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2
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2answers
111 views

always | never | “all the time” - what kind of words are these?

always never "all the time" They aren't 'expletives', but they express a non-expiry. What word would describe this type of word? Context : he never brings me flowers; he's always late; you criticise ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

I'm having trouble with my syntax tree and wanted some help for a project! [closed]

I have to include null complementizers if they exist as well as any mission NP covert subjects. This is my sentence: The woods, always a menace even in the past, had triumphed in the end. i've been ...
0
votes
3answers
96 views

What kind of a word class are numbers?

For example, in the sentence: 'that book weighs six kilos'...what is the word class of 'six'? I know some grammars have 'numerals' as a word class, but if you don't have that, what is it? an Adjective?...
0
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2answers
240 views

Does adding the suffix -ly to a noun or an adjective provide morphological evidence for word class?

For example, adding -ly to quick to make quickly. Or adding -ly to gentleman to make gentlemanly.
2
votes
1answer
41 views

Are adjective complement clauses considered to be adverbial?

One: In school, we are often told that an adverb can modify, not only a verb, but also an adjective. So we have ... i) verb modifier: The man leaped suddenly. ii) adjective modifier: Suddenly ...
5
votes
2answers
115 views

What is the name of this class of grammatical modifiers?

In French (and many other languages), adjectives and pronouns have different classes, e.g.: Adjectives demonstrative indefinite interrogative numerical possessive Pronouns demonstrative ...
2
votes
4answers
156 views

Terminology for the words used to represent fractions in a language? Examples where it is different to the words used for cardinal or ordinal numbers?

While in English Romance languages and Germanic languages, the rendering of fractions usually corresponds to that of the ordinal numbers, i.e a fifth, and a sixth, a seventh, etc. ; it seems to me ...
5
votes
3answers
906 views

Does any linguist honestly believe that nouns and verbs are not universals?

Does any serious scholar really believe that some languages have no distinction between verbs and nouns? Wikipedia pages suggest this. I studied physics, so linguistics is not my field at all. ...
1
vote
2answers
127 views

What kind of wordplay is this?

In his book Humorous English, Evan Esar gives example uses of devices he broadly labels synonymics. He writes of synonymic puns: Many a wife sends her husband to an early grave with a series of ...
8
votes
2answers
143 views

Does anyone know the name of this form of wordplay?

In his book "Humorous English," Evan Esar writes, "The blended compound is the fusion of two compounds, with the terminal word of one being the same or similar to the initial word of the other. ...
8
votes
1answer
294 views

Does Japanese have pronouns?

It is often said that Japanese doesn't really have a pronoun word class, such as in the Wikipedia article on Japanese Grammar: Although many grammars and textbooks mention pronouns (代名詞 daimeishi),...
2
votes
2answers
325 views

Languages with different open and closed word classes

The prototypical example of languages with unusual open and closed categories, which is mentioned almost every time that the topic comes up, is Japanese, where pronouns are an open category and verbs ...
0
votes
0answers
201 views

Are there other words that behave like “weather” in English?

I have been looking at how nouns behave with determiners and plurals and such. So things like mass, count, and collective nouns. One oddball that I have found is "weather", and I am wondering if there ...
3
votes
1answer
607 views

What is the difference in word pairs like “scary” and “scared” [closed]

Take the word pairs "scary" and "scared", or "pleasing" and "pleased". The former adjectives give the impression of inspiring the particular emotion, and the latter adjectives are the emotion itself. ...
3
votes
2answers
388 views

Are “part of speech” and “syntactic type” the same concept?

Are "part of speech" and "syntactic type" the same concept? If not, what are their differences?
2
votes
1answer
4k views

What's the difference between open/closed class words and functional/lexical categories?

These two classifications seem to point to the same types of words.
1
vote
0answers
135 views

Across languages that have adjectives, what are the most common grammatical inflections for adjectives?

Not all languages have adjectives; some use adjectival nouns ("red.one" instead of "red") and/or stative verbs ("be.red" instead of "red"). Among languages that have adjectives, not all allow ...
0
votes
2answers
186 views

Word classes “which is why”

What are the word classes of the adverbial "[...] which is why [...]"? is cannot be a lexical verb, can it? I thought which is a relative pronoun, and why is an adverb of reason.
2
votes
2answers
503 views

Are sentences the only constituents that “sentence adverbs” modify?

For those who came in late, a "sentence adverb" is a word that modifies an entire sentence rather than just the verb or predicate. A sentence adverb communicates speaker attitudes about the ...
1
vote
0answers
175 views

When are numbers nouns?

In my native language, Portuguese, numbers have officially been in various classes, from adjectives and nouns to "quantifiers" and determiners. I'm thinking that perhaps we can't group them all, ...
2
votes
4answers
2k views

What's the difference between 'parts of speech' and 'syntactic categories'?

As far as I can tell, the only difference between these two ways of describing classes of words is that 'syntactic categories' actually relies on evidence of use for determining categories, while '...
3
votes
2answers
193 views

“Like” in English (and perhaps other languages)

How is English "like" — as in "you look like a monkey" — generally analyzed these days? I can think of two ways to go here. I'm tempted to call it either a preposition, or some sort of ...
5
votes
2answers
225 views

What is it called when a word is constructed out of a language, but is not a part of that language?

I am not a linguist in any way shape or form, but I am studying Japanese, and came across this linguistic issue that fascinates me. Over on the Japanese Language and Usage site, there is a discussion ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

English co-compounds? Is bittersweet a co-compound?

I'm looking for English or other standard European language co-compounds, and for other common examples. I came across "bittersweet" but I'm not sure if it's really a co-compound. It has a ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Is Conversion syntactic or morphological?

Conversion, such as: permit (verb): I permit you to do so permit (noun): Take this permit Can be considered to be a morphological (i.e. lexical) process. But there are arguments for it being a ...
23
votes
4answers
4k views

What languages lack personal pronouns, and why?

The Japanese language lacks personal pronouns in the IE sense. Japanese is very pro-drop, and often sentences will be constructed so personal pronouns do not appear, and the agents which the pronouns ...
13
votes
6answers
4k views

What's the global difference between nouns and verbs?

Is there a way to distinguish nouns and verbs that applies to all languages? This problem has been occupying my mind for some time now. I'm not quite sure how to approach this question, so I'll just ...
7
votes
3answers
273 views

Are there some analyses or linguists with the view that Chinese does not have lexical word class?

I'm not a linguist but a language enthusiast and I read lots of stuff about all languages mostly on the internet in blogs but also in accessible books and sometimes attempt to read some things not ...
11
votes
5answers
854 views

What parts of speech / word classes do languages most frequently lack?

Among conlangers, AllNoun is a notable syntax because it only makes use one part of speech / word class, which is analagous to nouns. A natural language I've heard of (but I can't remember or find a ...
10
votes
3answers
682 views

Are word classes universal?

I'm working on an application that takes a special database of words and its word class and determines the such from a given sentence. I'm now working to see if word classes that are found in English ...