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1answer
12 views

Are there any studies on marked adjective order in the NP in head initial languages like Spanish or Albanian?

For example, Spanish unmarked NP order is Noun-Adjective ("libro rojo", "casa grande"). However, there are many situations where the order is reversed ("un rojo atardecer", "es un buen libro", "tienes ...
0
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2answers
44 views

Could the language(s) of the Proto-Sinaitic incriptions have words with no known cognates?

If so, this could be a part of the reason why we haven't completely deciphered these inscriptions.
0
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0answers
48 views

Is Geoffrey cognate with these words?

I have an interesting question about a name that I looked up: Geoffrey. I saw that it is from Middle English, and is a compound name derived from the Germanic words *gautaz and *frithuz. Both of these ...
0
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0answers
26 views

Ellipsis of noun phrase head when modifiers have different parts of speech

These sentences occur in the Mozilla UI strings: EN The sentence has a grammatical or spelling error. DE Der Satz beinhaltet einen grammatikalischen oder Rechtschreibfehler. The ...
2
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0answers
25 views

Deontic aspect in circumstantial scope

In "Distinguishing between epistemic and circumstantial readings", a circumstantial statement is mentioned as maybe having a deontic aspect, but it's not made clear (OP leaves it unresolved in their ...
0
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1answer
48 views

Is language change universal, ongoing, and arbitrary?

Learning that arbitrariness from Saussure means there is no logical connection between the sound of morpheme and its meaning. But can we brain storm about this topic a little bit? When it comes to ...
0
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0answers
24 views

Question about roots in Semitic (Hebrew & Arabic)

To the best of my knowledge, roots in Semitic, both Arabic & Hebrew, do not contain vowels. They are purely consonantal at the base. I read this a couple of years ago about Hebrew in Levin & ...
2
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0answers
28 views

Semantic category of [VERB] + as a + [NOUN]

I have the following examples from a corpus (ICNALE corpus) "They can grow as a member of society." "At university, students are regarded as adults not children." "I worked in a hotel as a service ...
0
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1answer
54 views

Will we ever decipher the Wadi el-Ḥol and Serabit el-Khadim inscriptions?

In his book Letter perfect: the marvelous history of our alphabet from A to Z, David Sacks says that we'll probably never decipher the Wadi el-Ḥol inscriptions (and he was probably implying the same ...
1
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1answer
23 views

Citing Praat script APA

I'm currently using a Praat script I found online and I would like to cite it in my thesis. Does anyone know whether there is a specific APA format for citing Praat scripts? I've tried looking into ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Difference between intonation and tonality?

I have used them interchangeably, but I think that might be wrong. So, is this understanding of the distinction correct? Tonality is pitch affecting semantics (like the Chinese langauge), and ...
1
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0answers
27 views

How to find most frequent bigram letters in R [closed]

I want to find the most frequent bigram letters in a text in R. Example: text = "Hello my name is Ana" Output: "he", "ll", "om", "yn", "am", "ei" "sa" "na" Any help would be appreaicted.
1
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0answers
29 views

What are the differences between Radford's various introductory texts to Generative Syntax?

In looking for a good introductory textbook on Generative Syntax, I came across this StackExchange comment, which mentions, among others, Radford's "Transformational Grammar, A First Course". I ...
-2
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0answers
28 views

What does the word “Trúc” mean in Vietnamese when used as a name?

My inlaws explained that Trúc is a flower that represents a kind and gentle heart and that it also represents a strong Viet Nam. However I am unable to find anything like this on the internet. It ...
-5
votes
1answer
36 views

Can all scripts be used to write all different languages?

I am thinking about making an introductory book to some different "languages", for self learning. But I realize I'm blending the writing system with the pronunciation system, and am starting to get ...
5
votes
2answers
102 views

Do any languages use distinct graphemes for vowels with different tones?

As far as I know, most writing systems for tonal languages fall into one of four groups: The writing system is not phonetic (e.g. Han logograms) Tone is not generally indicated in writing (e.g. many ...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

Name of horizontal line below character in Hebrew

Quick question about the Hebrew alphabet. In the table below the sign with a single red line below is called PATAH. What is the name of the sign with two red lines? How is it encoded in Unicode? (...
1
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0answers
14 views

Praat Pitch Parameters: pitch floor and minimum

Praat users: I am using a 2-pass method to determine my pitch floor and ceiling. I am first gathering the necessary values using the 'To Pitch...' command. I am then using my calculated floor/ceiling ...
1
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0answers
25 views

What are some good resources on the study of word order?

I've already read the Wikipedia article on the subject, and I was wondering if any resources exist that go more into detail.
0
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0answers
41 views

I don't know how to approach a question on syntax I have been asked in an assignment [closed]

I have been asked to analyse three different sentences but I have no idea where to start. I would appreciate advice on how to get started and maybe an example on how to analyse following questions: a....
2
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0answers
49 views

Are there formal linguistic understandings of misspelled words?

For example, I will assume that people make mistakes in spelling because, often, the misspelled words look similar enough to the intended words, so the communication can be made smoothly, but I wonder ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Are adpositions lexical or grammatical morphemes?

In English, prepositions have something in common with most grammatical morphemes: they're a closed class. However, some phrasal prepositions in English contain lexical morphemes: "on top of," "on ...
2
votes
2answers
57 views

Allowed surface locations of [+wh] phrases apparently depend on semantics—if so, how and why?

Consider Harvey's machine can resemble a human completely or not at all. 1a) ... The extent to which it resembles a human is determined by its software. 1b) ... To which extent it ...
-3
votes
1answer
58 views

Are these English judges using 'linguistics' correctly? [closed]

I don't feel these English judges are using "linguistics" correctly, because they're just working with the English language, not doing linguistics! Some of them have a degree in classics, but I don't ...
0
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0answers
17 views

“It” referring to [+wh] phrases and the syntax of “as to”

Consider 1a) It's up to you whether you actually leave. 2a) It's up to you which path you take. 3a) *? It's up to you for whom the bell tolls. 4a) * It's up to you the path you ...
-3
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0answers
28 views

What's the precisest term for verbs that belong to the same stem without any affixes?

RA Duff. Intention, Agency and Criminal Liability (1990). p 33.       Notice too the various cognates of 'intention' which are used in ordinary language. We talk of intending to ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

subject of a to-infinitive - is it a nominative or an accusative?

Is the subject of a to-infinitive a nominative, because it's a subject, or an accusative, because it's assigned the Case by 'for'? The man kept the door open for the cat to enter the room.
0
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0answers
33 views

Do nouns in simple apposition semantically unpack to predicate nominatives in English?

A Koine Greek grammar states that nouns in simple apposition are semantically understood as predicate nominatives. So, "Paul the apostle" unpacks to "Paul is the apostle" and "the apostle is Paul" ...
0
votes
2answers
58 views

Unvoiced schwa?

I read about a the schwa being the laziest sound in all of human speech. This is because it just needs vocal cords and, poof, there's a uuuh sound. But, what happens if you take the vocal cords out? (...
0
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0answers
12 views

Term for conversational actions meant to influence emotional state

Is there a term for the set of conversational actions/tools that instead of exchanging direct information, seek to instead affect a certain emotional state? Examples of such actions would include ...
-4
votes
0answers
27 views

How did “فته تمر قشطه” become “I went through a pimp”? [closed]

I came across this image online. There was one menu item that particularly caught my attention: I don't know any Arabic but I used orc[dot]space to extract the text from the image. The following ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Resource for finding languages that contain certain phonemes [duplicate]

In particular /w~b/ or other sounds that could be transcribed as <w> or <b>. Background: A person gave his name variously as 'John Barosa' or 'John Warosa' in writing from which I figured ...
0
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0answers
29 views

“Tizzarget Acquizzired”; What's the deal with the Z's when imitating divers?

When imitating scuba divers, especially "old-timey" ones, extra Z's or "izz"es get added to the middle of words. What is the origin of this? I have heard this in a few older shows, including the ...
-1
votes
0answers
30 views

Translating the Wadi el-Hol inscriptions [closed]

Could I have some help with working out a possible translation for the two Wadi el-Hol inscriptions? The letters are likely the ones included underneath them.
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Is there an easy way to input interlinear morphemic gloss in a normal document on an iPad?

Similar to tools which help you type and format mathematics, or easy ways to type IPA, but for a nicely formatted interlinear morphemic gloss. Not in a Latex document, but a tool which helps you ...
3
votes
0answers
49 views

Sound laws in Balto-Slavic and Slavic changes

What are the regular sound laws that explain the modern form of the words in baltic and slavic languages? I am aware of the centum/satem separation, which already helps to identify a lot of cognates ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Are cognitive benefits of bilinguals proof of independence of thought and language?

The Sapir–Whorf hypothesis says that language determines thought. Chomsky's theory states that cognition and language are independent systems. Biliguals have an advantage in several areas of ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Does Pragmatics describe what informs an interpretation?

I have provided an example that hopefully highlights what I am trying to articulate. Person A believes that Something can be bad or good, but not both (XOR) Person B believes that Something can be ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Volume and speed of exhaled air in different languages

In the days of COVID-19 people are concerned with breath and speech micro-droplets and how far they travel without a mask. This video I saw in Twitter, posits that Japanese people have it better ...
6
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0answers
60 views

Do most semanticists maintain that there is a distinction between secondary agents and tools?

I've heard some people say that there are two types of instrument: secondary agents and tools. A secondary agent is something that accomplishes a task when the agent wields it. So we CAN say ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

According to the Elsewhere Principle, can a syntactic rule block a morphological one, or a morphological rule a phonological one?

I read up on the Elsewhere Principle. In the linked article two examples are given: The syntactic comparative "more + adjective" can be overruled by the morphological comparative "adjective+er" for (...
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Influence of foreign vocabulary on tendency of English to lose inflections, become more analytic

The question is whether pressures to adapt to or incorporate foreign languages have tended to push English in a more analytic, less synthetic or inflected direction over the time from Middle English ...
1
vote
2answers
43 views

What is the semantic term for the things that the single arguments of reflexive and reciprocal verbs stand for?

In my native English, the first argument in "Mary feeds her pigs" stands for an agent, and the second stands for a patient. But what about the arguments in reflexive and reciprocal clauses in single-...
-1
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0answers
30 views

Can usage alongside with grammaticality determine intelligibility of sentence constituents to favor language acquisition?

One might master the grammar rules of a second language and still go misunderstood with an utterance. My gut feeling would say that is caused by the employment of unusual constituents. So the degree ...
1
vote
2answers
92 views

Why is Spanish SVO and not VSO?

I understand that Spanish sentences have an SVO sentence structure. (S)(Yo) (V)compro (O)los zapatos. What confuses me is the fact that when the subject is a pronoun, it is omitted so often that you ...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

Similarities between Sumerian and Semitic languages

I noticed that the Sumerian words for mother and father, ama and abba respectively, are very similar to the Hebrew words for mother and father, being ema and abba respectively. Given that Sumerian is ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

A-positions where no structural Case is available?

I am a little puzzled. Is there any such thing as an A-position where no structural Case is available? The arguments are either a nominative or an accusative (structural Cases) aren't they? [...] ...
1
vote
2answers
31 views

Understanding OCP(place) and CodaCond constraints in Optimality Theory

I'm having trouble finding examples or definitions for these two constraints and can't fully grasp it. If anyone could direct me to a resource or maybe explain it, I would be grateful!
11
votes
4answers
3k views

Are there languages where a change of character casing can lead to a different meaning of a word?

I'm no expert on linguistics. In fact I'm no even a proper amateur but please, bear with me on this: Are there any languages where a word would change its meaning depending on the casing of one or ...
0
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0answers
21 views

Transition Relevance Period

My research observes turn-taking characteristics as one variable in my conversational analyses. I noticed in the turn-taking literature that the transition relevance period is sometimes mentioned, in ...

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