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What is the standard/comprehensive reference for grammatical number in different languages?

I am a novice in this area so apologies if I use the wrong terminology. For the purpose of content localization, I am seeking an easy and reliable reference for how numbers map to different plural ...
ChaseMedallion's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
32 views

Language Assistance Request [closed]

I was recently given a collection of family photos that includes a few foreign photos on card stock. Attached is one female ancestor photo that I have been unable to identify the nationality. Online ...
Jan H's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
18 views

Quantative and statistical data in Critical Discourse Analysis

In the context of my thesis, i am applying Norman Fairclough's 3-stage model of textual analysis on a corpus of governmental documents i have collected. I want to prove the existence of ideology ...
vigilantius22's user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
74 views

What are these kinds of words and translation called?

Sometimes some words in one language don't have counterparts in a second language, and some new words are coined based on approximation of pronuciation, and trabslation follows. For example, ...
Tim's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
57 views

Languages with distinct pronouns for concrete and abstract things

I was wondering which languages (spoken or otherwise) have distinct separate pronouns (more specific than the words "this" and "that") for referring to concrete and abstract things,...
Joselin Jocklingson's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
17 views

Dependent-marking on adpositions?

Is there a language such that an adposition is dependent-marked so that one can infer that it depends on head X but not Y? As a possible example, an affix is attached to an adposition to show that it ...
Shpekard's user avatar
  • 163
-1 votes
0 answers
51 views

Can an affix still be considered an affix without being fixed to the base word?

What do you call a situation where a phrase that does not act as an infix but can be inserted into a multisyllabic word that is formed out of a base word and an affix? In the Mong language, we have ...
Mòòb Lajleeb's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
49 views

Do CP adjuncts of N require/have a subject?

"The cat that ate my homework for fun will upset my teacher." Hello! I created this sentence to help me understand the concept of EPP. Assume this is how the major components should be ...
hangrycat's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
133 views

Why does OHG wedar have "e"?

Why does OHG wedar from PGmc *hwaþeraz have "e"?
Вася Антонов's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
98 views

What's this linguistic phenomenon in English speaking?

I was enjoying the relaxing vibes that the hotel provided. When Americans say the above sentence, do they sometimes say "vibes that" in a way that sounds like "vibesat"? Does it ...
Tim's user avatar
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-1 votes
0 answers
37 views

In Thai, which consonants can be made into homophones by overriding their tone rules using tone marks?

Today is my first day of learning Thai. I am attempting to simplify certain concepts in my head. From my chats with GPT, it is indeed possible to make two consonants nearly sound the same by ...
Library Seph's user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
34 views

I have a question regarding the subordinate conjunction [migrated]

If the conjunction "that" is removed from the noun clause, Is it still a complex sentence? Because some people said that subordinate conjunction "that" is optional.
Siti Julyarahti's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
82 views

Can everyone help me to answer my confusion regarding the following sentence? [closed]

Sentence: In this study, we examine the perception English instructors have on the different degrees of grammar skills and Thai-oriented English accent. Is it simple sentence or complex sentence? And ...
Siti Julyarahti's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
71 views

The Phoenician or Punic Term for Captain [closed]

So, I have been looking around for a few days now into finding what title the Phoenicians, or at least the Carthaginians, used for their ship officers. My interest is due to the fact that the word ...
Punicplum's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
53 views

Finnish diphthongs and long vowels

From Reconsidering the Nganasan vowel system (Fejes 2021): One argument for the vowel sequence analysis is that Nganasan long vowels and diphthongs are twice as long as a single vowel (Helimski 1998: ...
Someone211's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
74 views

What is a 'double-headed relative clause'?

WALS lists a language called Jamsay as having a feature called double-headed relative clause, but the site does not define what this means, and I can’t find a definition anywhere. Does it mean it ...
user8600's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
482 views

What effect does the wrong T-V pronoun have on truth-value?

Suppose someone uses the wrong T-V pronoun in a sentence, e.g. a French person uses "tu" instead of "vous". Is that considered to render the sentence (a) false or (b) without truth-...
Remster's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
35 views

Sample consent statement for basic online dictionary project?

Does anyone have an example of a very simple consent statement that could be used on a webpage that collects linguistic (primarily lexical) data? A guy I know is doing some basic dialectical research ...
Chala's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
33 views

Discussing the concept of subject

everyone. I am looking for good overviews or foundational papers dealing with the typological concept of the subject. Any suggestions?
sparxy's user avatar
  • 9
2 votes
1 answer
465 views

The first multi-syllabic positive integer

This puzzle is not about linguistics, but I do not see a better place for this question. Suppose N(L) is the first multi-syllabic positive integer in the given language L. So N(Russian) = N(Hebrew) = ...
Anton Petrunin's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
54 views

What is the pi'al form in Hebrew?

I have seen scattered references to a pi'al conjugation, which I understand to be similar to, but distinct from, pi'el. For example, for ק-ד-ש, I have seen קִדַּשׁ and קִדֵּשׁ. My impression is, ...
JMS's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
40 views

How does the syntax work for a phrase like "already much too cocky?"

I'm working on a syntax tree for the sentence "The belief that syntactic theory reveals the inner structure of sentences emboldened the already much too cocky professor," and I'm stuck on &...
Kaia's user avatar
  • 1
1 vote
2 answers
83 views

What ways can languages parse sub-clauses from the rest of a clause?

I only know of two strategies. Most European languages, like English, rely mainly intonation to keep the arguments in a sub-clause, particularly center-embedded clauses, from being accidentally to be ...
user8600's user avatar
  • 261
2 votes
0 answers
84 views

Is this preposition stranding or not?

I am a linguistics student and am currently doing research on supposed cases of preposition stranding in Brazilian Portuguese. So far I've come up with a few assumptions, but my data has been mostly ...
Nobody16's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
52 views

Typological frequency of sound changes; the case of s > h sound change

I was wondering how can I infer the typological "frequency" of given sound changes? How can I find out how typical is a given sound change typologically? Is there a catalogue of attested ...
Ali Koohpaee's user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
10 views

how can I learn Chinese language for business as a beginner? [migrated]

any useful links are welcome on Chinese language for beginners
Adam Murage's user avatar
6 votes
7 answers
4k views

Nations' names for themselves with foreign etymologies

TL;DR: are there any cases of nations/ethnic groups, whose name for themselves comes from a language that is foreign to them? [I feel like I am missing a term here] Many nations have a name for ...
Bennet's user avatar
  • 177
0 votes
0 answers
45 views

What would a bilabial or velar sibilant sound like?

I know that a non-sibilant velar /x/ and non-sibilant bilabial fricative /ɸ/ is possible, and that alveolar fricatives have both sibilant /s/ and non-sibilant /θ/ forms, so what would a sibilant form ...
oriihann's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
84 views

Wh-movement of D/NP in Russian

I have recently come across the following expression: (они) попрали даже то, что ими диктуется о смысле жизни. (they) trampled even what they dictated about the meaning of life. It made me wonder: ...
Shpekard's user avatar
  • 163
0 votes
1 answer
68 views

Why does PIE *sneygʷʰ- ("snow") give L. nix, Gk. νίφα (acc.)?

What happens to internal /e/ and semivowel /y/ in *snéygʷʰm̥ to yield L. nix? I have no clue how that vowel change works.
fruitcheesy's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
46 views

What theory of syntax and grammar do language typologists tend to prefer?

The first concerns the theory of syntax and grammar that typologists prefer: What theory of syntax and grammar do language typologists tend to prefer? Do they prefer a transformational phrase ...
Rongrong's user avatar
  • 327
5 votes
1 answer
938 views

Why does PIE *ǵn̥h₁tós yield Latin nātus?

I'm an undergraduate classicist doing a PIE paper! It's absolutely fascinating, but I'm still getting there with my understanding, so apologies if my questions are a bit silly! I have been looking at ...
fruitcheesy's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
87 views

Are there any studies on vocabulary loss and/or simplification of "thought structures" due to multilingualism?

(I am not a linguist, so please forgive any wrong term or concept) This question comes from personal experience. I have studied in a trilingual university, so that each student knew at least three ...
Luchs's user avatar
  • 11
3 votes
1 answer
95 views

Did the Phoenician letter 𐤄 have any meaning on its own or in earlier writing systems?

Obviously Phoenician was an alphabetical writing system, where characters combine phonetically to build words. But Wikipedia claims (implies?) both that the Phoenician letter "he" evolved ...
ShapeOfMatter's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
69 views

Do "chuckle" phonemes, or even non-phonemic realizations, exist in any languages?

When you try to stop yourself from laughing and fail, you make a "chuckle" sound: a stop-like release when the air from your laughter-compressed lungs, prevented from escaping through your ...
Szczepan Hołyszewski's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
43 views

Are there any languages with dominant VSO word order that DON'T switch to VOS in copular sentences?

VSO languages are few and hard to find. The few I know of all switch to VOS order in copular sentences. Is this universal or are there exceptions? Do humans really dislike de-coupling V and O so much ...
user8600's user avatar
  • 261
1 vote
1 answer
90 views

What's the difference between 'voiceless' and 'unaspirated'?

It's an additional question to the following: Why is a voiced, voiceless unaspirated, and aspirated distinction so rare cross-linguistically? My understanding What distinguishes aspirated/...
sundowner's user avatar
  • 111
7 votes
2 answers
1k views

What is the name of the first known word from which the current word is derived?

I'm interested in the name of the concept that defines the word from which another word comes. For example, "Guild" comes from the German "Gilde". What is the name of the word &...
Fedor Pasynkov's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

Introductory texts / papers for learning bare phrase structure?

My introductory syntax class is currently covering bare phrase structure. Unfortunately, we're using An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis and Theory which (while covering morphology, constituency, X'-...
apropos's user avatar
  • 113
1 vote
1 answer
101 views

Do Natural Languages have about 50% Information per Syllable as would be Optimal

I found this article summarizing this paper. The article has an interesting observation which the paper did not touch on: They found that Japanese, which has only 643 syllables, had an information ...
E Tam's user avatar
  • 171
1 vote
1 answer
110 views

Has the spread of English removed any phonemes or characteristics from pre-existing languages?

I know there's already an answered question on here about English adding sounds and characteristics to languages, but I was wondering if there were many examples of the removal of intricacies from pre-...
meg's user avatar
  • 11
4 votes
1 answer
119 views

What makes linguolabial consonants rare?

Even though I don't speak a language with linguolabial consonants, it seems to me that these sounds are easy to produce and also auditorily quite distinct, e.g. the difference between bilabial or ...
Someone211's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
12 views

Praat exporting Textgrid script to csv

I have a praat script with codes written to analyze/export a TextGrid file to csv. But when I try to run the script and analyze the TextGrid file with the pre-coded praat script, it exports an ...
user43647's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
53 views

Which Indo-Aryan languages exhibit full assimiliation of voiced stops after nasal segments?

In which Indo-Aryan languages, if any, is full assimilation of voiced stops after nasal segments a characteristic feature? Particularly among Punjabi, Sindhi, Saraiki, Kashmiri, Dogri, Kangri, ...
stein's user avatar
  • 11
-2 votes
1 answer
112 views

Why do we listen and speak in the same language?

I'm asking this question from the perspective of cognitive science and the biolinguistic framework. Production of utterances translates a representation from the CI system into a string of lexical ...
trips's user avatar
  • 1
1 vote
1 answer
147 views

When two people talk, and they have different native languages, what is the chance that they speak in English?

My attempted answer: 77% How I got there: start by taking the "L2 speakers" column from wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_languages_by_total_number_of_speakers assume that ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
52 views

What are distinctive typological features of Uralic?

Many grammatical features of Uralic are shared with Turkic, Tungusic and/or Mongolic, while some of those that are not are nevertheless shared by indigenous Siberian language families. What are ...
Someone211's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
22 views

What is the semantic type and the lexical entry for 'to be right'?

Does somebody know what the lexical entry for '(be) right' is? And the semantic type of 'right' when its in the syntax tree. Is it an attitude predicate? For example in the sentence 'Beth is right ...
Lea's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
1 answer
85 views

Are there ways to convey any type of knowledge from one language to another?

In terms of linguistic possibility, is it possible to translate any term from one language to another? Expanding, to what extent is it possible to translate scientific or philosophical terms, for ...
Britto's user avatar
  • 103
0 votes
0 answers
25 views

A Question on 'Topical Progression': How to Address Internal Inconsistencies in the Framework

(This question has been moved from English Language Stack Exchange on account of relevancy.) In my mission to improve my writing, I have come across a concept called 'topical progression' (discussed ...
MJ Ada's user avatar
  • 101

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