Those speech sounds made with open, unrestricted vocal tracts, in contrast to consonants.

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0
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2answers
40 views

Tackling cross-linguistic vowel markedness system[at]ically: features or what?

I have been trying to find alternative ways of representing vowel phonemes for cross-linguistic comparisons in a unified, systematic way that would also reveal their relative (un)markedness. At the ...
0
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0answers
19 views

Can someone tell me the differences between the vowel system in Canadian English and the one in General American?

I am interested in knowing what are the vowels found in Canadian English, more particularly in Toronto and Montreal. I know that the low back merger occurred where both /ɔ/ and /ɒ/ merged into /ɑ/ in ...
0
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1answer
43 views

Why isn't “N” considered a partial vowel

I'm wondering if N could be a partial vowel much like Y is. Since, at least to my understanding, vowels are used in between many consonant to make a word flow without having to pause, so why isn't n a ...
-1
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1answer
130 views

English words with the /ɔ/ vowel sound

I'm looking for English words with the /ɔ/ vowel sound... suggestions? If folks could give me their list of open back counterparts to /o/, I would appreciate it! American English preferred but other ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

Where do I find nikud for a word?

Where can I find some kind of database of all Hebrew words with the right nikuds? I did find a script to add nikuds to words on github, but the corpus used there is only from words from the bible, so ...
0
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1answer
71 views

The words men, ben and pen in Kazakh

I came across this problem where the difference between men, ben and pen in the Kazakh language was asked. I understand it has something to do with Vowel harmony, but I did not quite understand it. ...
4
votes
1answer
195 views

Do cardinal vowels form a plane in 3D-space?

In 'A course in Phonetics' P. Ladefoged writes: If we consider vowels to be specifiable in terms of three dimensions, this implies that the cardinal vowels fall on a plane in this ...
0
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2answers
81 views

Sandhi [English]

I am wondering if the rule that dictates when to use "an" or "a" in sentences is Sandhi? If not, what is it? I'm trying to explain why we use "an" or "a" in English beyond the "An is for vowels, A is ...
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3answers
83 views

What is the orthography for each of these Khmer vowels?

I'm in Cambodia and trying to learn what I can of the Khmer language without a teacher. I've noticed some inconsistencies in the Wikipedia articles as I try to get better at both the writing system ...
2
votes
2answers
313 views

German long “o” vs. “au”. Is there a rule?

There are common words in Germanic languages that have a long "o" vowel in the stem, and which in modern German seem to be either "o" or "au" randomly. Examples: Dutch ROOD, Swedish RÖD, German ROT ...
0
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1answer
56 views

Using Swadesh lists to find languages with most frequent vowel use?

Has there been any comparative studies of Swadesh lists from different language, regarding percentage of vowels vs. consonants? Some languages can occassionally be "derogative" talked about as "only ...
0
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3answers
124 views

What is the longest sequence of vowels in one word that you know of? [closed]

What are the longest sequence of vowels in a natural language that you know of? Be aware that this is an orthographic question, not a phonetical. Please state word, language and translation.
3
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1answer
62 views

What are the different ways used to ortographically show the length of vowels?

Norwegian is using vowel length contrastively. This is normally shown in ortography by double consonant after the vowel. tak(tɑːk) vs. takk(tɑk). What other ways are used to ortographically show ...
5
votes
10answers
457 views

Which languages have words containing the same letter three times in a row?

I was just reading a french text with the word créées (created). Are there any other languages where triple letters, especially vowels, can be found occasionally?
2
votes
1answer
126 views

Is there a vowel equivalent to the bilabial approximant?

/j/ is the semivocalic equivalent of /i/, /w/ of /u/, /ɥ/ of /y/, /ɰ/ of /ɯ/, and so forth, and I've also seen /ɹ/ described as the semivocalic equivalent of /ɚ/. Considering all of this, it seems ...
-1
votes
2answers
108 views

What is the linguistic process behind prolonging of vowels?

Vowels can change from short vowels to long vowels in time But from a diachronic perspective, what is happening? Please fill in with some examples of vowels that have been prolonged and that have ...
0
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2answers
125 views

Acoustic description of Polish vowels

Using formants, it is possible to produce an acoustic description of vowel quality. Basically, the first formant (F1) corresponds to vowel height, and the second formant (F2) to vowel backness, as ...
0
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1answer
83 views

Suggestions for brushing the insides of lower back teeth [closed]

When I brush my toddler's teeth, I want good access to the lingual (inside) side of the lower back teeth, to brush them. Thus, I want my kid with parted lips and teeth and with the tongue pulled away ...
1
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1answer
156 views

Can the term “homorganic” be applied to vowels and glides?

As I understand it, "homorganic" means having the same place of articulation, and is said of sounds like [k] vs. [g] and [s] vs. [t]. (I couldn't find a definition from a linguistics source on the ...
4
votes
2answers
147 views

How to determine one's own native vowel phone repertoire?

I'm an armchair linguist. By this I mean it's been an absorbing hobby for decades by reading books and online and playing with many languages. But I've never taken any course or other kind of formal ...
2
votes
1answer
115 views

Fronting of a to æ in European Portuguese

In Portuguese there are two accepted reasons vowels in verbs alternate in height. The vowel harmonizing rule states that where the theme vowel (a from -ar, e from -er, and i from -ir) is deleted ...
3
votes
1answer
148 views

On Lao triphthongs / tones / orthography

Information on the Lao language is a bit patchy, especially when you start getting a little deeper and find gaps, inconsistencies, and contradictions in and between sources on the Internet. Lao vowel ...
-1
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1answer
38 views

“Rate” or “score” a word by various parameters

I’m working on a small project which involves a large list of words (single words, no sentence) and I would love to have a way to “rate” or “score” each word by some parameters. Right now I have two ...
5
votes
2answers
344 views

Is the schwa nasalized before a nasal?

I know that vowels are nasalized before a nasal in the same syllable in English. I am wondering if this would include the schwa [ə] as well? For example, would the schwa in "restriction" [rɪstrɪkʃən] ...
5
votes
2answers
191 views

What, if any, difference is there between long vowels and a double vowels?

What, if any, difference is there between long vowels and a double vowels, i.e. consecutive identical vowels? For example, what is the difference between /i:/ and /ii/? Phonetically, could it be ...
3
votes
2answers
114 views

What is the phonological process whereby a speaker uses [ʊ] as a replacement for [l]?

What is the phonological process whereby a speaker would use [ʊ] as a replacement for [l]? Some examples off the top of my head; [lɪtl] -> [lɪtʊ], [gɪgl] -> [gɪgʊ], [twɪŋkl] -> [twɪŋkʊ]
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0answers
86 views

Praat for detecting not single vowels but vocals in a word

So. I've started using this powerfull (though inconvenient) piece of software Praat. And when i try to measure my own vocals formants of single vowels and these of native speakers (spanish) we all hit ...
1
vote
0answers
82 views

When a vowel is nasalized does it effect on how open/close + front/back it would be?

I'm trying to generalize what environments a certain set of phonemes occur, but I'm not sure if nasalization would affect where the vowel would be on the IPA vowel chart. I think my analysis of the ...
3
votes
0answers
125 views

Seeking Lao minimal pairs for /ɯ/ vs /ɤ/ vs /ɯː/ vs /ɤː/

In learning Lao one of the tricky things For a native English speaker is the two vowels that we don't have in English and sound very similar to us. This is compounded by the fact that both exist in ...
2
votes
0answers
120 views

Gulf Arabic vowels allophones

No matter how much I browse, I cannot find any true researcher's really precise and accurate data on the issue. Actually, I cannot find any Gulf Arabic Phonology compendium, so any help will be ...
4
votes
1answer
161 views

What vowels are most likely to be deleted in European Portuguese?

Stepping off of the airplane in Lisbon, I could immediately hear that the pronunciation was much different from Brazilian Portuguese, which I am more accustomed to. The level of vowel deletion was ...
3
votes
0answers
142 views

IPA Transcription help [closed]

I'm a linguistics student and working on narrow transcriptions. Most transcription come fairly easily to me, but I'm caught up on the vowel in the word "hard" How should the vowel be transcribed with ...
5
votes
1answer
116 views

Are click sounds accompanied by specific formant transitions?

Is it possible to identify click sounds like [‖ ʘ !] by formant transitions in the surrounding vowels? I know stops and fricatives have that feature. I'm just wondering how the five (main) click ...
2
votes
1answer
130 views

Is [ɹ] +ATR or -ATR or is that even relevant?

Has there been any investigation into the ATR quality of the central alveolar approximant [ɹ]? It is very vowel-like and I have this theory that it could simply be the result of an advanced tongue ...
10
votes
1answer
867 views

How does vowel harmony typically arise in a language?

How does vowel harmony typically arise in a language? Here's a definition of vowel harmony from the WALS chapter on Vowel Quality Inventories: http://wals.info/chapter/2. "When a language is ...
6
votes
1answer
747 views

Is the concept of 'long vowel' still relevant in modern English phonology?

It seems to me that despite the fact that Middle English long vowels have long since shifted dramatically, their descendants still pattern like long vowels in modern English. Since there's really very ...
5
votes
3answers
226 views

Do some dialects of English have a liquid vowels, such as /ɹ/ and /ɫ/?

Given that there are some languages that treat /r/ and /l/ as a vowel, such as Czech and Hindi, I am wondering how come the same isn't true in some varieties of English. As a native English speaker ...
5
votes
2answers
507 views

What are the differences between the French and English [i] and how does it affect the perception?

I'm rephrasing my question after (very helpful) comments to my initial version: What are the differences between the [i] produced by French speakers (in French) and English speakers (in English)? ...
6
votes
2answers
260 views

How common is phonemic vowel length across languages?

Including different kinds of length distinctions, such as in stressed syllables only, or stressed and unstressed, etc.
6
votes
2answers
657 views

Are there any languages with only front vowels?

I'm curious why every language I've heard of has back or central vowels. Are there any languages that exclusively uses front vowels (say the phonemes /a/, /e/, /i/, /y/)? I want to know this more or ...
5
votes
3answers
417 views

What languages have a three-way vowel distinction with backness?

I am learning a Tigrinya for the last couple of months, and find it difficult to grasp and produce the central vowels of the language (see picture). I want to know if there are other languages which ...
4
votes
5answers
8k views

Why are consonants distinguished differently than vowels?

Consonants are distinguished normally by features like place of articulation, manner of articulation, voiced/voiceless, etc. while vowels are usually distingusihed by stuff like tongue's position and ...
4
votes
1answer
251 views

Is there any symbol to represent an unknown vowel?

Is there any symbol to represent a vowel? Is there any symbol to represent a constant? For example "bog", "bat" and "bag" can be represented by b[v][c] or b✦✧. Udate: In a paper I want to describe ...
4
votes
1answer
4k views

How can nasalized vowels in English be explained?

. . .Auntie *Ma*rge's present, see, it's here under. . . [audio source] In the audio above, [mɑː] sounds like this: [..m..] [......ɑː.....] ---- (time) ----> This sounds close to ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

Is there an agreed-upon feature set that defines segments as vowels?

I have a feeling the answer is no, and that there are complications involved, but I was considering this: [-consonantal, +syllabic] This would first remove all consonants, leaving e, u, i, and ...
5
votes
1answer
473 views

What rule governs the vowel alternations in Latin caput/capit-/-cep(t)-/-cipit-/-ciput?

In different forms, the Latin root caput "head" appears with different vowels: a-u: caput (nominative singular); a-i: capitis (genitive singular), capitī (dative singular), capita (nominative ...
8
votes
3answers
434 views

Vowel harmony in Spanish?

Some irregular Spanish verbs with infinite in "-ir" seem to have an interesting pattern in their conjugation: For some verbs with "o" as last vowel in the infinite stem (e.g. dormir, morir), the form ...
4
votes
3answers
499 views

What is the most common vowel? [closed]

Of all the languages for which there is sufficient data, including extinct languages, which vocalic speech sound, or phone, as represented by the IPA, has been used most?
6
votes
4answers
7k views

How to distinguish Korean “ㅔ” /e/ and “ㅐ” /ɛ/?

I've always had trouble with the distinction between the "e"-like vowels in European languages: /e/ vs /ɛ/. But pronouncing them the same has never caused me any problems. In fact I don't even know ...
4
votes
3answers
4k views

Difference between production of vowels, diphthongs and semi-vowels

I am studying speech recognition by Lawrence Rabiner's book. I am unable to find a proper and easy to understand answer for the following question : Difference between production of vowels, ...