Refers either to tentative or speculative theories, or abstract, usually mathematical, theories focused more on explanation and generalization than application

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5
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2answers
76 views

In what situation a constituency-based tree cannot be constructed from a dependency-based tree?

I am confused regarding the distinction dependency- vs. constituency-based tree: to me they look like they encompass the same information but presented differently. E.g. in the Wikipedia example the ...
3
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2answers
89 views

Are “part of speech” and “syntactic type” the same concept?

Are "part of speech" and "syntactic type" the same concept? If not, what are their differences?
0
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1answer
46 views

Differences between paraphrase and rephrase [closed]

What differences are between paraphrase and rephrase? Do they both retain the meaning of the original text, and not add new information? Do they both have similar length as the original text?
0
votes
1answer
139 views

Would a progamming language in lojban mean that program could be written in natural language? [closed]

Imagine a new computer programming language whose keywords and all other syntax were in lojban (or equivalent language - will explain in a bit). Allowing lojban to be a "natural" language itself, ...
-3
votes
2answers
140 views

How to solve 48÷2(9+3) from a linguistics perspective? [closed]

Suppose an alien life comes to Earth, and challenges us to answer a question that will allow them do determine if we can communicate without ambiguities and solve controversies in a rational way. The ...
3
votes
3answers
233 views

Does finite VP exist as a constituent?

A central distinction between dependency grammars (DGs) and phrase structure grammars (PSGs, also known as constituency grammars) is the understanding of the initial division of the clause. ...
1
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3answers
367 views

How would I parse the sentence, “I am not the alien here.”?

I am trying to construct a first-order logic representation of the following sentence. My general approach for constructing the representation is to parse the sentence into a phrase structure tree ...
2
votes
0answers
52 views

What does it mean that cognition is linguistic in itself?

Cognition is, generally speaking, ‘linguistic’ in itself, in that it is the manipulation of language-like structures (propositions) according to formal rules; (b) the function of natural language is ...
1
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1answer
119 views

Linguistics, a discipline or a field?

This is a two-fold level questions. Question about linguistics from the view point of linguistics. I am interested whether linguistics is a field of science/research or is it a discipline? The next ...
0
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0answers
23 views

Is there a model describing the relation between language and culture?

Is there a model describing the relation between language and culture ? I'm looking for a model integrating culture as part of the process of human communication.
1
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0answers
89 views

Are there more languages with complex system of interrogative pronouns?

By 'complex system' I mean a system of interrogative pronouns which includes more than just 'animate/inanimate' classes of prounouns, like these of 'who' and 'what' in English (e.g. a special ...
4
votes
1answer
68 views

Are lexicons finite in principle?

As we all know, every language has open classes of morphemes. If we discovered a new mineral whose natural florescence captured the public's attention, there would be no difficulty coining a new ...
4
votes
3answers
234 views

Wouldn't a language without recursion still be non-finite at the level of discourse?

[As per comments below, I have edited this question for greater clarity.] I want to know whether a language without recursion, which would generate only a finite number of well-formed sentences, ...
1
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0answers
33 views

What is a language? [duplicate]

How can we simply define a language ? Can we say that a language is an association of a lexicon and a grammar ?
0
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1answer
86 views

Constituents of language

Suppose we take the view that language is a tool for communication. What would be the basic, or essential, constituents of a language? Some examples that come to mind: a set of words a set ...
5
votes
4answers
792 views

What are the chief advantages & disadvantages of describing sentences with dependency vs. phrase structure trees?

What are the chief advantages & disadvantages of describing sentences with dependency vs. phrase structure (aka. constituency) trees? From what I've read, dependency grammar trees lack phrase ...
-3
votes
1answer
153 views

Linguistic analysis

Is linguistic analysis scientific, or is it a pseudo-science? Would evidence based on it be allowed in a courtroom, for example? I wrote something that was completely honest and open, but the person ...
0
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0answers
67 views

Is there any universal semantic coding for noun cases similar to verb aspectology?

I am aware of the argument/actant theories, but perhaps there is something like universal semantical coding for the nouns as well. For Argument concepts,you can see the relevant Wikipedia page for ...
6
votes
3answers
284 views

Mathematical preparation for postgraduate studies in Linguistics

I posted this question in http://math.stackexchange.com/ and it was suggested to me that it would be a good idea to submit the question here, too, as there might be more specialists on the matter. I ...
-1
votes
1answer
279 views

What are the job opportunities in linguistics? [closed]

I like learning new languages so I am curious in getting a degree in linguistics. What kind of jobs are available as a linguist? What are the opportunities available in this field? From what I am ...
7
votes
1answer
213 views

Why does there seem to be so much disagreement among linguists?

To put it another way, how much is there that all linguists would be willing defend as correct knowledge about linguistics? I have just finished taking an introductory course in linguistics. One ...
2
votes
2answers
68 views

Link betwen Austronesian and Salishan families

In the Wikipedia article "Dené–Yeniseian languages", it mentions about His [Vajda's] conclusion was that, contrary to prevailing belief, such structures are often preserved intact with little ...
6
votes
1answer
181 views

Why hasn't functional grammar been more popular?

It’s nearly 30 years since Michael Halliday first published ‘An Introduction to Functional Grammar’ and yet, at least in Britain and in the United States, functional grammar seems not to have entered ...
2
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0answers
71 views

Formal approaches to Russian word order

What are the known formal approaches to Russian (or similar languages) word order? I'd expect something expressed in terms of exteded DRT or similar formalism.
8
votes
1answer
298 views

Why exactly is *“I Am America (And So Can You!)” ungrammatical?

Stephen Colbert wrote a book entitled “I Am America (And So Can You!)”. As discussed in a question on English Language and Usage, the title is an intentionally strange way of saying "I am America, and ...
6
votes
1answer
173 views

(Proto-)Uralic case and number morphology

I've read that Proto-Uralic and some modern Uralic languages don't mark number on nouns marked for case. So that, singular and plural is only distinguished in nominative (and maybe accusative?) case, ...
4
votes
2answers
267 views

Why did generative linguists abandon the notion of kernel sentences?

I've had a hard time finding answers to this question on Ixquick. When I was young, transformational grammarians believed that sentences were derived from "kernel sentences," which were ...
3
votes
1answer
62 views

What does a dictionary need so that a computer can use it to determine the grammaticality of a given string?

I would imagine that it would need a full list of all the forms of all the words, but how much information would need to be told to the computer about each word in order for it to know enough to judge ...
8
votes
1answer
328 views

What defines a unique writing style?

I'm an amateur writer that happens to be a professional programmer. I say this because I've recently jumped back into a personal research project in which the goal is to automate the de-anonymization ...
5
votes
1answer
161 views

Computational models of language acquisition

What are currently used computational models/frameworks of language acquisition? Desired features: models that are biologically plausible (such as neural networks). Personally, I have used ...
1
vote
3answers
365 views

Are 'cot' and 'cat' morphologically similar?

Can we say that words like 'cot' and 'cat' morphologically similar? I understand morphology as different forms of a particular word, eg. swim, swam, swimming, so my definition of morphology does not ...
7
votes
2answers
267 views

What are the motivations for which direction syntactic trees are built in (top down or bottom up)?

When I learned x-bar theory, there seemed to be an implicit assumption that trees were built top-down, from IP or CP to the VP and its complement, etc. However, as I am learning more about Minimalism ...
10
votes
1answer
182 views

Why do onsets not count for syllable weight in phonological processes?

Whether a syllable has a heavy or light rime is often important in whether it will participate in phonological processes, and whether it will receive stress. For example, in Latin, stress is on the ...
8
votes
3answers
957 views

Positive uses of vagueness and ambiguity in language

Background The two common explanations for vagueness/ambiguity in language come from Zipf and Chomsky, and both seem to inherently assume that vagueness/ambiguity do not serve a positive purpose. ...
4
votes
3answers
184 views

Is there a term for “the number of words that must follow a given word to complete a phrase”?

I've been struggling, for a couple of months now to find the term for a concept from computational linguistics. It means something like: the minimum number of words that need to be placed after a ...
9
votes
3answers
262 views

General mathematical frameworks of language acquisition since Gold

Gold's theorem on the unlearnability of certain sets of languages (among them context-free ones) made several assumptions in its modeling of learning a language: At each time step the learner ...
6
votes
1answer
291 views

Is there serious scientific evidence/vindication for the “linguistic fingerprint” concept?

I was reading a BBC article about "linguistic fingerprints". In my opinion a quite interesting idea, but there seems to exist a dispute in linguistic scientific community according to Wikipedia, how ...
7
votes
1answer
210 views

In languages with quotative markers, is extraction allowed out of quotative-marked clauses?

That is, is there a language that allows the following type of movement WH1 ... (ATTITUDE-VERB) QUOT ... t1 DP-TOP1 ... (ATTITUDE-VERB) QUOT ... t1
3
votes
1answer
80 views

What is the technical way to talk about patterns that work sometimes vs. those that work always?

To say that John ate something, you say John ate (something), and it's always grammatical. To talk about the state or time of filling some role, you append -hood or -ship, as in womanhood, but for ...
3
votes
2answers
345 views

Is our mental lexicon structured like a tag-cloud system or hierarchical?

Thinking about this discussion on meta i was reasoning about simple self-experiments you can do in psycholinguistics, where you dont need great background knowledge in Cognitive Psychology or ...
10
votes
2answers
292 views

How do computational linguists abstractly represent a language?

When building models of the evolution of languages or similar phenomena where many different languages are involved and change over time, how do computational linguists abstractly model a language? ...
3
votes
2answers
303 views

Examples of physical signs adding content to conversation?

I love constructed languages, especially in fiction where I get a taste of constructed culture to go with it. One interesting idea that has popped up a few times in what I've been reading is the idea ...
10
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3answers
621 views

What are the criteria that distinguish clitics/particles from affixes?

This question inspired me to finally ask a question that has been bothering me for years: how does one distinguish clitics and/or particles from affixes, especially when those clitics are ...
8
votes
1answer
140 views

Are there creoles of three languages?

Are there examples of creole languages that have had three or more other languages as parents without intermediate two-language creoles? If they exist, then how high is the 'or more', i.e. what is the ...
6
votes
5answers
284 views

What evolution framework best describes the change between languages over time?

Language change and the evolution of languages can be seen as an evolutionary process. Human brains form the environment that constrains language. Language acquisition provides the replication, ...
6
votes
7answers
937 views

Is the very concept of the phoneme disputed?

I believe there was some important research published in recent decades which brought a fundamental change to the way linguists think about phonemes. Or is it that the concept of the phoneme has ...
21
votes
5answers
347 views

What has NLP/CL brought to the table of pencil-and-paper linguistics?

What role do NLP (natural language processing) and/or CL (Computational linguistics) play in today's theoretical linguistics? Does, for instance, computability and formal specification play a big ...
19
votes
7answers
1k views

What are some alternatives to Chomskian generative grammar?

What are the other common approaches to study syntax? Note: the source is an example question from the on-topic question list in Area51.