0
votes
1answer
24 views

Term for when acronyms are the same in more than one language?

Is there a linguistics term for when an acronym is the same in more than one language? For example, "RIP" (Requiescat in pace.) in Latin is the same acronym as "RIP" ("Rest in peace.") in English.
2
votes
1answer
199 views

What is the term used for the opposite of a construct form?

In many languages (especially Hebrew in which I work), words can appear in a special form called the construct form in which you can expect that word to be attached to another word. I would like to ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Fortition or Lenition as semantical markers

Is there a term for phonetic change relative to a change in meaning, for example a hard consonant becoming soft relative to a technical term that attains a diminutive sense? Curses for example sound ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Does Gestalt theory tell us anything about syntax?

According to this article (dlibra.umcs.lublin.pl/Content/21626/czas17868_30_2_2012_4.pdf), cognitive grammar is an approach to grammar which takes into accounts broad perceptual principles, including ...
-2
votes
0answers
14 views

D and S structure trees [on hold]

I am having a hard time creating trees for these sentences. In the class we have discussed VP-fronting transformation and auxiliary movement transformation. With these transformations in mind, draw ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Nicknames in Various Historical Cultures

There are a variety of ways to form casual address terms. Using family terms is common ('brother'), shortening/modifying a given name ('Teddy' from Theodore), or something based on the person's ...
-1
votes
0answers
40 views

Voicing consonants like [s]

Background Yes, I am familiar with the bilabial, labiodental, dental and alveolar movements but I am trying to make a difference between [s] and [z]. I know you have to vibrate your vocal cords ...
-2
votes
0answers
23 views

I need a draw tree structure for these sentences [on hold]

1- That the world is round is obvious. 2- This boy will speak very slowly to that girl. 3- The cyclist drank a gallon of water and a little of coke. 4- I took a picture of the tourist with the camera.
4
votes
2answers
67 views

How did Gk. ταινία “band, ribbon” come from PIE *tn̥-yā- < *ten- “to stretch”?

AHD-IER (Watkin, 2011) P93 gives PIE *tn̥-yā- for Gk. ταινία: Suffixed zero-grade form *tn̥-yā‑. taenia; polytene, from Greek tainiā, band, ribbon. while EDG (Robert Beekes, 2010) P1444: ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

Phonological rule for realizations of Italian /s/

It seems that realization of Italian /s/ is not fully systematic and there are some exceptions. Is there any phonological rule for possible realizations of Italian /s/
4
votes
1answer
181 views

What is the linguistic explanation of the phenomenon in “affirmative action”?

The phrase "affirmative action" does not tell you what it is about. Even though the literal meaning of this phrase can be very broad (in theory it could be referring to affirmative action of achieving ...
4
votes
2answers
90 views

Meaning of suffix -tai in Greek

In Ptolemy's Geography, two people are mentioned by the name of Thamyditai (6.7.4, pg 402 of this book) and Oaditae (6.7.21, pg 406 of this book) Here's the scanned mention of Thamyditai Here's the ...
-3
votes
0answers
16 views

Practice Standard Aptitude Tests corpus? [on hold]

The College Board currently has eight official SAT practice tests that are freely available and I use them to tutor. Each is around 60 pages long and can be downloaded as ocr pdfs. But all attempts at ...
6
votes
2answers
117 views

What is the syntax of “second” in phrases like “the second most common problem”?

In English, words like "second", "third" etc. (also "next", I guess) can be used with a superlative to count down from the maximum. Some dictionaries call "second" an adverb in this context (e.g. MW, ...
2
votes
2answers
65 views

Can we use etymology to determine the nature of synchronic semantic and morphosyntactic differences between (near-)synonyms?

I've recently joined a discussion in which some of the participants insist that if one doesn't understand the nature of the difference between two or more words (the ones discussed by us are synonyms ...
2
votes
2answers
64 views

Syntactic and semantic ambiguity

Does syntactic (structural) ambiguity always come with semantic ambiguity, or is semantic ambiguity always due to syntactic ambiguity? Or are both statements correct?
-2
votes
0answers
26 views

How can “send” means “make” as in putting them forth for a purpose?

McWhorter, J. PhD Linguistics (Stanford). The Language Hoax (2016). pp. 163 Bottom - 164. I speak no Lahu and don't know how to reproduce that question in Lahu on p. 164. Can someone please ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Dental and labiodental fricatives with different relative positions of the articulators

Are there distinct phonemes for labiodental fricatives articulated with the upper teeth touching the lower lip from the inside (like in English /f/) and ones that are articulated with the tip of the ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Can we use the reverse of mental priming to get out of the 'Mary's Room' problem?

So there is this semantics/psycholinguistics concept called mental-priming, which says for a concept called 'red' nearby concepts like apple, color, danger etc. 'light up' . Can we teach Mary, what ...
2
votes
0answers
73 views

Fission in Distributed Morphology - how does it work?

Currently i'm trying to understand what Distributed Morphology (DM, as introduced by Halle&Marantz 1993) is about. One of the basic operations belonging to this framework is fission. However, i'm ...
7
votes
3answers
199 views

Does the English “Garden” come from the French “Jardin” or the German “Garten”?

I always assumed that the English word "Garden" was similar to the German "Garten" due to the Germanic roots of English. But according to Wikipedia, "Garden" in English is related to the French "...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Why would “But” function as its own clause in Hunt's (1965) T-unit and clause system?

I am learning about Hunt's (1965) system of parsing writing into T-units (minimal terminable units) and clauses. In this system, a T-unit is "one main clause with all the subordinate clauses attached ...
2
votes
3answers
243 views

Possible diachronic developments of th sounds

What are possible diachronic developments of th sounds? Of course, I am aware of th-stopping /ð/,/θ/ -> /d/ and of th-fronting/θ/ -> /f/. Are there other developments of ð/ and /θ/ attested in the ...
10
votes
4answers
1k views

At what point does a language become its descendant?

With the possible exceptions of constructed languages, languages seem to evolve. As a real-world example, we note that Latin has evolved into Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, etc. What ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Definiteness and specificity [closed]

I need a help from a native speakers of English language. How would You say the following sentences? Is it correct a) or b) and then c) or d)? (Pay attention to the article the/a.) a) I'm looking ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

What impact does it bring if the tone values of a tone language are generally lowered?

Tones in a tone language have values marked by 1 to 5. If a sound change happens by which tone values become lowered in some cases, e.g. the standard value of a tone in Mandarin is 214, while the ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Problems of adding ToBI Manual command on Praat

I have tried more than 20 times of adding a command on Praat, but it still doesn't work. Just shows like the following picture! Tried to edit the directory but also failed! Don't know why! Is there ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Pedagogical term “adverbial” is covered with which terms in generative grammar?

In Pedagogical grammars (like Oxford Learner's Pocket Grammar) possible simple sentence structures are divided into the categories presented below: SV subject, verb SVO subject, verb, object ...
7
votes
3answers
203 views

Why is the English phoneme /θ/ pronounced like /t/ in Indian accents but /s/ in Chinese accents?

The dental fricatives (/θ/ and /ð/; spelled with th) often present a challenge to non-native learners of English. Depending on the speaker's native language, different phonemes may be substituted. In ...
4
votes
1answer
134 views

Why do I speak more accurately in English rather than my native language?

I have a diction/vocal issue from birth so I can not speak on the "right rhythm" of my tongue. My speech seems always slow and boring at my native language so that I have a huge difficult to verbally ...
1
vote
1answer
76 views

Do Nasal Consonants Require Nostrils?

As far as I can tell, some nasals don't seem to require nasal aspiration. For example, [m] and [n] seem to just involve oral occlusive voicing. I can plug my nose and still make such sounds. It surely ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

is voicing continuous in a voiced fricative?

If i say [va] will the vocal folds be continuously vibrating through the [v] or will they start vibrating at the initial onset of [v], lower in amplitude, and then start again at [a]?
3
votes
2answers
100 views

Is there a term when two words have swapped definitions in one language or dialect compared to another?

My Peruvian friend informed me that a lemon is called "lima" in Peru while a lime is called "limón". This contrasts with some other Spanish dialects that use the word "limón" for lemon and "lima" for ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

What does “referentiality” mean?

I have problems with the linguistic terms. I did not find satisfactory explanation about "referentiality". On the other hand, what are the differences between "case" and "referentiality"? If there is, ...
1
vote
1answer
197 views

What do full stops represent in IPA?

In the IPA spelling of various words, I have often come across versions that use full stops and colons. E.g. I have seen 'county' spelled /kaʊnti/ and also /kaʊ.nti/ and 'courage' as spelled /kʌrɪdʒ/ ...
2
votes
2answers
102 views

Vowel Deletion and Allophone variation in Japanese High Vowel Clusters?

I seem to have heard from films, shows and other japanese programs that there is a kind of vowel deletion in certain contexts which triggers a consonant change which might be allophonic. This paper ...
3
votes
3answers
105 views

Is There A Limit To Valency/Transitivity?

The max valency I ever read about is trivalency. However, hypothetically, can't valency extend to an arbitrily length? To extrapolate on this point, for trivalency, Wikipedia gives examples of: I bet ...
2
votes
3answers
74 views

How does 'like a book' befit the Translative, and not Essive, Case?

McWhorter, J. PhD Linguistics (Stanford). The Language Hoax (2016). p. 56 Bottom. I speak no Estonian. 1. But how does the preposition 'like' conveys the Translative Case? E.g., an encyclopedia ...
12
votes
5answers
3k views

In romance languages, are there examples of male names that derive from female names?

In french, there are many female given names that are derived from male given names. Those names are often obtained by adding "ine", "ette", "e" or "a" at the end of the male name. Examples include ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

What is the 'short step' between 'acquiring certain habits of thought' and 'a NEW LANGUAGE by which to adjust itself to a wider universe'?

McWhorter, J. PhD Linguistics (Stanford). The Language Hoax (2016). p. xvi Bottom.   Under this impulse, the general impression from the media coverage of the relevant books, their blurbs, and ...
3
votes
1answer
57 views

Apical postalveolar approximant [ɹ̺] and retroflex approximant [ɻ]: What is the difference?

English [ɹ] has two realizations: apical and bunched (aka molar). ExtIPA (extensions to the IPA) thus recommends the use of [ɹ̺] and [ɹ̈] to differentiate the two. But I also often see English /r/ ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Corpora with graph data base like neo4j

Relating with corpus linguistics with graph databases, I've seen some examples of using neo4j for store the words of a single phrase in which it is used a relation of --NEXT--> to link one word with ...
0
votes
1answer
87 views

How to transcribe 'courage' in IPA

I am very new to linguistics, and am trying to transcribe the word 'courage' into IPA. I have come across a few different transcriptions, but I think the correct one might be "kʌrɪdʒ". Is this correct?...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

How can you know that a word in a sentence is a verb?

I am wondering what it takes to parse a sentence with incomplete knowledge. That is, take a sentence like this: If I use timeout I have to call again my function at the end of the execution of the ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Pattern to Prefixes and Suffixes in English

I've come across a list of English prefixes and remember learning in school about Latin and Greek being helpful for learning words in English based on prefixes/suffixes. I'm wondering though if there ...
11
votes
1answer
140 views

Are there any languages with only one of “yes” or “no”?

Many modern languages have single words for "yes" and "no" (e.g. English), and some have more than a simple pair (e.g. French), while others have no word for "yes" or "no" (e.g. Latin and Irish). ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Terminology around non-word, but word-like, structures

In traditional linguistics literatures there is a clear separation between words and non-words. Words are basically what you'd find in a dictionary. But in todays world you find all kinds of word-like ...
0
votes
2answers
38 views

/l/ environments in English and Introductory Phonology by Bruce Hayes

Note: I am on my phone, so linguistic symbols are not intuitive to type, so I typed out phone names in prose Hello, apologies if this is a dumb question, but I'm reading through Bruce Hayes' "...
-1
votes
1answer
65 views

Minimal English: Lack Of Clarity And Redundancy

In terms of semantic useful words, Minimal English lists: Foods: corn (yams, etc.) flour meat rice salt sugar sweet wheat Technology And Transport: bicycle boat car engine phone pipe plane radio ...
3
votes
2answers
67 views

How does optimality theory handle opacity?

Optimality theory is a theory of phonology that drops Chomskyan replacement rules in favor of a set of ranked constraints. It can lead to much more elegant analyses in some cases. However, I don't ...

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