHEME is the smallest unit in syntactic analysis. A SENTENCE, on the other hand, is the biggest one. ...
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1answer
62 views

Why does the 'PREdicate' follow?

[ Etymonline for 'predicate (n.)] ... from prae- "forth, before" (see pre-) + dicare "proclaim," from stem of dicere "to speak, to say" (see diction). Grammatical sense is from 1630s. ... ...
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1answer
45 views

What's the difference between iterative and frequentative aspects?

According to Wikipedia, the iterative aspect "expresses the repetition of an event", and the frequentative aspect "indicates repeated action". Is there a difference or are they synonyms?
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55 views

How can it be decided whether two grammatical cases should be taken to be just homophonous (i.e. as separate) or actually equal?

I've come across this in multiple grammars: Two grammatical cases (e.g. ergative and instrumental) are said to be "homophonous" - they make use of the (apparently?) same marker and yet, they are ...
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27 views

What approaches exist to categorizing kinds of passive agent markers and what are their advantages?

For my thesis I would like to conduct a study on the cross-linguistic distribution of agent markers in passives. In English, this marker is usually realized by the preposition 'by', as in (including ...
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58 views

Is there a term for words that consist of the same syllable repeated?

Words such as "mama", "papa", and "cancan" have only one unique syllable, and the whole word is just that syllable repeated once. Is there a name for such words? I am aware of reduplication, but I ...
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10 views

What terms define words that may or may not be evaluative?

Source: ... How to Reason and Argue, by Prof W Sinnott-Armstrong [At the 7 min 49 s juncture of Lec 2-8, for which Coursera neglects to provide a transcription]: It may seem to be an ...
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1answer
39 views

What are the blanket or general terms representing these linguistic pitfalls?

Are there collective, sweeping official terms that comprise linguistic traps such as these? Etymological fallacy Folk etymology False friend False cognate False etymology
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1answer
48 views

How distinct do two language varieties need to be in order to consider their alternating usage to be an act of code-switching?

I was recently thinking about code-switching (i.e. switching between languages within a sentence, social exchange, phrase, etc.) Would switching between dialects or accents of the same language under ...
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1answer
18 views

Does English have a common parlance demarcation between inclusive disjunction and exclusive disjunction?

Distinguishing between inclusive or and exclusive or in logic is useful. Is there already an ascribed way of using each of these operators in everyday speech in English?
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1answer
68 views

Predicate vs. Predicator

BACKGROUND According to Oxford Dictionaries Online: Predicator means "(In systemic grammar) a verb phrase considered as a constituent of clause structure, along with subject, object, and ...
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2answers
166 views

Functionalism vs Formalism?

I'm trying to really understand the difference between linguistic functionalism and formalism, but I can't find any good concrete examples of either. From what I can tell, functionalism is a sort of ...
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1answer
69 views

Is there a word for repeating the last letter of an acronym?

Sometimes I find myself noticing people saying things like […] CLI interface. Since CLI already stands for command-line interface, repeating the last letter of the acronym in its expanded form ...
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1k views

Why do we call sound pitches “low” and “high”?

We use "low" and "high" in everyday speech when talking about sound, pitch or even frequency. However, if you think of it, the sound of a bassoon is no way closer to the ground ("lower") than the ...
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2answers
124 views

Сoncept of an attribute usesd by Russian grammarians

Note: This is cross-posted on ELL.se at Сoncept of an attribute used by Russian grammarians. I need to know all the attributes in theese sentences and how they are expressed.The problem is that ...
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4answers
295 views

Why use the term 'mood' instead of 'mode'?

Both the terms 'mood' and 'modality' have been extensively used in the English grammar. First and foremost, modal auxiliaries such as 'can', 'may', 'should', 'must' are said to represent the 'mood', ...
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2answers
203 views

What is a proper term for the contamination of a language?

Italians, for some reason, tend to accept and use foreign terms quite easily. The foreign terms that have entered and are entering common usage are mainly from the English language. Their usage has ...
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57 views

Is it common to analyze grammatically motivated vowel alternation as an occurence of discontinuous morphemes?

For example, are the triconsonantal roots in Arabic (like k-t-b --write) considered to be discontinuous morphemes? How about the English roots (s-ng -- sing, sang, sung, song) and (beg-n -- begin, ...
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Is there a term for a word's propensity for ambiguity?

The word 'excellent', in and of itself, cannot have negative connotations. The word 'exceptional', however, can have both positive, neutral and negative connotations. So one can say that the word ...
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1answer
71 views

Why are “dynamic” and “deontic” modalities so called?

It is said that there are three types of modality: deontic, epistemic and dynamic. Here are sample sentences for each type of modality: (1) You can stay as long as you want. [deontic] (2) ...
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1answer
128 views

What is the morpheme that marks a question called?

When languages have a morpheme attached to the word that makes it a question, such as a suffix, is this called a question suffix, an interrogative, suffix, etc? I don't have much experience in ...
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1answer
107 views

Is 'identity' a grammatical term?

Originally purposed for this ELL question, the following from this thread claims that which I've greyed. I ask about such a claim for English and French. [User 'RuthP' dated 2012 Dec 26:] That ...
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87 views

What is the name for this type of diagram?

When studying an agglutinative language, one sometimes encounters the following type of helpful diagram, which labels a sentence according to the grammatical function of each constitutive element. ...
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4answers
168 views

What is the difference between coreference resolution and anaphora resolution?

Is there any difference between coreference resolution and anaphora resolution? More generally, what is the difference between coreferences and anaphoras?
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1answer
69 views

Term for when sentences (or parts) are combined with “this means”, “meaning”, “that shows”, etc.?

Often sentences or parts of sentences are combined with verbs or pronoun + verb. However, they don't describe something of the content of the text, they just help to bring the parts or sentences in ...
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1answer
71 views

Is there a term for a made-up synonym or analogy to describe a forgotten word?

(I'm not a linguist, just generally interested in languages, so forgive me if I lack the appropriate vocabulary.) There are some examples here, but the general gist is that someone forgets a word (in ...
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110 views

Comparing writing systems by ease of encoding/decoding information

Considering the variety of systems of writing, the ease with which someone can receive written information in one system of writing is not precisely identical to that of any other, and I am curious to ...
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67 views

What kind of wordplay is this?

In his book Humorous English, Evan Esar gives example uses of devices he broadly labels synonymics. He writes of synonymic puns: Many a wife sends her husband to an early grave with a series of ...
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1answer
79 views

What is the meaning of zero intension?

I'm reading Possession in Yucatec Maya by Christian Lehmann (March 2003) and I came across this passage: The prototypical possessum is a concrete entity, normally an individual (as opposed to a ...
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1answer
78 views

Gold Part-Of-Speech tags

I've read this term in many papers in NLP: (Gold POS tags). what does it mean? Thanks.
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1answer
92 views

Lexical diversification

What is the precise scientific name for the following phenomenon: Spanish: Los tios = aunt + uncle English: aunt + uncle There is no single expression in English which encompasses both the meaning ...
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34 views

Adverbs vs intensifiers

Last year I had a prof who denied the existence of adverbs, and instead posited a class of words that were labelled "intensifiers". Many words that would have been otherwise been labeled as an adverb ...
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175 views

What's the difference between structural and generative linguistics?

It seems to me that generative linguistics presupposes the structuralist tradition. Are there any major differences between these two methods?
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3answers
140 views

What is the linguistic term for an environment where parents teach a second language to their children in lieu of the parents' native language?

For example, Lebanon is an Arabic-speaking country. However, many parents insist on speaking to their children exclusively in English or French and refuse or severely limit the use of Arabic. Is there ...
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2answers
119 views

Opposite of “intensifier”?

I really like apples. I don't really like apples. In sentences #1, 'really' acts as an intensifier. Using "teacher talk", I would say that 'really' softens the sentence, but I can't think of a ...
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53 views

Are there different Terms for “Synonyms” when distinguishing inflectable Words from particular inflected Forms?

I am thinking of two slightly different concepts, both of which I would refer to as synonymy. As I would like to distinguish the concepts in a text, I am looking for two distinct words. First, I will ...
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2answers
80 views

Book suggestions for linguistics for Computer Science people

I am asked to do some NLP tasks on a language which is agglutinative. I am finding these terms difficult to understand since my background is different. I am looking for some nice books that give a ...
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2answers
133 views

What is the difference between a filler word and a discourse marker?

What is the difference between a filler and a discourse marker? There are words that seem fall into both categories. The Wikipedia article on the latter is sparse and lacks examples, but what it does ...
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1answer
67 views

Is there a term for sentence ending phrases like “if that is the right word”

I'm an amateur looking for help! I talk about "heads" and "tails". Other examples of tails are "don't you think?" "do you see what I mean", "or something similar". They are phrases L2 beginners can ...
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1answer
128 views

Are different “aspects” of a Polish verb the same lexeme or different lexemes?

Polish verbs have two "aspects", imperfective and perfective, which means you use a different word depending on whether the activity you're describing is ongoing or habitual, or if it's definite or ...
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3answers
116 views

What is an affix called that is interlocked?

Wikipedia mentions 4 subgroups of affixes: prefix, the affix is in front of the word suffix, the affix is behind the word infix, the affix is within the word circumfix, the afix is separated into ...
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40 views

What is A-movement ? Can I find a short essay that can explain it?

I have been trying to get a summarized idea about A-movement. I wish you could help me out with this . Thanks
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102 views

What exactly is the SBAR label from the Penn TreeBank?

From this list of tags: SBAR - Clause introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction. This site explains what a subordinating conjunction is. But how can you have an empty ...
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76 views

“The meaning of words depends solely on mental concepts inside the human brain”

What does "the meaning of words depends solely on mental concepts inside the human brain" illustrate? An internalist or externalist position ? Brief reason why. Thanks !
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40 views

Which grammar framework the terms “predicate/ complement/ adjunct” belong to?

From wiki, there're a number of grammar frameworks. Which framework the terms "predicate/ complement/ adjunct" belong to?