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8 views

is there any similar verb negation in other indu European languages?

in the northern part of Iran, in Mazandaran, we negate like this (this is the only verb being used like this as far as I'm aware of): bɜtʊ̈ndɜ: he/she can bætʊ̈ndɜ: he/she can't is there anything ...
10
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1answer
955 views

Have ejective consonants ever arisen on their own?

In an old comment on another question, jlawler mentions in passing: Much the same can be said about ejective consonants -- other languages can pick them up, but nobody knows where they come from. ...
1
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0answers
33 views

Understanding the etymology of Persian “farāmoş”, to forget

I'm having a hard time understanding the etymology of the Persian verb farâmuš kardan, meaning to forget in Persian. The infnitive kardan is often used to make verbs from nouns and adjectives, so for ...
1
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0answers
28 views

What is sentence focus environment?

I am currently reading a chapter about dialect that distinguish dialects according to the alignment that is used in the dialect (alignment such as nominative-accusative, tripartite. etc) I am ...
3
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0answers
62 views

Is language “necessarily underspecified”?

I've read an exam question given in a class on Semantics, that was asking Why is language necessarily underspecified I did not find much about this at the time, which is surprising because it ...
1
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0answers
43 views

Collocations vs compound nouns

Is there any definable difference between collocations and compound nouns? Or is it just frequency? The answer does not seem to be transparency vs idiomaticity - looking at the text I'm presenting to ...
3
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1answer
126 views

Why is the passive voice more prevalent in English than in other Indo-European languages?

Although the active voice is predominant in the English language the ‘ideal’ proportion of recommended passive sentences is still regarded as between 5% and 10%(source1) ( source2). Which is ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

Google Translate Thai with IPA transcription?

IPA is international standard for transcribing phonetic of any language (AFAIK, I am not a linguist), and https://translate.google.com/ is excellent tool for translating between languages. But when I ...
-6
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1answer
54 views

What English words can not be motivated and are arbitrary?

What is the evidence for the arbitrariness of the sign? Continuing this question, what English words can not be motivated and should be considered arbitrary? I think only the natural meanings would ...
4
votes
1answer
139 views

Is Wikipedia's argument for Universal Grammar completely fallacious?

Wikipedia's article about Chomsky makes the following argument for Universal Grammar: For example, although children are exposed to only a very small and finite subset of the allowable syntactic ...
-3
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1answer
68 views

What are the title capitalization rules in some languages?

Specifically, for song titles. I know that in English all words are capitalized, except for short function words like “of”, “for” etc. and in Russian only the first word is capitalized, plus proper ...
5
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3answers
470 views

Minimum population for language survival

What is the minimum population required to keep a language alive?
0
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0answers
30 views

Which are the easiest books in NLP for linguists with no background in NLP? [duplicate]

If any prerequisites are required before starting NLP learning, please do mention the books and also topics that we require to learn.
0
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0answers
32 views

A linguist searching options to learn Natural Language Processing

I am a linguist. Presently, I am trying to shape my career in a way that my knowledge is directly useful to the society and also to make an in-depth analysis of language. For this purpose, I need to ...
6
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3answers
145 views

What is the evidence for the arbitrariness of the sign?

The "arbitrariness of the sign" is a fundamental principle of modern linguistics: that is, that there's nothing intrinsic about the sound sequence [kʰæt̚] or the phoneme sequence /kæt/ that links it ...
4
votes
3answers
85 views

What are the reasons to justify that some text is in X language?

Let us say that I am in a library alone and I have a text that I think that is in X language, for example, this fragment of the 9th chapter of the 2nd part of the novel 1984 by George Orwell, that I ...
0
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0answers
48 views

Verb “to be” in tree diagram [closed]

we have been doing in class several tree diagrams, but nobody teachs us how to complete the diagram and explain what happens with the verb "to be". In this case I have to assure that I know the ...
0
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0answers
125 views

Does the southern pronunciation of Jenny have a triphthong in it?

You know when Forrest Gump yells Jenny's name and it sounds like "Jenneay". I'm wondering if there actually is a triphthong at the end there, of it is a figment of my imagination. I believe the ...
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0answers
41 views

Why is “turn” used in possessive constructions? [closed]

In a game of chess, for example. We talk of whose "turn" it is. The turn is either yours or your oponent's. The turn passes from on to the other. First it is mine then it is yours. It is almost like ...
2
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0answers
35 views

How have dialectology surveys changed over the years?

*Apologies for any ill terminology I may use, I'm pretty new to the field I've been working on the transition of dialectology surveys from the traditional methods to the modern ones, now that we not ...
0
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0answers
48 views

Order of adjectives in Hebrew [on hold]

In English, there is a rule for adjective order (IIRC, it's something like: opinion, size, tempature, age... resulting in "A wonderful little cold antique chair...". What, if it exists, is the order ...
-2
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0answers
42 views

Why 'differential argument marking', not 'different argument marking'? [closed]

Why was 'differential' used to term Argument marking, not 'different'?
20
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3answers
3k views

Can the IPA represent all languages' tones?

The IPA's current tone system can show five different tone levels, and any contours formed from them. Is there any language for which this is insufficient? In other words, is there any (known, ...
-3
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1answer
86 views

How did the cross-linguistic univerbation 'nothing/not/none/no + less' semantically shift to signify 'despite'?

Several European languages have (false?) cognate adverbs with the meaning of 'nevertheless' (and 'nonetheless') built from words meaning "nothing/not/none/no" and "less". despite something that ...
-4
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0answers
38 views

Hi, I have an English to Latin question [closed]

Need to have this sentence translated to Latin."Lazarus come forth" Please, thanks.
1
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2answers
131 views

Lengthened voiced stops and the airstream through the nose

I am going through Catford's Practical Introduction to Phonetics, experiments 31-32. After explaining how to produce voiced stops [b], [d], [g] by superimposing a closure upon the voiced air-stream, ...
2
votes
2answers
81 views

Can I form a morphological condition like this?

I am pretty new to this site. I have a question about setting up a morphological condition. eg. In a language, we see a pattern that consonant-ending as well as ə-ending words are pluralized with a ...
0
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0answers
40 views

Zeugma with particles?

If a zeugma is based on two particles rather than two objects, is it still called a zeugma? Example: Her violent husband knocked her both down and up.
1
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0answers
41 views

Word for synonyms with different degree

How call words expressing same thing but varying degree? hot - warm - cold - frozen
3
votes
1answer
1k views

A tool to replace all words with antonyms

Are there a site or a tool, which can go through a big text and replace every word with an antonym of it? If there are none, then a tool, which translates into a hand-made language would help. I.e ...
4
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0answers
100 views

Onomatopoeia origin of language?

Are there any "modern scholars" that support the onomatopoeia origin of language hypothesis?
5
votes
1answer
94 views

Where to start if you want to do Chomsky style NLP?

I am a computer science grad who has been fascinated by Chomsky's theory of language. I have been following his work and the others in his field. But I also want to try something on my own. The ...
0
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0answers
55 views

Why is largest number in Roman Numerals not represented as “MMMIM”? [migrated]

according to wikipedia, the largest number Roman Numeral system can represent is represented like following: (answer below has much bigger number represented) MMMCMXCIX why can't it be represented ...
-1
votes
1answer
51 views

Is computational linguistics a good field to go into? [closed]

My #1 passion in life is linguistics, and I’ve been obsessed with it for as long as I can remember, but a lot of the basic linguistics jobs such as translators and the such make low wages per year. I ...
0
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0answers
46 views

Transitivity analysis of subjunctives and imperatives

I'm attempting a functional analysis of the text of the Catholic Mass, primarily in English but with reference to the Latin. The use of grammatical moods is quite rich, with plenty of subjunctives ('...
4
votes
1answer
116 views

Is there a difference between Belgian Dutch (i.e. Flemish) and Vlaams?

I'm trying to determine the appropriate (BCP 47) language tag for Flemish as spoken in Belgium. It seems that Flemish is Dutch as spoken in Belgium (i.e. nl-BE), but https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
0
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1answer
129 views

“ft” -> “cht” shift

Could you please give me a link to the information about Germanic "ft" -> "cht" shift. When it was? Do we hear "f" on the end of "enough" because of it? English German shaft Schacht German "...
3
votes
2answers
193 views

Why do “house” and “mouse” have “s” on the end?

I know, that English "t" and German "s" may be a cognate it -> es out -> aus what -> was that -> das? Why do "house" and "mouse" have "s" on the end?
1
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0answers
22 views

By what algorithmic process do systemic functional linguistics think surface language is generated?

I am very interested in the idea of systemic functional linguistics as an alternative to the simplistic production grammars advanced by the minimalist program. What I don't understand is how SFL ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

SVO triple in case of missing S or V or O?

hi I'm new to phrase/dependency structure. For a project of mine I want to extract from any sentence a meaningful structure with 3 items i.e. triple. In general case the Subject-Verb-Object is ideal....
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Metadata for a paper in the generative framework?

sorry if this is the wrong place to ask, but I don't know who to turn to. I'm trying to publish a paper on Gapping in a small national journal - they publish anything related to language and ...
16
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4answers
4k views

Do any languages mention the top limit of a range first?

In many languages we usually say "between min and max" (e.g., grades "between 1 and 10"). Are there any languages where the reverse construction ("between max and min", e.g. grades "between 10 and 1")...
10
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0answers
128 views

Are nouns ever a closed class?

For pretty much any grammatical category, I can think of a language in which it's a closed class. Japanese has closed classes of verbs and (verb-like) adjectives, for example, while Swahili has a ...
-1
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1answer
169 views

Gothic script for “b”, “v” and “p”

I know that the German verb "haben", the English verb "have" and Latin "capio" are cognate. I know that the German verb "Sieben", the English verb "seven" and Latin "septem" are cognate. I know that ...
1
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0answers
52 views

Agentive vs Intentional vs Volitional

What are the differences between these three terms? Agentivity Intentionality Volitionality If they have different definitions, could you provide examples where their values do not match? (For ...
7
votes
4answers
922 views

Is a text with orthographic or grammatic mistakes in a language X still a text in that language X?

Let us suppose that we have a text that in its majority follows the orthographic or grammatical rules of a language X, but 10% of the words have orthographic mistakes, and 10% of the sentences have ...
3
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0answers
51 views

Languages with a common, productive construction for marking heterogeneous groups

Are there any languages with a construction similar in meaning to an associative plural or elliptical construction that's used frequently within the language? I'm particularly interested in a ...
3
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0answers
63 views

How does one write an easily decipherable language? [migrated]

I'm writing a book about humans finding alien writing off-planet, which is why I want to know how—without referencing known human languages like the Rosetta Stone does—it may be deciphered. Does it ...
2
votes
2answers
58 views

In NLP, is it possible to do language recognition of a text whereby the text is mapped directly to an ISO 639 code?

In recognising the language of a text, spoken or written, have current algorithms or implementations incorporated ISO 639 codes and/or other standards? For example, I'd like to decide the language of ...
-3
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0answers
55 views

What type of semantic shift did 'unless' undergo, when 'on less than' shifted to signify 'if not'?

unless (conj.) mid-15c., earlier onlesse, from (not) on lesse (than) "(not) on a less compelling condition (than);" see less. The first syllable originally on, but the negative connotation and the ...

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