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2 views

Can one sentences have two or multiple possible phrase structure grammar? And what does it is called?

I doesn't have much knowledge on linguist , but after reading about syntactic structure and phrase structure grammar in wikipedia and internet , i was wondering if there is any sentences with more ...
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0answers
11 views

Modifiers in a row that modify the same noun

I'm curious about the grammatical accuracy of the sentence below I'm talking about the plans in relation to everyone, hidden intentionally by some countries, about our near future, and that we have ...
1
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0answers
20 views

South slavic meaning of surname Babnik

I'm wondering what is the meaning of Slovenian(southslavic) surname Babnik, I know it means womanizer in modern russian but the surname is many decades older than the new meaning. In the area of ...
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0answers
17 views

phrasal constituent

hi guys I cannot identify whether the phrases in parenthesis are phrasal constituents? Can anybody explain it to me? a. (Selling drugs) is against the law. b. (The owner) of this building is away. c. ...
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1answer
51 views

Simple cases of gapping (verb ellipsis in coordinate structures)

What are some simple cases of V or Verb Phrase gaps? For instance: I love the location and the apartment. Is this considered a gap (missing 'love' in the second conjunct)? If not, why not? What about ...
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1answer
47 views

Praat 16,000 Hz

When I opened an American English Podcast in Praat, the area below 16,000 Hertz were all gray or dark. Then I speak some sentences in japanese then the area below 8,000 hertz were dark. How do english ...
5
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1answer
360 views

Words in English which elided medial 'g' or 'v' (or initial 'h' before 'l', 'n', or 'r')

What I am looking for is a list of words which in Old English either had a medial 'v' sound (spelt 'f'), which was dropped in Modern English, so words like 'head' from 'heafod' and 'lord' from '...
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0answers
49 views

Why does Heliand have uo instead of PGmc ō but [closed]

Why does Heliand have uo instead of PGmc ō but Old Saxon dictionaries have o/ō?http://www.koeblergerhard.de/as/as_b.html brōthar 18, as., st. M. (er): nhd. Bruder; buok Thuomas duon ginuog bruoðer
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1answer
56 views

In what way production of language is optimal or most economical?

I have been listening to Linguistics & Philosophy lecture by Noam Chomsky and he mentions around 1h:08m that it is posited that language productions are actually the most economical way to convey ...
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0answers
12 views

Is it possible to extract a single word (may be in textgrid) from the textgrid file of a sentence through a code in praat?

Is it possible to extract a single word (may be in textgrid) from the textgrid file of a sentence through a code in praat? Suppose, from a long file I have put boundary and created one textgrid ...
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0answers
37 views

Analysing the data from the study on Jocks and Burnouts by Eckert

I have a question for those who are familiar with the study by Eckert. I got stuck trying to analyze the table (the screenshot is attached). Do you know what "Input" and "Sig." ...
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5answers
3k views

Is there an effort to prove phonemes?

For 44 claimed phonemes, we need 44*43/2 = 946 minimal pairs. If we can't find even one of them, then it is possible to claim that English has 43 phonemes and not 44 due to complementary distribution (...
2
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1answer
97 views

What are the pros and cons of having adjectives appear first?

In the English, we say: Red apple Red is an adjective. apple is a noun. Red tells us that, well, the apple is red. In other languages, such as Arabic, it is the other way around. I.e.: تفاحة ...
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2answers
83 views

Differentiating phonemes in foreign languages for adults

I've heard that past a certain critical period for language acquisition, our brain loses some neural connections and thereby the ability to differentiate phonemes not occurring in our maternal ...
3
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1answer
470 views

Why there is a neuter gender in some Indo-European languages, and others apparently dropped it?

Since this one was shown as "hot network question", this question is a follow-up which I do not identify (yet) as answered e.g., here, raised as an observer (chemist). As stated by the title,...
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0answers
18 views

introduction to syntax trees [closed]

I'm having trouble with drawing syntax trees for the following sentences: I once tried to write a novel about revenge. Do I chase after the teenager who might have a knife? this allows the existing ...
-1
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0answers
25 views

Is this grammatically correct [closed]

So I’m trying to translate a portion of the lyrics of a song: If it’s meant to be it’ll be, If not f*** it imma try, Ain’t no need to ask the lord why though So this is how I translated it: Agar ...
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0answers
23 views

Entropy of a Language by Parts of the Grammar [closed]

I will try to publish a paper about linguistics, you can see the draft here: https://flatassembler.github.io/Fonoloska_evolucija_jezika.docx In it, as you can see from the abstract, I made the ...
20
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3answers
5k views

Since when did Indo-European languages start associating noun genders with male/female sexes?

Since what point in time did noun classes in Indo-European languages become associated with the sexes? I read that greek/latin used words that translate to "kind" to describe the noun ...
11
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1answer
904 views

Language that uses [t] (or [k]?) in formal settings and [k] (or [t]?) in in informal

I remember reading about some language in which both [t] and [k] were considered the same phoneme and one of the [t] and [k] were used in formal and the other in informal settings. Does such a ...
2
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0answers
77 views

Are there national accents that are “perfect neutral” for English?

I am French and I spent my days speaking English with people from various nations for the last 25 years. I heard English spoken in many different ways, some were easy to understand, and some difficult....
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0answers
41 views

How did the romance languages' feminine/masculine genders develop?

How did French, Spanish, Italian, end up with gendered nouns? The Wikipedia page Proto-Indo-European nominals says Originally, there probably were only an animate (masculine/feminine) and an ...
2
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0answers
54 views

Distinction between Chemistry and Alchemy in Arabic and Farsi languages

According to Wikipedia, in Europe the semantic distinction between the rational science of chimia and the occult alchimia arose in the early 18th century. So it seems like there was a need to separate ...
2
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1answer
28 views

In Search of an Etymological Name Database

Do such things even exist? Attempts at searches turn up rather limited and uninformative sites dedicated to parental demographics, and that's not what I'm looking for. Specifically, I'm looking for a ...
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0answers
42 views

What is the difference between the 'ea' and 'ēa' in both history and pronounciation in Old English?

I am aware that these two are essentially the same diphthong, just one is short and one is long, but I heard that they originated separately, so if it is so, what did they each originate from and what ...
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0answers
17 views

Syntax tree for sentence [closed]

I am having trouble drawing a syntax tree for 3 sentences and I would appreciate it if someone could help me. The sentences are: a) Mary will probably enjoy the movie. b) That guy suggested that the ...
8
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3answers
2k views

What makes East-Asian languages sound different than European languages?

I'm not sure if this is on-topic here. If I get reasonable amount of comments telling that it's off-topic, I'll delete my post. I wrote a code that generates random human-readable strings. Every other ...
-3
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0answers
29 views

Does three three mean two things? [closed]

Three three can mean three (emphasis) nine Is three three ambiguous?
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0answers
51 views

Which percentage of Classical Latin words were native or loanwords? [closed]

I want to know the percentages of native or loanword vocabulary found in Classical Latin...
-3
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0answers
42 views

Who invented Pig Latin and why? [closed]

Who created pig latin? Why was it created. Does anyone actually use it? P.s. Also added latin tag since there is no pig latin tag.
3
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0answers
63 views

Can a trill be creaky?

Or in other words, is it possible to pronounce [ʙ̰], [r̰], [ʀ̰], or [ʢ̰]? I tried to pronounce these phones by myself, and I always failed. It seems the airstream from the constricted glottis cannot ...
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2answers
72 views

Is Welsh an isolating, an inflectional or an agglutinative language?

I saw that it can be classified both as an analytic and a synthetic langauage, so which one is it?
-3
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0answers
38 views

“A well-English-educated person” or “a well English-educated person” [closed]

I learned that a hyphen is needed between an adverb(without -ly ones and very) and an adjective if they are compounds. For example: He is a well-educated person. That's ok, but what if an extra ...
-1
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0answers
39 views

How are terms classified in English language [closed]

I'm looking for info on what types of terms there are in English language, especially types of multi-word terms, if those exist. A structure of classification, if you will. I have searched for a while ...
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0answers
28 views

Are all deictic elements either exophora or endophora?

If deixis is fixing the reference of something via context, this context should either be intralinguistic (and thus the deictical elements endophora) or extralinguistic (and thus the deictical ...
1
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0answers
64 views

The aspect of imperative mood in English

What is the aspect of imperative mood in English? e.g., Go home! I know the mood of the verb is imperative here, but I am not sure about the aspect.
1
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1answer
80 views

When did the vocalic allophones of the consonant phonemes in PIE become independent vowel phonemes?

The sonants in PIE have consonantal and vocalic allophones, so the consonantal sonant and the vocalic sonant are regarded as one consonant phoneme. But many daughter languages of PIE (at least at some ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Havlík's law, 3, & 4 in Czech

According to Wiktionary, the words for 3 and 4 in Proto-Slavic are *trьmi and *četyrьmi, respectively, in the instrumental case. In (current) Czech, they evolved into třemi and čtyřmi. But if you ...
2
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0answers
43 views

Quantifier clause in Heim's presupposition theory

there is a point in a paper by Irene Heim related to problems with presuppositions in complex sentences that I do not properly get. The article is the following: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10....
3
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0answers
83 views

Why did the Old English 'eo' diphthong disappear?

If I am not mistaken, the 'eo' diphthong was very common in Old English, and occurred in a lot of words, however this diphthong disappeared by the Modern English period, why was that? Notice that in ...
1
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0answers
20 views

What is the difference between category and function in linguistics? [closed]

Linguistics skills especially, grammar. For example:Is adjective a category or a function?
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2answers
130 views

Can you decipher a language without any translation?

So, I was thinking, if we have the tech to store information for billions of years (which we strangely enough do - I'm talking about the 5D storage devices), what if we store a vast collection of ...
1
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1answer
51 views

Is there a list of endangered writing systems?

Is there a list of endangered writing systems? I couldn't find any.
1
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1answer
67 views

Where could I find a list weak nouns in modern English which were strong in old English?

So I have been doing a þing recently for which I need to find a list of all (or at least most) of weak (regular) modern English nouns (and verbs, if possible) which were strong (irregular) in old ...
0
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0answers
36 views

Can “am” be a copula and an existential

The verb "am" used as a copula in the sentence "I am a man" is not used as an absolute existential, but in the sentence here, does it not connote the existence of the speaker, and ...
4
votes
1answer
182 views

Historical explanations for soft/hard declensions in Czech

Declension patterns in Czech is traditionally categorized into hard and soft ones based on the final consonant of the stem. Materials for learners, e.g., Lída's Czech Step by Step or Michael's ...
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3answers
66 views

What is a verb constellation?

I am reading a paper "Aspectual Categories in Navajo" and the author refers to something called a "verb constellation:" Verb constellations are associated with the situation types ...
0
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1answer
45 views

What do you call a question to convey curiosity, without expecting a direct answer

I was wondering if there is a name for a question that you say out loud to convey curiosity about a topic, without necessarily expecting a direct answer from those around you. This may be used to ...
15
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3answers
1k views

Why Korean transcriptions of Japanese words uses the letters ㄱ,ㄷ,ㅈ for initial /k/, /t/, /tɕ/ while using ㅋ,ㅌ,ㅊ for other languages?

Looking at Korean transcription rules for Japanese, I noticed that for some consonants, the hangul transcription would change if it was in the initial position: https://kornorms.korean.go.kr//regltn/...
2
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1answer
149 views

Did h2 and h3 change the phonetic reality of an adjacent *e in PIE under any circumstances?

Did h2 and h3 change the phonetic reality of an adjacent *e in PIE under any circumstances? Can we treat *a and ā as allophones of *e in PIE?

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