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7 views

Is meaning prescribed?

The way I see it, there's two aspects to the choice between the descriptivistic and prescriptivistic approach. There's the ought aspect; how ought we view the meaning of words? Then there's the is ...
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1answer
19 views

How do non-English speakers perceive English /b d g/?

Based on some reading that I've done, the English "voiced" stops /b d g/ aren't actually voiced word-initially. For instance, /bæt/ is realized as [pæt] or [b̥æt], rather than [bæt]. The ...
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1answer
26 views

How can I cut several sound files using a script?

I am new to Praat and wondering, if someone can help me to find out, how I can cut all my sound files with a script or anything. I have like 100 sound files I need for my research. They all have a ...
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0answers
27 views

What is the semantic meaning of 'someone' and 'anyone'? [closed]

Is it something like 'one person who belongs in the set of the predicate'?
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1answer
21 views

Categorizing "r" sonorants in (rhotic) English

While I usually see phonemes like /ər/ and /ɜr/ described as phonetically corresponding to r-colored vowels, I've occasionally seen them referred to as syllabic consonants, e.g., [ɹ], rather than, say,...
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0answers
18 views

What is this fable's narrator's name? [closed]

This fable is called "Zlatna jabuka i devet paunica" in Serbian/Bosnian/Croatian/Montenegrin. There are multiple audio versions of it. If anyone knows what the narrator's name of the audio ...
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0answers
17 views

Question about writing effective experimental prompts

I am running a crowd-sourced experiment where two participants have to engage in a text-based conversation (about movies or TV shows). My goal is to understand linguistic dynamics of the conversation, ...
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3answers
103 views

Is there any real phonemic distinction between semivowels and their vocalic counterparts?

So my understanding is that semivowels are phonetically identical (or nearly identical) to their vocalic equivalents, and that the distinction between the two is primarily based on how they behave ...
0
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1answer
64 views

Origin of بطريق

I read here that the Arabic word بطريق (penguin) ultimately derives from Latin patricius (patrician), through Greek and Aramaic, but I couldn't find any explanation of how and why the shift in meaning ...
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0answers
44 views

How can we know if two names which have the same referent have the same meaning or different meanings?

“A cute cat” and “a black cat” can have the same referent but have explicitly different meanings. Then, how can we know if two proper nouns, especially names, which have the same referent have the ...
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0answers
22 views

Syntactic tree: X bar theory, DPs [closed]

Could someone please draw a tree of the sentence down below? The big man from London has often said that he ate peanuts. I drew a tree but I am confused about where to add the -ed affix for ''has said'...
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0answers
86 views

What are the semantic connections between interrogative and indefinite pronouns in many languages"?

I am asking for languages in general, particularly English, not just Mandarin. Schuessler used the singular "semantic connection", but is there truly just one connection? Are there no other ...
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0answers
25 views

Is the Word solatium related To the Word Solis [closed]

The Word solatium (soothing,assuagingg) has found its way into the English Language as “solace, console, etc” I was wondering if it is related to “Solis” in the sense of exposing oneself to the ...
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1answer
53 views

Phonetics of labiodental / bilabial consonant cluster

So someone asked me the following question. I was wondering why the letter "b" disappears when the Beatles sing: "and I've ((b))een working like a dog" I listened to the Song on ...
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0answers
76 views

Can anyone identify the languages in this video? [closed]

Can anyone identify the languages woman speaks in this video? I'd really appreciate your help! https://youtu.be/d07O5XZ1Wgw
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0answers
53 views

Is there a source for English prefixes and suffixes? and English Morphology?

I'd like to study English affixes. I need a source where ALL the affixes are listed. I need this for my English morphology course. Furthermore, does anyone know that if there is a morpheme counter ...
4
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1answer
295 views

How a learner of a polysynthetic language like Arapaho would use an electronic or printed dictionary?

Along the lines of this question about agglutinative dictionaries, I just finished reading through the paper "Creating lexical resources for polysynthetic languages — the case of Arapaho, by ...
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0answers
8 views

Order the child [migrated]

Can someone explain to me what does "order the child" mean? The context is the story of Manoah and his future son, Samson. Manoah asks the angel "How shall we order the child, and how ...
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0answers
20 views

Controlling for semantic shift/change in a dataset

I'm working on a project to ascertain a cohort's feelings (using a Likert scale) on different words relevant to that cohort. Individuals of the cohort are different ages, and the goal is to see if the ...
1
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2answers
71 views

How does r-coloring impact phonological analysis?

Edit: I realized I asked this very confusingly. I think what I really should have said was, are there any phonemic implications to r-coloring? Or thinking about it slightly differently, is there a ...
2
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1answer
64 views

Etymology of words in English translations

I posted this in English but they suggested this site. The question was about the English language because of roughly 50/50 Germanic/Latin roots. Anyhow here it is... I have often daydreamed about ...
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1answer
84 views

Does "Inchoative Construction" mean constructions with intransitive inchoative verbs?

The following is the sentence I extracted from a book, Binding Theory, written by Daniel Burning. The fact that a language like English, which lacks a simple reflexive, has extremely few reflexive ...
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0answers
89 views

What are the most popular theories of names among contemporary linguists? [closed]

I'm somewhat familiar with the 20th century debate in the philosophy of language concerning the question of whether names are definite descriptions or rigid designators or something else. I'm curious ...
2
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1answer
84 views

How to count the number of unique words (lemmas) in a Russian text?

Here's the problem: I have a large deck of Anki flashcards which I memorize. I would like to know how many unique Russian words (lemmas) I have in my entire collection. What I need is some kind of ...
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2answers
157 views

Is Baron Hoffman correct — "The meaning of words is a matter of dictionaries and grammars"?

happy new year. I am a legal profession, not a linguist. I hope this is a worthy linguistics question. Can I have your thoughts please on this quotation by Lord Hoffman, a former Law Lord? Nowadays ...
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0answers
56 views

Does lying violate the maxim of quality?

Hope to find someone here to help me decide whether this is a violation or opting out of the quality maxim in the following example: A: Did you pass the driving test? B: No. (A knows that B passed the ...
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1answer
61 views

Frequency of non-legal name preference

I've been looking for research on the percentage of people who have a preferred name which differs from their legal name. I've found a few papers which are overly specific but none which give a broad ...
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0answers
61 views

What are the sounds that define the r-controlled vowels?

For all the r-colored vowels like ɑr, ɔr, ɛr, and ɪr, I keep hearing this extra vowel sound in between the vowel and the r. This isn’t the case for ər/ɜr since this just sounds like the r sound to me, ...
4
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2answers
125 views

How do Sumerian cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs differ?

The Wikipedia article on the History of Writing contains the following quote: the earliest solid evidence of Egyptian writing differs in structure and style from the Mesopotamian and must therefore ...
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1answer
48 views

Why and how is the following sentence erroneous?

I am studying error analysis. why is the following sentence erroneous? *Last night I was very tired that I couldn't study. Is there an error in this sentence? The only option I can think of is Wrong ...
3
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2answers
90 views

How to exactly pronounce IPA

I'm a native Korean speaker, and I somtimes have trouble pronuncing some of the sounds which is not used or not distinguished in Korean. For example, ɛ and e are equivalent to Korean phoneme ㅐ and ㅔ. ...
5
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1answer
109 views

On the use of possessive pronouns instead of definite articles in AmE

Consider the following examples: I have to go now, my Uber driver has arrived. So, have you already learned your ABCs? I now will put my eggs into the dry ingredients. All of these are examples of a ...
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2answers
72 views

Saussure and Modern Linguistics

To my knowledge, Chomsky and most other modern linguists rarely ever mention Saussure. Do they still agree that language is an arbitrary and differential system? If not, what happened exactly that ...
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0answers
61 views

Why do Proto-germanic "-as" nouns have e-grade?

Why do Proto-germanic "-as" nouns have e-grade (don't have an ablaut like Ancient Greek τρέπ-ω τρόπ-ος, πέκ-ω πόκ-ος, λέχ-ομαι λόχ-ος, φέβ-ομαι φόβ-ος)?
1
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1answer
164 views

Are there languages without the /j/ sound as in English "yellow"?

There are many languages without the /w/ sound as in English world, as in French oiseau, as in Spanish fuego, and as in Mandarin wang (the last three respectively mean bird, fire, and king). Some ...
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2answers
48 views

what is a "non-derived" environment?

what is the meaning of derived and non-derived environments in phonology? for example, non derived environment blocking, that does it mean? I've looked everywhere but I could not find the actual ...
1
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1answer
19 views

Difference between the Merge postion and the base position

I was reading this analysis of the derivation below. And I wasn't familiar with the terminology "original Merge position." Is it just like "the base position"? Here is the sentence ...
2
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0answers
27 views

V-Bar Syntax in Latin

I am reading Devine and Stephens Latin Word Order, but without the requisite grounding in formal linguistics. They use the term V-bar syntax, and I am not sure what they mean by this and would like ...
2
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1answer
88 views

Ioticism in Greek

Are there any good theories about what motivated the pervasive ioticism that developed between ancient Greek and modern Greek? Are there any other languages that went through analogous changes? The ...
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0answers
27 views

Why is the PP, according to this derivation, directly moved from the lower (farther) DP, not the nearer one?

The sentence being parsed: De CHOMSKY varios libros han ganado premios internacionales, no de Trotsky. of Chomsky several books have won awards international-PL, not of Trotsky Why is the PP on top ...
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0answers
48 views

On the change of word order as languages develop?

While I understand the most common changes in word order, the whole SOV can go to OSV, SVO, and OVS, and so forth. But I do not exactly understand how and why word order would change. Can you explain ...
-2
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0answers
53 views

Why do Proto-Germanic nouns have e-grade while Proto-Slavic nouns have o-grade?

Why do Proto-Germanic nouns have e-grade while Proto-Slavic nouns have o-grade? PGmc *deuzą Proto-Balto-Slavic *dausas PGmc *hleuzą Proto-Balto-Slavic *klaušás, *ślaušás Pgmc *hringaz Proto-Slavic *...
5
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1answer
247 views

Phonological Development from PIE to Greek

I found the following phonological development (from PIE to Greek) patterns very interesting. *kw>t / __ {e, i} (e.g., *penkwe- > πέντε) *gw>d / __ e (*gwelbhu- > δελψύς) *gwh>th / ...
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0answers
45 views

Online translator for koine greek?

Is there a tolerable online translator for koine greek? Even one that assumes modern greek would be better than Bing or Google and certainly better than nothing. Bing does a very bad job. Google ...
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1answer
58 views

Why two appearances of the past participle "ganado" in this derivation?

The sentence being parsed: De CHOMSKY varios libros han ganado premios internacionales, no de Trotsky. of Chomsky several books have won awards international-PL, not of Trotsky Could someone please ...
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0answers
41 views

Is the Romanian verb "pișca" etymologically related to Spanish "pellizcar" ( to pinch )?

From wiktioanry: "pellizcar (Spain) /peʝiθˈkaɾ/, [pe.ʝiθˈkaɾ] (Latin America) /peʝisˈkaɾ/, [pe.ʝisˈkaɾ]- From Vulgar Latin *vellicicāre, from Latin vellicāre, most likely ultimately from vellus (...
2
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0answers
41 views

Why are Chinese which-phrases sensitive to intervention effects?

Naben shu zhiyou zhangsan mai-le? Which book only Zhangsan bought *Zhiyou zhangsan mai-le naben shu? Only Zhangsan bought which book Shenme zhiyou Zhangsan mai-le? what only zhangsan bought %...
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1answer
66 views

Korean tense/lax vs. English tense/lax

Looking at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_phonology and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_phonology, English has "tense" sounds: "p", "t", "ch", and &...
1
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1answer
80 views

Is there a general list of words that second language speakers find 'sticky' and forget to translate?

This question is motivated by some creative writing and world building I'm doing, but it has another real-world inspiration that I would like a real-world linguistics answer to. My in-laws (and my ...
-3
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1answer
61 views

How do speakers of languages which can form arbitrary long words deal with long words? [closed]

Looking at this long word list and coming from this conlang question, I am wondering how languages which allow for arbitrarily long words (I don't know for sure, but agglutinative languages, or German,...

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