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2
votes
1answer
95 views

What is the difference in word pairs like “scary” and “scared” [closed]

Take the word pairs "scary" and "scared", or "pleasing" and "pleased". The former adjectives give the impression of inspiring the particular emotion, and the latter adjectives are the emotion itself. ...
3
votes
2answers
132 views

Are “part of speech” and “syntactic type” the same concept?

Are "part of speech" and "syntactic type" the same concept? If not, what are their differences?
2
votes
1answer
174 views

What's the difference between open/closed class words and functional/lexical categories?

These two classifications seem to point to the same types of words.
1
vote
0answers
111 views

Across languages that have adjectives, what are the most common grammatical inflections for adjectives?

Not all languages have adjectives; some use adjectival nouns ("red.one" instead of "red") and/or stative verbs ("be.red" instead of "red"). Among languages that have adjectives, not all allow ...
0
votes
2answers
66 views

Word classes “which is why”

What are the word classes of the adverbial "[...] which is why [...]"? is cannot be a lexical verb, can it? I thought which is a relative pronoun, and why is an adverb of reason.
2
votes
2answers
256 views

Are sentences the only constituents that “sentence adverbs” modify?

For those who came in late, a "sentence adverb" is a word that modifies an entire sentence rather than just the verb or predicate. A sentence adverb communicates speaker attitudes about the ...
1
vote
0answers
128 views

When are numbers nouns?

In my native language, Portuguese, numbers have officially been in various classes, from adjectives and nouns to "quantifiers" and determiners. I'm thinking that perhaps we can't group them all, ...
2
votes
3answers
442 views

What's the difference between 'parts of speech' and 'syntactic categories'?

As far as I can tell, the only difference between these two ways of describing classes of words is that 'syntactic categories' actually relies on evidence of use for determining categories, while ...
2
votes
2answers
166 views

“Like” in English (and perhaps other languages)

How is English "like" — as in "you look like a monkey" — generally analyzed these days? I can think of two ways to go here. I'm tempted to call it either a preposition, or some sort of ...
4
votes
2answers
167 views

What is it called when a word is constructed out of a language, but is not a part of that language?

I am not a linguist in any way shape or form, but I am studying Japanese, and came across this linguistic issue that fascinates me. Over on the Japanese Language and Usage site, there is a discussion ...
2
votes
2answers
615 views

English co-compounds? Is bittersweet a co-compound?

I'm looking for English or other standard European language co-compounds, and for other common examples. I came across "bittersweet" but I'm not sure if it's really a co-compound. It has a ...
3
votes
2answers
980 views

Is Conversion syntactic or morphological?

Conversion, such as: permit (verb): I permit you to do so permit (noun): Take this permit Can be considered to be a morphological (i.e. lexical) process. But there are arguments for it being a ...
19
votes
4answers
2k views

What languages lack personal pronouns, and why?

The Japanese language lacks personal pronouns in the IE sense. Japanese is very pro-drop, and often sentences will be constructed so personal pronouns do not appear, and the agents which the pronouns ...
10
votes
6answers
2k views

What's the global difference between nouns and verbs?

Is there a way to distinguish nouns and verbs that applies to all languages? This problem has been occupying my mind for some time now. I'm not quite sure how to approach this question, so I'll just ...
7
votes
2answers
172 views

Are there some analyses or linguists with the view that Chinese does not have lexical word class?

I'm not a linguist but a language enthusiast and I read lots of stuff about all languages mostly on the internet in blogs but also in accessible books and sometimes attempt to read some things not ...
8
votes
4answers
490 views

What parts of speech / word classes do languages most frequently lack?

Among conlangers, AllNoun is a notable syntax because it only makes use one part of speech / word class, which is analagous to nouns. A natural language I've heard of (but I can't remember or find a ...
9
votes
3answers
414 views

Are word classes universal?

I'm working on an application that takes a special database of words and its word class and determines the such from a given sentence. I'm now working to see if word classes that are found in English ...