Words, phrases, and acronyms specific to the study of linguistics.

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40 views

What motivated the term 'Recursion'?

'Recursion' is defined on pp 90 and 107 in Syntax, A Generative Introduction (2012 3 ed) by Andrew Carnie. Does the meaning of its Latin etymon ('running back, return'), influence the meaning of '...
1
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1answer
32 views

Term for modifying a word to create its opposite connotation

I'm interested in knowing if there is a specific term for the phenomenon (in English) where a word with a positive connotation can be modified to create a word or phrase with a negative connotation (...
0
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1answer
60 views

Similar words in different languages with different meanings [duplicate]

What do you call a pair of words which specifically are either written our sounded out either the same or very similarly across two different languages and have different meanings (perhaps even ...
4
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1answer
84 views

What is the name for the phenomenon or process by which the brain knows what “it” in a sentence refers to?

What is the name for the phenomenon or process by which the brain knows what "it" in a sentence refers to ? For example : I left my book on the table but when I came back, IT wasn't there.
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0answers
36 views

Difference between dislocation, shifting, inversion, discontinuity, topicalization, scrambling

This is a really broad question, but can someone explain the difference between the following phenomena: topicalization, dislocation, shifting, inversion, discontinuity, and scrambling. Wikipedia says ...
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2answers
52 views

Name of rule for whether compounds should be written with a space or not

What is the name of the rule that describes why some words are written together (e.g. "strawberry") and others apart (e.g. "street name")?
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1answer
92 views

Nouns without an article as in e.g. “Empire is not always a good thing”

Consider the highlighted nouns below. Empire is not always a good thing. (The burden of empire, like its benefit, was not equitably shared.) Some great apes have theory of mind. (Theory may ...
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2answers
44 views

Tone of Voice Interpretation [on hold]

I found the term Tone of Voice on web. But no where I could find any clear meaning attached to it.Can any body pls help me explain what Tone of Voice actually is. I'm interested in Tone of Voice in ...
2
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1answer
61 views

Grammatical case for provenience

I am looking for the term for the grammatical case expressing provenience or origin, roughly corresponding to the English prepositions "of, from, out of, made from" as for example: He is from Sweden. ...
2
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3answers
112 views

Is there a difference between the terms `plosive` and `stop`?

A sound like the voiceless retroflex stop get's sometimes called a stop and sometimes a plosive. Are the terms completely synonymous or do they have a slightly different meaning?
4
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2answers
181 views

Who was the first to call noun classes “genders”?

I'm not asking about the origin of grammatical gender. I am asking where is the earliest example of the term "gender" used to describe classes of nouns. I'm wondering who first decided to name ...
2
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2answers
35 views

Dataset of special noun phrases

I'm looking for a dataset of noun phrases that are special in a particular way. I'm not able to pinpoint the key features of these noun phrases that distinguish them from other ones, however. Here are ...
1
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2answers
79 views

Are there names for the individual diphthongs?

I could say aɪ is the diphthong made up of the open front unrounded vowel and the near-close near-front unrounded vowel. Is there a shorter name for that diphthong and other similar diphthongs?
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0answers
18 views

How does 'Theme/Patient' differ from 'Experiencer'?

Source: p 123, Understanding Semantics (2 ed, 2013) by Sebastian Löbner To me, the Description and Examples for Thematic/Semantics Roles appear 100% interchangeable: so what are the ...
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0answers
32 views

Why was the prefix 'anti-' chosen for the terms 'antipassive' and 'anticausative'?

Source: Understanding Semantics (2 ed, 2013) by Sebastian Löbner [p 137:] The antipassive in English consists of demoting the direct object argument by omitting it. It removes the THEME/PATIENT ...
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1answer
30 views

Looking for a list of English words that are morphologically similar, semantically different? [closed]

I need a list of English words that are morphologically similar, but when it comes to meaning, they should be completely different.
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0answers
64 views

What is a “nucleus” in syntax?

What exactly does the term nucleus refer to in syntax? (I'm not asking about the term in relation to phonetics or phonology). For example when syntacticians write about left dislocations and so forth ...
2
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1answer
55 views

What is the difference between implicature and entailment?

When talking about pragmatics what is the difference between implicature and entailment? PS. The book I was reading was Pragmatics by George Yule
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1answer
71 views
1
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1answer
89 views

Words that translate to valid words in the source language

I recently learned that poison in English translates to gift in German. Is there a term for such pairings where the translated word is also a valid word (with unrelated meaning) in the source ...
2
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1answer
68 views

What motivated the term 'oblique'?

Source: p 137, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie xxix) Oblique: any NP/PP in the sentence that is not a subject, direct object of a preposition, direct object, or ...
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1answer
58 views

What motivated the terms 'ergative' and 'absolutive'?

Source: p 195, Understanding Syntax (4 ed, 2014) by Prof. Maggie Tallerman PhD in Linguistics (U. Hull) ERGATIVE is the case of A – the subject of transitive verbs. ABSOLUTIVE is the case of both ...
3
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1answer
83 views

Is there a term for words which falsely appear to be related etymologically?

I was doing research into the use of axes in Japanese martial arts. I discovered that the common name for this tool os "ono." I then discovered that is has another name, "masa-kari." If I were to ...
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53 views

Different types of verbs [closed]

There are different types of verbs in languages. I am interested in formal name of these types. I want to distinguish between verbs that don't have antonyms and synonyms simultaneously, like 'see', '...
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0answers
18 views

Is there a term for “lexeme-describing grammatical feature”?

I've heard terms like grammatical category and grammatical feature being used for inflectional properties such as number, person, tense, mood, and so on. Gender is commonly included in this list too, ...
0
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1answer
51 views

Why is a nominalisation called “grammatical metaphor” in SFL

I have learned to understand that a nominalisation is called a grammatical metaphor in systemic functional linguistics. What is the motivation behind this terminology? Are there other kinds of ...
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1answer
44 views

Why are Adjuncts called 'Adverbial Clauses'? [closed]

Hereafter abbreviate Adverbial Clauses to AC. Section 6.3.3 (p 66, An Introduction to English Syntax By Jim Miller) states that AC may not always be adverbs. So was AC misnamed; if yes, why? Or is ...
6
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1answer
116 views

What are the differences between theoretical perspectives of the uses of the term “register”?

I'd be interested in asking people about their understanding of the term register and what this signifies for them. This would be a discussion about a specialised term and I'm sure there are multiple ...
3
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1answer
42 views

Are there terms for this class of word pair, or terms for the contrasting members of the pairs?

I've been thinking about pairs of contrasting words such as these: go (to) vs come (from) give (to) vs receive (from) lend (to) vs borrow (from) take (to) vs bring (from) Is there a term in ...
2
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1answer
110 views

Are all complex words polymorphemic?

Complex words contain whether a bound and a free morpheme (eg unhappy) or two bound morphemes (eg intervene). In the first case (eg unhappy) the complex word is polymorphemic because it includes a ...
4
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2answers
90 views

Word for a word that was the ancestor for another word?

Modern Icelandic maður is from Old Icelandic maðr. To relate the latter to the former, I would say "Old Icelandic maðr is the ___ of Modern Icelandic maður." What linguistic term goes in the blank? ...
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2answers
72 views

Grammatical term for inflectable conjunctions as used in the Arabic language(s)

Conjunctions in the Arabic language can be inflected be adding an affix that indicates the pronoun. E.g. the conjunction 'because' is لِأَن (li'ann), and 'because you' yields لِأَنك (li'annak). ...
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1answer
36 views

Does 'meaning change' differ from 'semantic change'? [duplicate]

Source: An Introduction to Language (10 ed, 2014) by V Fromkin, R Rodman, N Hyams. My question on 'meaning' vs 'semantics' is more general, and so does not answer or duplicate the following. [p ...
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2answers
55 views

Can 'a system of rules that assigns […] meaning in a definite way' be replaced with 'semantics'?

Source: An Introduction to Language (10 ed, 2014) by V Fromkin, R Rodman, N Hyams. I, and not the book, bolded. [p 7:] A person who knows a language has mastered [1.] a system of rules ...
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1answer
89 views

Can 'semantics' replace 'meaning' in these 7 sentences? Why or why not? [closed]

I reread 1 (which this does NOT duplicate) and the OED, and can infer that 'semantics' is a hyponym of 'meaning'; but still unable to disambiguate 'meaning' and 'semantics' in certain contexts, I am ...
1
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1answer
34 views

What term describes the production of new words by 'aggregating them'?

Certain words seem to come from gluing or aggregating other extant words; what is the technical name given for phenomenon? For example: In Sanskrit: pratyaksanamanagamah; where pratyaksa is percept, ...
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52 views

Cover-term for “declarative”, “negative”, “emphatic”?

Does anybody know a cover-term for "declarative", "negative", and "emphatic"? One of my ESL-students asked me, and I cannot remember a term for this (tho' I've been teaching ESL for over 20 years). ...
2
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2answers
95 views

What's the term for the use of “this” in “there's this guy called John, who…”?

What's the term for the use of "this" in "there's this guy called John, who..."? Here, the "this" is used like an "a", not literally "this". I'm not sure if there's a term for this.
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2answers
108 views

The drop/weakening of “h” sound in General American English

I noticed that the speakers with the General American accent occasionally weaken the "h" sound in words like "had" e.g. "You had this and that." becomes kind of like "You ad this and that." (I can't ...
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1answer
51 views

Adjunct vs disjunct [closed]

What is the difference between an adjunct and disjunct? How can I distinguish between the two? Please, I will be very thankful if you give me some examples.
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0answers
74 views

Sociolinguistics VS Rhetoric

Can anyone tell me major differences between rhetoric and sociolinguistics? And what theoretical commonalities they share? I'm a rhetoric student, and I'm looking to go to grad school, but I'm not ...
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0answers
42 views

Is there a word for artificial language except programming languages?

Is there a word for artificial language except programming languages? Non-natural languages for human-to-human communication?
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2answers
111 views

Is a letter a linguistic unit?

According to vocabulary.com a linguistic unit is one of the natural units into which linguistic messages can be analyzed. So, can a linguistic unit be a letter, a syllable, a word or a sentence? ...
0
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1answer
77 views

Scopal relation of negation and quantifier

What is the exact meaning of scope? In the following sentence, what is the scopal relation of negation and quantifier? And how could I know if there is a wide or narrow scope between them? She ...
2
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1answer
94 views

Are British and American English two different dialects?

I'm facing a difficulty in understanding what exactly is a dialect. I've read many definitions, but I need an example in order to understand them. Can we say that British English and American English ...
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0answers
48 views

What motivated the definition of Theme in Semantics?

Source: An Introduction to Language (10 ed, 2014) by V Fromkin, R Rodman, N Hyams [p 163:] The NP arguments in the VP, which include the subject and any objects, are semantically related in ...
0
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1answer
53 views

Is there a word for variety of letters used in a language?

To suggest either/both readability or efficiency in typing? English is less [is there a term to fill in here?] than Japanese: compared to English alphabets, the number of letters in hiragana + ...
0
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1answer
40 views

Why is C-selection called 'subcategorisation' and not only 'categorisation'?

Source: p 94, An Introduction to Language (10 ed, 2014) by V Fromkin, R Rodman, N Hyams The information about the complement types selected by particular verbs and other lexical items is ...
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2answers
82 views

What do Determiners determine? [closed]

Source: An Introduction to Language (10 ed, 2014) by V Fromkin, R Rodman, N Hyams [p 86:] For example, determiners specify whether a noun is indefi- nite or definite (a boy versus the boy), or ...
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103 views

The barrier of intuitively using a second language’s word order

I am learning German and a big hurdle I am facing is word placement. For example, the last half of a sentence is: […], aber ich werde es nicht verstehen. (but I would not understand it.) I ...