Tagged Questions

Part of speech whose members indicate an action or a state of being.

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6
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0answers
50 views

Why do PIE verbs have suffixes -m-, -s-, -t-, while personal pronouns have m-, t-, s-?

Usually it is assumed that in PIE the verb forms for the singular first, second, and third person are respectively -m-, -s-, -t- (cfr. Latin). The personal pronouns, instead, have the second and ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Are imperative verbs starting a command subordinating conjunctions?

I have come across a syntax tree with a subordinate clause phrase (as opposed to just a sentence) whose left daughter is a verb in the imperative, e.g. Wash your laundry tonight. I have read this ...
1
vote
0answers
71 views

Intransitive verbs that take Indirect objects

Can there be intransitive verbs which take an indirect object? In the sentence "It pleases me" is "me" an indirect or direct object? What languages frequently have indirect objects in a sentence ...
-2
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0answers
29 views

common words: would vs could [closed]

How could I go about quantifying the differences in usage between would versus could? I would go the the park. I could go to the park. These days there are a number of data sets on the web ...
1
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1answer
67 views

Word commonly tagged as noun but use as verb

Given a sentence "Someone has to walk the shore and map the island, see what else there is". The "map" word is a verb, but it's commonly used as noun, i.e., in most of dictionaries, the first word ...
3
votes
1answer
49 views

Origin of Russian class 6 and class 10 verbs

In Russian, class 10 contains only a handful of verbs ending in either -олоть or -ороть. On the other hand, looking at the list in Wiktionary, class 6 contains only one verbs in -рать (орать) and ...
3
votes
1answer
66 views

Are there any languages with a plufuture for tense sequencing?

(I admit a Romance bias in asking this question, perhaps expressing what I'm looking for is quite common in other families) After answering a question recently on the Spanish SE on tense sequencing, ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

Why is “speak” a class 4 strong verb?

I've been trying to understand the how strong verbs in Germanic languages work, and reading the Wikipedia article I understand that class 4 strong verbs originated from, in PIE, vowel + a sonorant (m, ...
1
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3answers
119 views

Given a verb get a noun that corresponds to subject or object

I have verbs and I would like to find their corresponding noun for either subject or object. e.g. run:subject -> runner kill:subject -> killer kill:object -> dead I also would have groups of them ...
3
votes
1answer
64 views

Verb conjugation convergence

Portuguese has a strange coincidence in the preterit perfect tense of the verbs ir (to go) and ser (to be): they are conjugated exactly equally. Portuguese — English to go | English to be Eu fui — ...
4
votes
11answers
182 views

Languages with multiple forms of the verb “to be”

Many languages have multiple forms of the verb "to be". For example, Spanish has ser and estar, while Nepali has हो and छ. Some other examples are given in this nice blog post. My question is: what ...
3
votes
2answers
208 views

English verbs - how many types/classifications?

I've been looking at English to help my teen out, readying for college. Didn't realise how little I knew. In this specific case, I'm stuck with the large number of types of verb - finite/infinite, ...
3
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0answers
44 views

What currency does the term “flip sense verb” have in linguistics?

In a recent comment on the question Ergative Verbs and some discussion about them, jlawler introduced a term I had not previously encountered: The rose smells good is completely different; this ...
1
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1answer
209 views

Ergative Verbs and some discussion about them

I know what ergative verb is - Consider the following sentences - I opened the door. The door was opened (by me). The door opened. The verb open is a transitive verb in sentence #1, ...
4
votes
2answers
367 views

need to understand infinitive

What is the easiest way to understand what an infinitive is? How do I know which verb in which sentence is an infinitive? For example, let us take this website: Infinitive This is the example I am ...
4
votes
2answers
247 views

Why can verbal roots in PIE only contain the vowel e?

Verbal roots of PIE are generally reconstructed as (C5) (C3) C1 e C2 (C4) (C6); with certain phonetical restrictions, especially on the outmost consonants. I wonder why only "e" should be allowed as ...
1
vote
3answers
127 views

non-concatenative morphology in written arabic?

How could you explain or analyze these written Arabic from the non-concatenative morphology point of view? These verbs are derived from nouns. bakkala (to buckle) bukla (buckle) tilifu:n ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Looking for three-place predicates to study anaphora

I'm trying to check whether an anaphor is obviative (in Kiparsky's (2002) sense). Since my pronoun seems subject free, I need predicates with higher arity (ternary or four-place). An additional ...
2
votes
1answer
125 views

How to determine if a word is a verb besides looking in a list of verbs?

I'm building a PoS tagger and I was wondering if there is a way to determine if a word is a verb other than looking in a list of verbs. What i'm doing is marking all words as nouns, then if it ends ...
4
votes
2answers
182 views

Why are irregular verbs usually common words?

Whilst searching for the origin of irregular verbs, I came across this forum, which points out, among other things, that irregular verbs are more often than not common words. Is there a reason for ...
4
votes
4answers
224 views

Why does English have progressive aspect but German does not?

In english there are two ways to express a present action: I go I am going However, In German there is really only one way to express a present action: Ich gehe If English is a ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

ephelcystic nu of contract verbal forms in Ancient Greek

Since some verbal forms may have an ephelcystic nu (imperfect.3S : ἐπαίδευε/ἐπαίδευεν), I would like to know if [un/]contract forms too may have this ending, as if we had ἐτίμαεν instead of ἐτίμαε and ...
5
votes
3answers
152 views

Unaugmented contract imperfect in Ancient Greek?

Since unaugmented forms are ancient verbal forms (found by example in Homer), older than the augmented ones, and since vowels contraction is still a "work in progress" at homeric times and will be ...
3
votes
2answers
149 views

What thematic roles are played by the subject of an intransitive verb?

I am not familiar with the concept of thematic roles, just what is on wikipedia. Here is what I have come up with. agent: The man runs patient: The man was tripped. experiencer: The man falls. My ...
0
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0answers
80 views

Online Modern Greek dictionary that puts imperfective and (“dependent”) perfective verb stems together?

Does anyone know of a good online Modern Greek dictionary that puts imperfective and perfective (also called "dependent") verb stems together? For instance, the imperfective of βλέπω /'vlepo/ "SEE" ...
4
votes
2answers
190 views

Is there any difference between imperfect and imperfective aspect?

For those who came in late, "perfect" and "perfective" aspects are not the same. Perfect aspect pertains to actions that have been completed at the time referenced by the tense. So English past ...
4
votes
1answer
102 views

Different kinds of do's

At first I thought that there was only such a thing as lexical do and periphrastic, but recently I stumbled upon something else (unfortunately I do not recall what it was called). Whatever be the ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

A better understanding of Verb Second

Verb second is the phenomenon in which the finite verb is preceded by exactly one constituent. Not all languages have verb second, though, as can be seen here. The only thing I do not understand is ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

What do you call the phrase/clause after a quotation in a novel?

Often in novels or reported speech, we have the quotation marked by opening and closing quotation mark. And before or after the quotation we have a phrase that states, <somebody> said or said ...
1
vote
1answer
184 views

Pseudosemantic question [closed]

Forgive me if this isn't right place to ask this kind od question, which I'm aware is not, but at the same time I can't pick any more adequate from the list of SE sites. Premise is this: Verb [x] in ...
2
votes
1answer
268 views

Rules of forming past participle tense and perfect tense of a verb in Latin? [closed]

What are the rules of forming past participle tense and perfect tense of a verb in Latin? For example, about the word "parsimony (n.)", from etymonline early 15c., from Latin parsimonia ...
2
votes
1answer
173 views

Is there a term for a finite verb which cannot be followed by an infinitive verb, in English?

For example, the verb "enjoy" cannot be followed by an infinitive. I enjoy to eat – ungrammatical I enjoy eating – grammatical Perhaps this question relates to the area of transitivity. This ...
3
votes
1answer
304 views

Are all copulas lexical verbs?

Normally, copulas hold a subject complement (or a predicate in any case). Example. The sky became clear. I am ill. But what is in the definition of a lexical verb that makes copulas lexical verbs? ...
4
votes
1answer
95 views

Conditional participles

Does any language besides Esperanto have conditional participles? Esperanto has these only "unofficially"; they're not considered correct Esperanto usage by authorities, but common sense will tell ...
2
votes
1answer
151 views

Are there languages that mark different types of volition or causality morphologically?

A simple event description such as "The boy jumped" does not necessarily imply anything about the speaker's understanding of the cause of the event or of the volition of the agent. I can say "The boy ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

Are the two Lao (and Isan) words for “to be”, “ເປັນ” (pen) and “ແມ່ນ” (maen), etymologically related?

I've just learned that Lao has two words for "to be", that are mostly interchangeable: ເປັນ (pen) ແມ່ນ (maen) They both begin with a labial, have an "e-like" vowel, and end "n". I think it's ...
5
votes
1answer
122 views

Origin of *-k- “extension” in (aorist of) some IE verbs?

In Greek, the PIE verbal roots *dheh1 'put' or 'do', *Hieh1 'throw', and *deh3 'give' show up with an unexpected -k- in some aorist forms: ἔθηκα, ἧκα, ἔδωκα. In Latin, the reflexes of the first two ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

Why do certain verbs not accept the ergative schema whereas they accept the mediopassive (middle) one?

Ex : They scared me / I scare easily / but not * I scared last night. My first question was not ask properly so I tried again.
4
votes
1answer
252 views

Do applicative verbs ever govern the cases of their objects?

From what I've read (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumental_case) applicative voice occurs when an oblique noun phrase becomes an argument of the verb when the verb takes some applicative ...
2
votes
1answer
144 views

Is the term “ambitransitive” controversial?

In some grammar books, I see the term "ambitransitive" used to describe verbs that have two arguments in some contexts and one argument in others. From what I've read on Wikipedia, there are ...
3
votes
1answer
152 views

Aktionsart - “brought”

I'm trying to analyse the verb brought (or bring) in terms of lexical aspect, or aktionsart. More accurately, it's an analysis of the Hungarian verb "hozta" (bring-3sg.pst.def). Would it be telic ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

Can some verbs be unergative in some contexts and unaccusative in others?

It seems to me that there are a number of English verbs that can stand for acts that can be done voluntarily or involuntarily. Sometimes we can't help but laugh, but anyone with even mild acting ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

Can Georgian verb stems start with a vowel?

I'm interested in the kinds of ambiguities which can be encountered when attempting to analyse the agglutinative verbs of Georgian into their component "slots". Georgian verbs may have an optional ...
3
votes
2answers
494 views

finite/non-finite verb = conjugated/non-conjugated verb

Are those terms totally interchangeable in all contexts (finite = conjugated) (non-finite = conjugated) or are there slight meaning differences?
3
votes
1answer
157 views

Are there any atelic ditransitive verbs (or verb phrases)?

I am wondering if there are any verbs/phrases that qualify both as ditransitive, and as atelic. The following shows the relevant tests. The satisfying verb/phrase should have the same * patterns as ...
0
votes
2answers
53 views

Constraints on Kartvelian preverbs

In Georgian and its related languages there is a concept of the "preverb", which is much like the separable and inseparable verb prefixes in German or in English phrasal verbs with a preposition or ...
1
vote
2answers
86 views

Which features of Georgian verbs can cause an initial “ა” (a) to become an “ე” (e)?

Kartvelian languages such Georgian have a very complex agglutinative verb structure. Georgian is very well studied but there's not a lot of self-study books or online sites that go really in depth. I ...
6
votes
4answers
1k views

Why do stem-changing verbs have a vowel change in Spanish?

It may just be that I'm demonstrating my gross ignorance, but I can't seem to find a 'why' for stem-changing verbs in Spanish. I understand that there is some sort of perceived weakness in the vowel ...
5
votes
3answers
386 views

Is there a difference between a preterite and an aorist?

I am reading about aorist and preterite verb forms. It seems that they are both forms which express perfective aspect and past tense. Is the difference between them simply in differing terminology or ...
4
votes
2answers
166 views

Are we witnessing the death of stative “think”?

For those who came in late: From what I understand, English stative verbs don't take the progressive. We can use progressive in utterances with dynamic verbs. Witness "I'm eating," "She's ...