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8 views

What would count as a counterexample to the Final-Over-Final Constraint?

I'm interested in what the constraints are on head-directionality and, in particular, which combinations of features are disfavored, unstable, or thought to be impossible. I came across the final-over-...
4
votes
4answers
473 views

Why do even completely illiterate persons, who speak their national language poorly, speak their local dialect with perfection?

Disclaimers: I have no linguistic knowledge whatsoever, I'm just fascinated by these subjects. Also, I will use the word "dialect" due to my lack of a better word, although I see that the ...
-1
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1answer
26 views

Transliteration/Transcription of מְלאוּפּם

Notice that there is no vowel point under the פּ. This should probably be considered to be because of the fact that Hebrew is usually written without vowels, but I've never seen it written with a ...
4
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0answers
59 views

What to call an adjective that is a participle of a verb that is no longer used?

While answering the question How often do native speakers use the word “to scathe”? Is it OK if I use it instead of “to injure”?, I described "scathing" and "unscathed" as "...
0
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0answers
30 views

Is rhymability of languages a quantifiable concept?

I know some languages besides English, and poetry in them rhymes much better than it does in English. It's subjective, I know, but I feel like poetry generally sacrifices clarity for rhyme, while in ...
5
votes
3answers
579 views

Why do languages using syllabaries have a few number of distinct syllables?

Disclaimer: I am not a linguist, please provide any corrections for terminology. From How languages compare with the number of different syllables from all words?, Yoon Mi Oh's thesis counted the ...
6
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0answers
48 views

Is Riau Indonesian really monocategorial?

There have been plenty of publications (mostly by David Gil) discussing how Riau Indonesian is a unique language that lacks word categories. To me, this sounds huge: a truly unique language, no word ...
8
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2answers
518 views

How languages compare with the number of different syllables from all words?

Note: I am not a linguist, please provide any corrections for terminology. I would like to find some approximate data (if it exists) comparing several languages with the number of different syllables ...
-3
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1answer
45 views

What does Potrefená mean in Czech? [closed]

There is a restaurant chain in the Czech Republic called the Potrefená Husa. Husa in Czech is Goose, but I can't find a meaning for Potrefená in any of my usual sources (Google Translate, dict.cc, ...
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0answers
53 views

Question about alphabetical order [migrated]

The Wikipedia entry about "Alphabetical order", says: To determine which of two strings of characters comes first when arranging in alphabetical order, their first letters are compared. If ...
0
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1answer
86 views

What does it mean to say a language is phoenetic?

I have often heard phrases like Sanskrit is phonetic and Hindi is not etc. But what does it even mean to say a language is phonetic? A language is separate from the script we choose to write it in and ...
5
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0answers
85 views

Degree of animacy and time-travelling cats

I recently saw this tweet by 3blue1brown, and it got me thinking about how English phrases of the form "[noun] from [year]" work. The distinction described in the tweet seems to reduce to ...
11
votes
1answer
90 views

Is there a standardized graphical encoding for cuneiform?

If I want to describe the Hittite version of the DIŊIR cuneiform glyph, I could say "a double-headed horizontal, crossing a vertical". In other words: This one's fairly straightforward, and ...
-4
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0answers
32 views

What are the proper SI (Latin) abbreviations such as “s” for second, “h” for hour and “a” for year, but for minute, hour, week, and quarter? [closed]

I can't believe I have to ask others about this, but after spending a lot of time searching, only to find Wikipedia articles that just mention in which standard these are defined, and then finding ...
3
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0answers
44 views

Tools for converting text to logical form

What's the State of the Art in software for converting text to some sort of logical form? Pros and con's of different packages approaches, if more than one exists?
0
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0answers
11 views

Determining corpora size and participant count

I am setting up a linguistics experiment, involving subjective judgements of synthetic speech. For the sake of example, let's say I'm testing 5 systems, using a Likert scale of 1-5 as a rating. How ...
0
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0answers
32 views

How can you distinguish between “topic,” “focalized,” or just vanilla subjects?

How do you differentiate phrases which are topics, focalized, or just plain subjects? What tests can you use? I am looking at the data below-- the capitalized Hawaiian phrases have been claimed to be ...
0
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0answers
46 views

What's the name of the effect where linguistic diversity is far more pronounced in a language's homeland?

I've always just used the term "homeland effect" for this, but websearches suggest that that is not actually its name and probably something I made up at some point. What I'm talking about ...
0
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1answer
90 views

Is Sanskrit 100% phonetic?

Even though many languages are still written in Devanagari, they have a problem of schwa deletion. But that problem doesn't exist in Sanskrit. I know that almost all languages have phonetic ...
-4
votes
1answer
65 views

Why is research on grammatical gender important?

I was wondering why is research on grammatical gender important? Why is exploring this area of linguistics of any interest to linguists? What can it tell us about language (especially with regards to ...
-1
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0answers
37 views

Any good suggestions (websites/resources/books) for building a knowledge base on Aramaic (vocabulary, roots, etymology, etc)?

Studying Biblical Hebrew, I came across the word Eikev (https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H6118&t=WLC). Doing research on the word I came across information stating ...
0
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0answers
29 views

Does ศูนย์รวมขนมนานาชนิด mean various types of snacks? [closed]

Hello: I think "ศูนย์รวมขนมนานาชนิด" means "various types of snacks", but in the photo I only see one type of snacks (I wonder what the name of this type of snacks is). Did I get ...
-1
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0answers
52 views

Why did English scholars change the mountain Scafell peak, to Scafell pike?

Scafell Pike Scafell Pike (/ˌskɔːfɛl ˈpaɪk/)1 is the highest mountain in England, at an elevation of 978 metres (3,209 ft) above sea level. It is located in the Lake District National Park, in ...
0
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0answers
28 views

How can I compare the grammatical complexity between two texts using their sentences dependency length?

This is a continuation to the following thread. I have two texts, common English texts such as news articles and informative texts versus a technical textbook. I want to compare the grammatical ...
0
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1answer
63 views

Why are Slovak and Belarusian languages very related to each other while the two countries are geographically far from each other?

in this site, I found the fact that Slovak and Belarusian are very closely related. the lower the percentage, the more related the two compared languages. Why are these languages very related to each ...
3
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2answers
781 views

What is meant by the maxim, “Context is King”?

How is context "king" in deriving meaning from words?
0
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0answers
40 views

Is it true that meaning comes from people, not words? [closed]

This question arises with regard to the maxim "words don't have meaning, only authors have meaning." With regard to signification, is meaning intrinsic to words, imbued by the author, or ...
-2
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0answers
23 views

Window-based approach vs. dependency based approach

I had a seminar about collocations this semester. My final module grad will be dependent upon an academic paper. For that I need something like a research question. My problem however is, that I ...
0
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1answer
65 views

Did Grimm's law take effect only 2500 years ago?

Some of the indo-european languages* are documented to be up to 3800 years old, like Hethitic, or 3600 years for Greek. So one would expect that the others are not substantially younger. (* I refer to ...
0
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1answer
42 views

Is etymological fallacy a very specific or broadly defined phenomena?

Does arguing that a usage of a word doesn't match the current, modern definition, count as etymological fallacy? What I'm getting at is, if I say a usage isn't right and should be corrected, and ...
4
votes
2answers
235 views

Is Ruki sound law a Satem “Rhotacism”

Is Ruki sound law a Satem variant of "Rhotacism" English PIE Russian ear h₂ṓws ухо /úxo/ sear *sh₂ews- сухо /súxo/ deer *dʰéws дух /dux/ alder h₂élis- ольха /olʹxá/ their ??? тех /tex/
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0answers
20 views

Is there a thesaurus for homonyms?

I was considering building some dnd puzzles based on homonyms (it took me awhile to discover the correct term). I was both surprised and not that there were already riddles/puzzles based on this theme,...
3
votes
1answer
66 views

Order of spoken numbers with respect to powers of the base of the numerical system

I am interested in the history of how numbers were spoken with respect to hundreds, tens, unities... (or more generally powers of a base if the systems is not decimal). To clarify, here is an example: ...
4
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0answers
96 views

Is there evidence that English speakers associate black with bad and/or white with good

Prompted by the recent move towards replacing the terms "blacklist" and "whitelist", I wonder if there is research around the topic of how people feel about the words "black&...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

How to differenciate the long vowels from the actual letters in arabic?

I'm learning beginner in arabic and I can't find a proper grammar rule to figure it out. There is a lot of lessons on long vowels but they are totally disjointed from the question "How to ...
0
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0answers
62 views

Linguistic umbrella term for things and relations between things

Is there an established term in linguistics which is a hypernym of both 'things' (e.g. entities; categories of entities; actions; ...), and the relationships between them? Intuitively, I would assume ...
0
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2answers
132 views

Why are there languages that distinguish between /j/ and /i/?

Both phonemes sound practically the same, so it's understandable that there are languages such as Spanish and Italian in which /j/ shares grapheme with /i/ in diphthongs. That is, in these and other ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

“Go” and “Went” — how words expressing (to modern speakers) very related concepts sound so different?

Does the difference in sound of these two words in English imply that at one time to "go in the past" was not understood as being related to going in the present? Or that there was no way to ...
0
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1answer
57 views

Is by - near - related to bi - double?

Is by - near - related to bi - double? I tried going through wiktionary to find out, but to no avail. I can tell that 'bi-' is from latin, and there is no mention of 'by' being from latin. However, in ...
0
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0answers
54 views

How is the 'naturalness' of speech measured?

Aside from subjective listening tests, are there other ways of measuring the 'naturalness' of speech, especially synthetic speech? Are there specific features of the speech signal that correlate well ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

How to determine grammatical complexity using quantitative features?

I'm doing a research on defining the complexity of language used in technical documentations for technologies (libraries and modules) used in data science and machine learning engineering. And I'm ...
2
votes
2answers
77 views

Amharic Emphatics vs Arabic pharyngeals

I grew up speaking Arabic, and I am very comfortable with sounds like ص,ط,ض, etc. However, I was looking at Amharic out of curiosity, and noticed that in place of these pharyngeals, Amharic has ...
2
votes
1answer
193 views

Spelling of monotonous [closed]

All, I am just curious why 'monotonous' is spelled as mo·​not·​o·​nous and not as mono.tonus following the Greek origin of the word as mono + tone. Mono and tone could be spelled alone and actually ...
8
votes
2answers
167 views

term for gibberish intended to resemble specific language

Is any term identified, among linguists, for an effect by which some speech or text has no meaning, and yet superficially resembles, by following certain patterns, speech or text from a particular ...
14
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3answers
2k views

Can Hangul be read as fast as Chinese?

I read that Chinese can be read 7% faster than English. Can Hangul also be read 7% faster than English? Reason to think "no": While Hangul and Chinese both have roughly one character per ...
0
votes
1answer
143 views

orthographic spelling in romance languages [closed]

What is really redundant in the romance languages is that words change spelling in to reserve the pronunciation. For example, in Spanish verbs have -ar, -er, and -ir conjugation classes. First person ...
1
vote
1answer
113 views

Why do Chinese and Hindi have more terms for relatives than English does?

I was thinking about labels we assign family members (like cousin, grand mother etc.) and it struck me that in my native language of Hindi, we have different labels for maternal and paternal family ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

What is a markedness constraint in Optimality Theory?

Here is my answer but I'm not sure whether it is correct or put in a formal way. Could you help me see this? Markedness constraints allow the markedness of a feature based on universal principles of ...
17
votes
3answers
2k views

Are there any languages that have a pronoun which is only used to refer to royalty?

I can recall reading an article years ago which claimed that some languages have unused "royal" pronouns. That is, these pronouns were only used to refer to royalty as a show of respect or ...
4
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0answers
75 views

Which writing systems have the highest/lowest stroke-to-sound ratios?

Preemptive note: This question is about sound-based writing systems, excluding logographic systems like Chinese. Transitional systems like Egyptian hieroglyphs, Maya script or Man’yōgana are also ...

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