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1answer
27 views

Raised object vs. Subordinate subject (I didn't want 'Kim' mistreating my cat)

(1) I didn't want Kim mistreating my cat. (2) I didn't want Kim to mistreat my cat. Semantically, Kim is not the object of want but the subject of the respective subordinate clauses mistreating ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Was the Thai letter ด really derived from ต?

Understanding the relative chronology of implosivization in Thai and Khmer, and how it interacted with the development of the scripts, is difficult (at least for me). In the first answer to this ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

What is phonological mechanism?

Does it mean phonological rule? Or can we say phonological mechanism refers to the phonological rules in our mind?
0
votes
0answers
46 views

Does my fictional use of Arabic honorifics match real-word usage?

I asked this question on the World Building Stack Exchange yesterday. My question was closed fairly quickly, but people seemed to think that, nevertheless, it was an interesting question, and someone ...
-3
votes
0answers
31 views

Hebrew elohim meaning [closed]

Does The word elohim I know it could mean an idol anything that is non hashem like Buddha statue but an idol could mean an object venerated for god apart of god made object like buddha So does ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Learning alot of languages can hurt your native language communication skills?

So I'm currently learning 2 languages, aside from english and my native language (Portuguese). I've been noticing I forget words mid sentence, or I get stuck in conversation with a foreign language in ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Why are the orthographies of Ancient/Proto Languages so Impractical?

For example: In the Romanization of Sumerian, /ŋ/ is written as ⟨g̃⟩ or ⟨ĝ⟩ instead of ⟨ng⟩ or even ⟨ŋ⟩. Also in Sumerian /t͡sʰ/ is written ⟨ř⟩ or ⟨dr⟩. The list goes on with Sumerian. In Proto-Indo-...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

When do we use strong /biː/ instead of weak /bi/ in english?

I am wondering in which context people stress the be in English grammar. Both Wiktionary and Wordrefence have a weak and a strong form in their dictionary : https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/be#English ...
-1
votes
4answers
74 views

Why does it seem that all Proto-Germanic words have PIE roots?

In Latin, there are words from Etruscan and unknown sources. In Proto-Germanic, pretty much all words are from Proto-Indo-European. Why is that? Are the Proto-Germanic peoples and language very ...
2
votes
2answers
59 views

Compositional semantic: Type of conjunctions

My question is in regard to semantic type theory in connection with syntax. I understand the underlying structure of what type a certain type of phrase is ( i.e., proper names are <e>, verbs can ...
20
votes
5answers
2k views

Is the connection between 'right' in the sense of direction and concepts like 'correct' limited to Indo-European languages?

I'm now familiar with enough Indo-European languages to know in almost all of them there's an etymological connection or outright homonymy between the word(s) for 'right' in the sense of direction and ...
-1
votes
0answers
43 views

What Rhymes with WARM? [closed]

I lead ESL conversation groups at the library. I am a native English speaker. My groups are mixed levels and mixed native languages. At our last meeting, they told me that the words WARM and WORM ...
3
votes
0answers
93 views

Why does capitalization exist?

For background, I'm a systems developer, not a linguist. There's a tendency to dismiss any grammar rules in my line of work namely because of how "strict" (read: dumb, simple) the computers and ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

Labialised /r/ in RP

Is /r/ in RP labialised in all positions? For example: In words like real, free, proud, tree, brother, borrow, dream, throw etc. Is it labialised in all positions (like intervocalic, post-...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Oral posture and articulatory settings

It seems that there is a lot that remains to be discovered about the vocal tract and that, in any case, it would be horrendously complicated to try to derive the setup of all the articulators just ...
0
votes
1answer
122 views

Can we make a case for PIE-Tunguso-Ainu-Korean numerals for one and two?

There is a widespread Altaic theory that puts all these families (except PIE) into one group, the case for common numerals for one and two seems more plausible. I also add Chukchi-Kamchadal family ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

American production of /ɾ/ in other languages

Why is it common for Americans who study foreign languages to keep producing /ɾ/ as a retroflex sound, even though [ɾ] is present in their pronunciation of native words like city and water?
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Need speech corpora for stop-vowel (CV, CVC and VCV) for acoustic phonetics research

I'm looking for a controlled-setting, open-source speech corpus for CV, VCV, CVC syllables. C = stop consonant, and V = all vowels in American English. More consonantal contexts (fricatives, stops) ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

What are the differences between “controlled natural language” and “toy grammar”?

I am working on NLP and also Linguistics field. I created my own toy grammar, but while browsing the literature, I came across the concept of controlled natural language. Are these two the same or ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Name That Phenomenon: I worry that once I STOP doing an action “just to be safe,” the thing I'm being safe from will occur

I've always had feelings like these before. I've seen sad movies when I was younger, but the thing that got me the most was the kid (who lost their parents) said, "The last thing I ever said to them ...
0
votes
3answers
65 views

What is the difference between /iə/ and /ɪə/ in /məˈtɪəriəl/ “material” (RP)?

I don't understand what's the difference between /iə/ and /ɪə/. https://www.wordreference.com/es/translation.asp?tranword=material Can somebody explain ? Best Regards.
-1
votes
2answers
93 views

Proto-Indo-European words for moon?

There are two words for moon in Proto-Indo-European, *lówksneh (cognate with 'lunar'), and *méhns (cognate with 'moon' and 'month'). I think that *lówksneh means "a shining moon" and is more common, ...
3
votes
2answers
87 views

How did they revive the phonology of Hebrew and get people to speak it?

I can understand it, that a lot of Jewish people from all around the world came to Israel and started speaking in their second language to their descendants so that their offsprings became native ...
2
votes
3answers
79 views

Is there a relatively systematic way to converter from pinyin to Sino Vietnamese words (Hán Việt) or vice versa?

I'm wondering if there's a relatively systematic way to convert from pinyin to Sino Vietnamese words (Hán Việt) or vice versa or not. For example: 国(guó) --> quốc 大(dà) --> đại 小(xiǎo) --> tiểu ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Questionnaire for Spanish speakers [closed]

I am a undergrad studying linguistics. We were given the task of studying the linguistic aspects of Spanish. So I have prepared a simple questionnaire of 20 phrases in which the person attempting the ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

What is the maximum possible number of formants?

I'm planning to make my own virtual singer software, like Yamaha's Vocaloid. Contrary to Vocaloid which composes voice syllable-wise, my software should compose voice phoneme-wise. As a consequence, ...
0
votes
1answer
77 views

Errors in my linguistics textbook

There were a couple of things I learned in linguistics class that turned out to be wrong, but at the moment I only recall one: they told us that no native English speaking child would ever say "What ...
-1
votes
1answer
55 views

Are “Arabic” numbers fundamentally superior to “Roman” ones, or is it only because I grew up with the now-standard former? [closed]

I've had major trouble memorizing the Roman symbols and can never remember if L means 100 or 50, etc. Also, I find it difficult to (quickly/efficiently) read a Roman number, even after learning the ...
2
votes
2answers
217 views

How to find most common expressions starting with “iron”?

I want to find a list of 2-word expressions starting with iron: i.e. ironing board, iron filings, iron bridge Can you suggest a vocabulary tool for that?
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Is it correct for the rules of this voice alternations?

I'm a graduate student from Korea. I'm doing some practice about assimilation but I don't know if it is correct. Here is the question: "cat" and "cats" "dog" and "dogs" "hen" and "hens" And this is ...
0
votes
2answers
102 views

Do the DRESS vowel (/e/) and SQUARE vowel (/ɛː/) have the same vowel quality in contemporary RP?

I understand that the SQUARE vowel is now often realized as the long monophthong /ɛː/ instead of the traditional diphthong /eə/ in contemporary RP. The DRESS vowel is now also closer to the open-mid ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

How to gloss a possessive suffix?

I'm new to glossing with the Leipzig rules. In Hebrew, one can attach possessive suffixes to nouns, as in: sūsām sūs-Ø-ām horse-m.sg-m.3pl "their horse" I'm afraid this can get confusing ...
0
votes
0answers
50 views

Why are archaic English words often used in translations? [migrated]

I often see the words "thou" and "thy" used in English translations from other languages, as opposed to the modern "you" and "your". I thought this was something specific to translations of Sanskrit (...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Determining tongue root position

As far as I'm aware, languages which do not have contrastive tongue root advancement/retraction can still differ in terms of tongue root position. Are there any acoustic measurements that can be used ...
-1
votes
0answers
30 views

How do i draw a syntax tree for the derivation 'colin seems to Bill to prefer films'? [closed]

I need to write a minimalist account for the derivation 'Colin seems to Bill to prefer films' however I am unsure of how to begin due to the complexity of the sentence, I also need to use fact ...
4
votes
2answers
887 views

Words that only differ in tones

In indoeuropean languages the words that sound similar often denote related concepts. Is the situation similar in tonal languages? Are there languages that use a different tone to make an adjective ...
-2
votes
1answer
92 views

What's the right phonetic transcription of the word man?

Is it [mɛən] or [mæən] ? I've seen both of them in some videos; however, I'm not really sure Which one of them truly represents the sound (with the æ raising).
5
votes
2answers
227 views

Is agnosticism the current orthodoxy regarding linguistic macrofamilies?

I'm asking this very much much as a interested layman. As I understand things, the academic linguistics community, by and large, views macrofamily hypotheses - Nostratic, Altaic, etc - rather poorly. ...
3
votes
1answer
59 views

How were glottal stops indicated in Akkadian cuneiform?

According to Huehnergard, Akkadian had a phonemic glottal stop. This makes sense, given the language's heritage. However, he doesn't seem to mention it anywhere in the chapters on orthography, and I ...
-2
votes
2answers
64 views

Is thorn cognate with Bactrian sho? [closed]

There is a letter thorn that suffered a great loss in Old English with its size being doubled and this double sound is hidden in plain sight. I think that thorn may be related to the Bactrian sho ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

I just started conlanging. I need help with grammar [migrated]

So, I'm trying to make something with a naturalistic feel, even though the current phonetic system distinguishes about 38 phonemes... Let's say I'll tackle this later. I have issues with grammar... I ...
2
votes
1answer
145 views

Is Hebrew a language which can be transliterated programmatically according to a small set of clear rules?

English transliteration seems to require understanding the meaning of the expression you are transliterating. Anything that requires human-level intelligence to parse the sentence for transliteration/...
-4
votes
1answer
75 views

What are all the primary variants of these languages? [closed]

In order to make the transliterator more precise, it looks like I am going to need to distinguish between different versions of a language. My question is, is this the complete list of languages and ...
3
votes
0answers
108 views

How to pronounce /r/ after /θ/ [closed]

/r/ after /θ/ is very hard for me to pronounce. How do I pronounce it correctly? When I pronounce /θ/, the tip of my tongue comes between the top and the bottom teeth, after producing /θ/, my tongue ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

What is meaning according to Saussure?

Did Ferdinand de Saussure define meaning in his Course in General Linguistics?
0
votes
2answers
39 views

What is the use or quality of the orthography-to-IPA mapping charts?

In relation to How to build a robust transliteration scheme across languages? I am now confused about orthography-to-IPA mappings, such as for Turkish. When you see the orthograph like the letter a ...
4
votes
0answers
67 views

Etymology of initial “g-” in Sicilian “giurana” (frog)

Most Romance words for "frog" derive from Latin rana (e.g. es. rana, it. rana, pt. rã. See also va. renoc ("toad")). However, an unexpected initial g- appears in the cognates of several Gallo-: fr. ...
0
votes
2answers
53 views

How to build a robust transliteration scheme across languages?

So I am trying to imagine building a transliterator across languages that takes any language and converts it into IPA or some less-detailed equivalent (like a Romanization). I am thinking about ...
2
votes
3answers
188 views

Buy one free one

In Malaysia it’s common to see “buy one free one” offers in supermarkets, pharmacies etc. I’m a speaker of British English and this construction hurts my ears, but apparently it’s perfectly idiomatic ...
-1
votes
1answer
39 views

What etext sources do we have for the Gothic Language?

It is very hard to search for "Gothic" in Google, because it finds modern gothic stuff which is not what I'm looking for. I found the word "𐌰𐌻𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃" (but I can't find a definition haha), and ...

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