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5 views

Is there a “one or more” dilemma in linguistics and if so how was it solved or how might it be solved?

When people use the phrase one or more it can make a problem or "dilemma" in a winder sentence; For example, please consider: I have one or more X I grasp this as problematic because; as X is ...
-2
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0answers
13 views

Latin/Greek for “Can't help but nod my head to music”

I know that this is a stupid question but what do you call a condition when you can't stop nodding your head to music? I'm pretty sure this is not a real condition that's why I'm asking this question ...
0
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1answer
46 views

Is it true to say that in Thai languages past is default or generally guessed from context?

I understand that in Thai language (and perhaps other Thai Kra-Dai languages) there is no such thing as what I can name default past pattern in common/daily conversation, such as: I did or she did ...
0
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0answers
5 views

NLP/Computer linguistic : Difference between knowledge based approaches and superficially Text Summarization Methods and examples

irst of all, sorry for my bad English. What the Main difference between such two approaches ? And what makes a system or a Textsummarization-Approach Knowledge based? Is it based on the inner work of ...
0
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0answers
18 views

Could phonological reanalysis in the acquisition of an L2 cause negative impacts in long term?

The phonology of a particular language could be hard to handle for a non-native learner, say, the word boundary and consonant clusters. One way to do is to reanalyze the syllables, e.g. to reanalyze "...
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0answers
10 views

Representation of forms with multiple functions in glossing

Very often we see some forms with two distinct functions. eg. In many languages plurals are used with a sort-reading. This means the form is re-utilized for a different function. In leipzig-style ...
0
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1answer
62 views

What is the modern general communication language writing system with simplest letter symbols?

I would like to know what is the modern writing system with simplest (most minimal) letter symbols. I personally recognize English, Arabic, Modern Hebrew, and Modern South Korean writing system (...
-2
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0answers
52 views

Did Roman numbers have a “0” symbol after all?

Looking on Wikipedia for an unrelated topic, I saw this photo from the early 1900s. There is a periodic table on the wall, and on it, it says "0" in a column, then "I", then "II", etc. I cropped it ...
1
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1answer
164 views

Final intonation of a question in a pitch-accent language

How do pitch-accent languages deal with potential confusion between the pitch to distinguish two words, and the pitch to make a question? For example, if you got word 'Ab' and word 'aB', how could ...
3
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0answers
39 views

What is the origin of the “redundant” pronouns in the Venetian language?

From the examples taken from Wikipedia: • Venetian: (Ti) te jèra onto or even Ti te jèri/xeri onto (lit. "(You) you were dirty"). • Venetian: El can el jèra onto (lit. "The dog he was dirty"). It ...
-3
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2answers
65 views

Why does Latin, Turkish, and Albanian have similar words? [closed]

Latin and Albanian come from the Indo-European language so it makes sense that those two languages share many words with each-other, but how comes Turkish which is supposed to come from non-Indo-...
6
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0answers
76 views

Etymology (?) of the “shush” gesture

I'm curious about the origin of and explanation for the place-index-finger-to-closed-lips gesture. All I've found so far is this unattributed assertion that it dates at least to the era of Classical ...
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0answers
20 views

How to make sense of this table of “TEX hyphenation patterns combos”? [migrated]

I'm confused by this: http://tug.org/tex-hyphen/#languages There is a " en-gb", meaning "English in Great Britain", a "en-us", meaning "English in the USA"... but there is no "English in Australia"...
2
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3answers
95 views

Learning linguistics from scratch

I am a student of mathematics and physics but have been inspired to learn more about linguistics after having learned a new language this year. I found the subject deeply fascinating. As of now I am a ...
-3
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2answers
131 views

What is the extent of the 'etymological fallacy'?

Does folk etymology based on contemporary definitions of a word necessarily involve the etymological fallacy? And does the etymological fallacy apply to speech and poetry, or just to argumentation?
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0answers
9 views

What is the success rate for Western kids learning Chinese in kindergarten/primary school? [closed]

Offering Chinese language lessons at kindergarten or at primary school level seems to be a fad that's here to stay. Enrolling your kid in Chinese lessons was once an object of distinction among upper ...
0
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0answers
7 views

How to pronounce 'Il est bel et bon' (Passereau) [migrated]

My choir is singing a jolly french song: 'Il est bel et bon', by Pierre Passereau. It was published in 1534 in Paris. The words are: Il est bel et bon commère mon mary Il estoient deux femmes toutes ...
1
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0answers
20 views

Completely schematic construction?

I'm trying to understand what is a completely schematic construction in cognitive grammar. I found an example: VP --> V NP So, is that a construction that can be easily described by a general rule ...
1
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1answer
76 views

Where can I find the letters of documented writing systems, as text, online?

I was looking for the letters of the Safaitic writing system of Ancient North Arabian (ANA) as text, online. Safaitic is a well documented and researched writing system that was a prominent (if not ...
0
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0answers
33 views

Is there a name for adding a question mark to a closed-ended answer? [closed]

I just used this in an answer to my manager, when asked how much time would some task take me to finish. I responded with "an hour?", my goal being to express uncertainty, because developers are the ...
5
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1answer
295 views

In what circumstances is d devoiced in English?

I have noticed that speakers of languages which have /d/ and (unaspirated) /t/ as distinct consonants are sometimes unsure whether my natural pronunciation of the English name "Dan" starts with a /d/ ...
1
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0answers
55 views

What are the unique features of the Australian Aboriginal Languages compared to other world languages

Not looking phonologically but grammatically, what are the languages which would be a good reference point for starting studies in Australian Aboriginal languages? Western Desert Language? Others? Are ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

Is there an aggregation of Oracle Bone Script glyphs?

I am looking for something that might take a raw resource like this and instead provide a list of the discovered oracle bone script glyphs, like you would find for the CJK Unicode block for example. ...
13
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2answers
5k views

Why does Spanish tend to swap letters in words?

I can't remember the source, but I recall hearing that Spanish (my native tongue) tends to swap letters in words (accidentally). Examples Latin diabolo becomes diablo(o). (perhaps this is a non-...
0
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2answers
110 views

How similar are the prototype writing systems of Ugarit-Tyre (“Phoenician”) and Safaitic?

I understand that that in the ancient Levant, two main writing system patterns were used by the different peoples of the region: Phoenician and Ancient North Arabian. I further understand that both ...
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0answers
34 views

Describe the movement in the following sentence, then draw a tree [closed]

the sentence: She is not waiting for me. So my teacher asked this "question" in our exam paper and I could not answer it, but I am really curious what is the correct answer. If anybody knows please ...
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0answers
44 views

Did names are translate in different languages according to the meaning? Please tell me asap [closed]

Did names are translate in different languages according to the meaning of name?
-4
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1answer
84 views

Why is Proto-Indo-European form for light *lewktom? [closed]

Why is Proto-Indo-European form for light *lewktom when Russian has satem лысина (lɨsʲɪnə) bald spot?
4
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0answers
113 views

How would languages that use an absolute frame of reference say that the heart is on the left side of the body?

In languages that use a relative frame of reference we can say that the heart is on the left side of the body, and no matter what direction you are facing that is true. But in an absolute frame of ...
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0answers
46 views

Fundamental questions about natural classes in phonology [closed]

Could you help me with these questions? Thank you in advance!
1
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1answer
40 views

If our requirement says that the only thing that isn’t a phrase in an NP is the N itself, why a problem?

Andrew Carnie. Syntax A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012). p 209. Pls see red underline. I don't see what is problem?
2
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0answers
42 views

All non-head material must be phrasal. — Why's this principle nice idea from a mathematical point of view?

Andrew Carnie. Syntax A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012). p 208. Pls see red underline. I never took math after high school! I don't know calculus. What author mean by "nice idea from a ...
2
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1answer
69 views

If the that-trace effect is not learnable and thus must be biologically built in, how can speakers of French or Irish violate it?

Andrew Carnie. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012). p 25. Consider the fourth sentence in the paradigm in (28). This sentence is the same as (28c) but with a that: d) *Who do you ...
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0answers
51 views

Romanic surname endings [closed]

I thought about endings when I come across OE cu cow Russian govjádina beef What about Portugal Patrício /pa.ˈtɾi.sju/ Bernardo /beʁ.ˈnaʁ.du/ , Romanian Sandu and Russian Ivanov [ɪvɐˈnof] Petrov [...
1
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1answer
103 views

Etymology of Slovene vrtnica “rose”. Can it be the Slavic reflex of PIE *wr̥dʰos “sweetbriar”?

Slovene has a word: vrtnica (wiktionary: en, sl) meaning "rose". It resembles the known Proto-Indo-European *wr̥dʰos “sweetbriar”, which gives Persian gul "rose, flower" and Old/Middle Iranian ...
-1
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0answers
22 views

What is the suitable verb forms of this 'wish-clause'? [closed]

I would like to have a test item which requires the use of 'wish + wouldn't' I can't find such an item in the grammar books I use, so I think about slightly adapting the item so that the verb form ...
3
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3answers
156 views

Are the nasal portions of prenasalized consonants syllabic?

Prenasalized consonants occur in a number of natural languages. https://wikivisually.com/wiki/Prenasalized_consonant When I hear someone pronounce a word that begins with a prenasalized consonant, ...
-3
votes
1answer
47 views

Which semantic shifts befit the legal meaning of 'consideration'?

If I had to guess from Typology by Blank (1999), specialization of meaning? Frederick Pollock. Principles Of Contract. (1902) p. 170. p. 220/400 here.         The name of ...
0
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0answers
30 views

What is, “but nor” [migrated]

Could someone please break down the grammar and use of "but nor", here? I've seen it used in British publications. "The rain had not stopped, but nor was it heavy." I tied to break it down and came ...
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2answers
105 views

why the number of phonemes for speaking and alphabet for writing (वर्णों की कुल संख्या) in 'Sanskrit' language is fixed and specific?

In the given below sentences the word, 'sound' means any sound wave. I am not asking/talking about the meaning of that sound. That sound can be meaningless too. **I am curious about, why can't it ...
0
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0answers
19 views

American or Anglo-English Unscripted Speeches [closed]

Does anyone have an idea of a corpus where I can find unscripted speeches in American or Anglo-English (not from ICE-GB)? I'm interested in comparing them with the same text category in other ICE ...
0
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2answers
113 views

When an existential verb is used existentially as the predicate to a subject, is it true in all languages that it cannot take another predicate?

When an existential is used existentially verb as the predicate to a subject, is it true in all languages that it cannot take another predicate? In other words, when the existential to-be verb means '...
1
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0answers
26 views

What are the thematic structures of a clause?

While going through Rodny huddleston's An outline of English Grammar; I came across a concept named :Thematic structures of a clause. Its been more than a year when I first read it but have failed to ...
6
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2answers
483 views

(Why) did the Thai script convert Sanskrit द /d/ to /th/ and then introduce its own character for /d/?

The first section of the Thai alphabet/abugida seems to follow Sanskrit pretty closely, with just a couple of additions. I believe that Sanskrit had the consonant /d/, which is represented by द in ...
0
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1answer
48 views

What are linguistics foundations of how a message can be on topic?

What I am looking for Is there a linguistics perspective on a message being "on topic" or "off topic" in some context and/or something inbetween? Is there even a linguistics definition and research ...
0
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1answer
54 views

How can one describe the relation between concepts, nouns, verbs and other word classes

In Wikidata, we describe concepts (Q items) and lexemes (L items), where the lexemes may be nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. It is usually straightforward to describe the relation from noun lexemes to ...
0
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0answers
59 views

How do I identify isotopy lines in a text?

I have an assignment for the text analysis course and one of the exercises asks us to write down the isotopy lines we can identify. Now, I tried to do some research and I did not manage to find ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Trying to add labels/descriptions and boxes to syntax tree in LaTeX [closed]

I'm trying to add descriptions to certain nodes in a Syntax tree. I'm using qtree, but I can't seem to find a way to do this. I'm also trying to box some, but not all of the nodes in the tree. Here's ...
0
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1answer
75 views

Are there any evocative dictionaries?

There are analogical dictionaries which list words and phrases related to a topic. And there are symbolic dictionaries which explain what a thing represents. But I have not found a dictionary that ...
9
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2answers
2k views

How well do Semitic languages preserve consonants over time?

I'm not too familiar with the details of Semitic languages, but as far as I can tell it seems the tri-consonantal roots of words are relatively important. If the consonants change over time, did they ...

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