All Questions

0
votes
0answers
8 views

Hurrian and Indogermanic

Some historical linguists include Hurrian words in the reconstruction of Proto-Indogermanic. However, cognates between Hurrian and Indogermanic languages are mainly restricted to Greek and to the ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

Noisy channel model explanation

In the noisy channel model, for a given input sentence D we are given a set of possible translations A1, A2, A3, .., Ai, ... We want to pick the best possible translation, hence argmax(P(Ai|D)). When ...
3
votes
1answer
50 views

What's the longest extant dialect continuum?

According to jknappen, there's a dialect continuum stretching from Rome to Lisbon without interruption. This is a wonderfully interesting piece of trivia that I wouldn't have believed before seeing ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

Word length as a function of word frequency?

I was wondering if any studies have been done in corpus linguistics which look at word length (number of phonemes per word) as a function of the word's frequency of use? Thanks! EDIT: Never mind, ...
2
votes
0answers
26 views

Direct–inverse marking on the noun, or the possiblity of inverse alignment

A direct-inverse language, Wikipedia claims, is one which involve[s] different grammar for transitive predications according to the relative positions of their "subject" and their "object" on a ...
5
votes
1answer
62 views

How did Latin get its stress pattern?

As far as I know, Latin had a word-initial accent for some time of its history after losing the Indo-European accent. I am wondering why Latin then switched to an ante-/pen-ultima stress pattern.
2
votes
2answers
68 views

Is there a “maximal coda principle”?

The "maximal onset principle" says that, in many (most) languages, consonants will attach to a syllable onset rather than a coda when given the choice. For example, "walking" /wakɪŋ/ in English is ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

I need a list of common minimal pairs in Thai

I'm looking for a list of minimal pairs in Thai where the only difference is an accent mark/diacritic. One example would be ห่าง (far) =/= ห้าง (store) Is there someplace to find this? My Thai ...
6
votes
0answers
78 views

Why is the Romanian tense system so “simple”, compared to other Romance languages?

It appears like Romanian has only 5 tenses (excluding imperative), while all other Romance languages have much more. For example, in Spanish, French and Italian, there are 7(8) tenses: Indicative: ...
1
vote
3answers
316 views

Alphabet size affects complexity of written ideas?

Do relatively simple alphabets (Rotokas, Hawaiian) limit the complexity of written ideas? Example: could Rotokas be used to write a technical manual for the space shuttle?
2
votes
0answers
9 views

How to convert CHAT to TextGrid in a batch?

Siarad corpus is a corpus of spoken Welsh (~40 hours, all transcribed, glossed and translated!). I want to analyze some conversations using Praat. Praat uses the TextGrid format, but the Siarad corpus ...
28
votes
2answers
8k views

Why is “ß” not used in Swiss German?

What are some of the historical reasons why the orthographic symbol ß is not used in Swiss Standard German and “ss” is used instead?
3
votes
3answers
104 views

Is the existence of a mixed branch of Indo-European plausible?

I was thinking about the possible existence of a branch of the Indo-European family that combines features of several branches. For example, a branch that is something in between the Germanic and ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Parent-child kinship terms for same- or different-sex relationships

Does anybody know of a natural language in which the kinship terms used for parents and children are governed not by the gender of the individual but whether or not the two people in the relationship ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Computational applications of construction grammars

Are there NLP applications (either natural language understanding or generation) which make use of the Construction Grammar framework? On a related note, does there exist a logically organized list ...
10
votes
3answers
2k views

Are Hungarian and Turkish related?

I was told by somebody who has lived near Hungary that she thought that Hungarian and Turkish were related, and that their languages are very similar. A brief google search seems to support this. ...
2
votes
1answer
80 views

Why “were” for subjunctive?

Is the subjunctive (what I learned in school as "Konjunktiv 2") Ger. "wäre" ("Ich wäre gern ..." - I'd like to be ...) cognate to "were" even for singular person ("*als ob ich sicher wäre " - as if I ...
-2
votes
0answers
33 views

Difference between make it and did it when they used to mean success [on hold]

My colleague in America fixed his computer after having a lot of conversations with IT guy in Korea. He skyped and told me It's finally fixed and I replied "you finally made it!!!. I'm sure he ...
2
votes
0answers
44 views

Is “help” a causal verb?

As part of my research, I extract causal (cause-effect) relations from natural text. Sometimes, there are words in the text that signal a causal relation like "because" or "since." And, some other ...
7
votes
1answer
60 views

Whispering in languages heavily dependent on pitch or phonation distinctions

When whispering in English all (segmental) phonological distinctions can – as far as I am aware – still be made, which may be due to redundancy (or simply because voicing is optional). I even ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Is pragmatics a waste basket?

Is pragmatics a waste basket? this sentence is abstracted from the study of language of Yule. I want to know why this statement comes into being( pragmatics is a waste basket.) And is it really true? ...
3
votes
1answer
34 views

What is about-sentiment called?

I don't even know what my problem is called, so I can't research literature on it. I'm hoping someone can point me in the right direction. I have a little experience with sentiment analysis, but what ...
-2
votes
0answers
18 views

Help with drawing syntax trees [closed]

Halo me with creating syntax trees for this sentences please: Peter’s friends are anxious that he should finish by Saturday. Where does your new room mate come from? Please create this sentences ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

Homophones in Proto-Germanic

Does anyone know reconstructed homophones in Proto-Germanic or where I could look them up? I am interested in clear homophones, not polysemes.
0
votes
2answers
46 views

Is “bien décidés” an adjectival phrase?

Mais il me faut quelques volontaires bien décidés. in that sentence, décidés is considered as an adjective right? So does the phrase bien décidés an adjectival phrase or adverbial phrase?
0
votes
0answers
21 views

parsing British National Corpus into words

I need to calculate inverse document frequency from BNC. Does anybody has any code or know how to parse this dataset to extract texts? After extracting texts do I need to stem(get the base form of ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

non-variable semantics of reflexives, need help

I'm reading various books on semantics (writing my first paper on semantics) however this book that was recommended to me by Heim & Kratzer has tricky questions with no answer guide, I looked ...
3
votes
1answer
105 views

How common is the “elliptical dual” (or plural) cross-linguistically?

This question on Latin.SE asks about the "elliptical dual", a construction where the dual number doesn't mean "two X" but instead "X and one other". For example, in the Iliad, Aíant-e Ajax-DUAL means ...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

How are bindrunes read?

I understand that the runes of the Younger Futhark alphabet had names such as hagall and bjarkan, I also understand that these rune names had meanings, such as hail and birch. I also understand that ...
3
votes
1answer
84 views

What ex­act­ly is “lev­el shift” in trans­la­tion the­o­ry by Cat­ford?

Catford (1978) divides the shift in translation into two major types, level/rank shift and category shift. Level/rank shift refers to a source language item at one linguistic level that has a target ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

Markers that affect intensity of the imperative mood

I'm working on a project that explores how imperative mood varies in 'intensity'. For example, one can 'soften' the tone of a directive by including the speaker in the command: "Let's go to school"...
0
votes
0answers
3 views

Whats the difference between stance and position in terms of expressing opinion? [migrated]

My customer requested big scheduel change (postponing a lot from the agreed upon date) and It is not acceptable for me. so I worte email today like "MY position about your request is as below bla bla ...
1
vote
2answers
75 views

Are the English “Woe” and the German “Wo” related?

Is the English "Woe" and the German "Wo" related? I just heard a colleague say, "Wo ist mein ..." and I thought of the band Woe is me. Are these words just false cognates... or is there some common ...
1
vote
2answers
63 views

What is the etimology of the ancient greek word “εὑρίσκω”

I can't seem to find and Indo European root for this word. I'm not even sure if it has indo european origins.
-1
votes
0answers
20 views

Having trouble drawing a tree diagram for a sentence [closed]

Jane has been living in Accra for a long time. can you please draw a tree diagram for the above sentence
0
votes
1answer
73 views

What type of stress does French have

So I know that there are on the one hand pitch-accent languages (like South-Slavic languages, Greek, Norwegian, etc.) where the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour/tone ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Linguistic theoretical frameworks

When discussing politics, politicians use trigger words to insinuate a specific meaning or topic. Ex. urban-blacks, middle eastern-muslim... Are there any specific theories that focuses on (or how ...
5
votes
5answers
183 views

Does a coherent sentence which is a cross language homophone exist?

Consider a basic example of the French word oui, and the English word we. Phonetically these words are pronounced identically (okay some French speakers may put emphasis on the oo sound in oui, but ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

How to call Turkish to Ascii character conversion?

When writing software in some cases we are not allowed to use Turkish characters so we use U, G, S, I, i, O, C characters instead of Ü, Ğ, Ş, İ, ı, Ö and Ç since some computer systems might not ...
5
votes
1answer
106 views

'm' of predication vs. nominal sentence in Middle Egyptian

Consider the sentence: "I am a scribe, skillful of fingers." This is typically stated in Middle Egyptian using the 'm' of predication: iw=i m sš iqr n(y) ḏbaw I think this is correct, and 'm' of ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Can sociolinguistic research contribute in solving L2 learning problem? [closed]

I want to write my thesis sociolinguistically about a new linguistic phenomenon, but the main contribution to my study is to solve speaking anxiety.. my thesis will include a question, after ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

What books to read about lexical semantics?

I want to have a systematic understanding on semantic field, lexical semantics, and semantic change. Skimming at Kate Kearns' Semantics, it seems that its focus is more about formal semantics, with ...
-2
votes
1answer
31 views

For each word in a corpus, find how many senses it has according to WordNet [closed]

I've come across this exercise in my studies and I do not know how to challenge, I've tried to follow examples though I can never find anything online that truly is symmetrical to what I'm trying to ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

How to apply TF-IDF on my bows after generating frequencies

I'm working on document similarity using WordNet, though I have no idea how to apply the IDF weighting at this point in my code. I'm sure this weighting is one of the most simple things out there, but ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Differences in Naive Bayes Classifier NLTK, same code, different answers?

I'm not sure what the difference between these 2 is: classifier = NaiveBayesClassifier.train(train_d) d1 = (nltk.classify.accuracy(classifier,train_d[:500]))*100 d2 = (nltk.classify.accuracy(...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

What is the etymology of the word, “own.” [closed]

Dictionaries offer no etymogy on the word, "own." A search for etymogy of the word comes up wanting. Does anyone know the etymology of "own"?
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Statistical approaches to determining topic

Consider languages like Japanese, ASL and others which have word orders governed not by grammatical relations, but by Topic/Comment structure. 私はえびです Seems like it should mean "I am an eel", but ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Minimalism - a question about a property of merge operation

Does anyone know what would it mean that the merge operation is asymmetrical? Would this mean that the order of merged objects is important?
3
votes
1answer
45 views

Why not use a Lookup taggers?

I do understand that a lookup tagger is one of the simplest ones to implement as it is able to map each word a single POS. Why shouldn't we use it compared to bigram tagger?
0
votes
0answers
50 views

Name for the view that ambiguities in natural language are imperfections of it?

For instance, in natural language, "or" is slightly different from logical OR, "some" is slightly different from logical EXISTS, etc. What is the name of the belief that these discrepancies are ...

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