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Heuristics for relative frequencies of grammatical features?

Mathematician here, very interested in linguistics but no formal training. Apologies if the question is absurd, ambiguous, or unanswerable. One thing I've found interesting in the process of learning ...
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0 votes
2 answers
61 views

Is there a place which cross-references letters in European languages?

During a discussion with my son, we started to wonder how many "non-ASCII" (EDIT: roughly speaking, see below) letters there are in European languages. By "ASCII" here, I mean ...
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0 answers
21 views

Secondary and primary stress in English sentences

I know that stress can shift in an English phrase or sentence to emphasize the words that mean more specifically what the speaker wishes to express, however I'm talking about the general stress where ...
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-1 votes
0 answers
39 views

How does the author reach this conclusion? [closed]

This is a passage from Ñanavira's Notes on Dhamma: Vijānāti, to cognize, is active voice in sense (taking an objective accusative): consciousness cognizes a phenomenon (nāmarūpa); consciousness is ...
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1 vote
0 answers
31 views

Does a possessive nominalize an adjective in Indonesian?

Fletch’s song “Laraku, Pilumu” “Sedih,” “lara,” “pilu”…. Those are all adjectives, yet they’re being modified by possessives (“-ku,” “-mu,” “kita manusia,” et cetera.). Does it mean that possessives ...
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0 votes
0 answers
40 views

In the IPA transcription do I need to show the global fall/rise before or after the stressed syllable?

I put the global fall symbol (down arrow) after the stressed syllable because it makes more sense to me. The last content word in a though group is where final inflection usually occurs, the syllable ...
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0 votes
0 answers
72 views

Giving a technical description of Greek Circumstantial / Adverbial Participles

I am looking for a good way to articulate a technical description of the function of Greek circumstantial participles (alternately called adverbial participles). This is my first-pass attempt at doing ...
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0 votes
0 answers
34 views

Is there really an important Finno-Ugric substratum in some Balto-Slavic language? [closed]

The following paper mentions that the loss of neuter gender in some Baltic languages is due to Finnic substratum: https://www.academia.edu/es/42106621/...
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28 views

Are Proto-Slavic -ędo and Gothic -undi cognate?

Are Proto-Slavic -ędo (from govędo) and Gothic -undi (from hulundi) cognate?
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0 answers
16 views

How would the Ancient Greek noun λόρδων decline, and is the LSJ's definition of it correct? [migrated]

I'm very familiar with Latin declensions, and have the resources necessary for that, but I have found nothing for Ancient Greek that I am able to make use of, especially considering my lack of ...
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  • 1
1 vote
1 answer
54 views

Difference between 𒄣 and 𒄤 [closed]

Can someone help me understand the difference between these 2 symbols? both mean to kill... https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%F0%92%84%A3 https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%F0%92%84%A4
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  • 113
2 votes
0 answers
17 views

Request for Texts Giving an Overview of the Evolution of the Indo-Iranian Laguages

Does anyone know of any good accounts of the evolution of the Modern Indo-Iranian languages? I'm especially interested in comparative overviews of either the entire family's historical phonology, or ...
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  • 4,482
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1 answer
78 views

Number of vowel heights in European languages

Is there any language with a vowel system that cannot be analyzed as having no more than three degrees of height with the addition of some other feature (length, tenseness etc)?
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0 votes
0 answers
24 views

When do Hindi and Urdu follow free word order?

Urdu is my first language, yet I can't really think of any sentences off the top of my head where Urdu doesn't follow the SOV order. A sentence like : میں گھر جا رہا ہوں (I am going home) follows the ...
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0 votes
1 answer
42 views

Good book to learn the empirical aspects of linguistics, and language families in particular

I wanted to know about how empirical works are done in Linguistics. I have very little idea about this field, but I am interested to know. I know many empirical "facts" about languages and ...
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3 votes
1 answer
64 views

What has happened to the World Phonotactics Database?

There was a resource named "World Phonotactics Database" once located at http://phonotactics.anu.edu.au/, but this location has gone. Searching for World Phonotactics Database on the web ...
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-1 votes
0 answers
62 views

Why misogynist is a monomorphemic word? [closed]

I think this word is consisted of more than one morpheme, do we only count free morphemes when we talk about monomorphemic words?
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2 votes
0 answers
52 views

How do you make a linguistic map like Ethnologue does [duplicate]

Basically i visit the Ethnologue website about 1-2 times a day, and i still wonder how they make their maps, like these: It's so realistic and i want to make one for the Philippines, my home country. ...
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2 votes
0 answers
38 views

When expressing speak/write certain language, what leads to the different choices of cases? [closed]

To express if someone can speak/write a certain language, different languages evolved differently. English: Can you speak English? (Accusative) Can you write in English? (Instrumental) Chinese: 说英语 (...
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2 votes
2 answers
351 views

Formalizing Natural Languages

I've been interested in the subject of metalanguages [in mathematical logic] and how (if) we can formalize them. Most metalanguages I've encountered use some variation of a natural language (such as ...
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-1 votes
0 answers
48 views

What word-classes do the first three words of "One of what is desired." comprise? [closed]

I have been unable to acertain whether "One" is a predeterminer, (quantitative) determiner, or noun, and whether "what" is a determiner or noun. Please inform me. I am thankful.
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1 vote
1 answer
63 views

Can someone share with me an article that studies the decline of by-phrases in the passive?

Can someone share with me an article that studies the decline of by-phrases in the passive? Preferably a corpus-based study, but this is not that relevant
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  • 57
-1 votes
1 answer
54 views

Correlation between the English -wise and German -weise suffixes

The English meaning of -wise is the following. -wise adverb combining form Definition of -wise (Entry 5 of 5) 1a : in the manner of crabwise fanwise b : in the position or direction of ...
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  • 21
0 votes
0 answers
49 views

When did the use of œ in French start?

I am very new to Linguistics, so please, let me know if my question is not worded correctly!! I'm fluent in (Canadian) French, and œ has always been a little weird to me. It's found every now and then,...
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  • 71
-1 votes
0 answers
16 views

(German) Do the words "schwitzen" and "wichsen" rhyme? [migrated]

I have been in heated debate with a friend of mine who argues vehemently that these words, which I think do rhyme according to the common definitions, do not rhyme. Do they? Also do "polster"...
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0 votes
1 answer
111 views

What does "An. Ox." mean?

In lexicography, what does "An. Ox. 3778." mean? I found "An." but I don't think that 3778 is a page. This question is not asking about translations of specific texts. It is ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
58 views

What does "torido chaumate" mean? [closed]

What does "torido chaumate" mean? I didn't find these words in Latin.
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  • 47
-2 votes
0 answers
36 views

Altenglisches etymologisches Wörterbuch

Does "Altenglisches etymologisches Wörterbuch" exist for free?
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  • 47
-2 votes
0 answers
89 views

Is this Irish pronunciation correct?

Lingule is a game I've been playing to identify a language based on a sample word. This morning the word was "leadránach", which I correctly recognized as an Irish word. However they give ...
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0 votes
0 answers
41 views

Syntax X Bar Tree - Complements & Adjuncts

I am having some trouble to identify Complements and Adjuncts. I have the following sentence: "A picture of the accident of Gabriel is saved on the album with a pink cover with the white dots&...
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  • 1
1 vote
1 answer
90 views

Why do languages evolve to make a certain marker obligatory?

Some languages don’t require articles. They presumably must have appeared at some point in the history of language. Why would a linguistic feature like “the” be mandatory rather than optional? If it ...
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2 votes
2 answers
73 views

Can dentals be palatalized?

In my native language, Russian, coronal stops and approximants are normally dentals. However, when they are "iotated", in addition to palatalization, it also changes their place of ...
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-1 votes
2 answers
77 views

List of Lexical and Auxiliary verbs [closed]

I am wanting to know if anyone knows where I get a list of the verbs that are Lexical and Auxiliary. Not what the differences are, but what the actual verbs are. And maybe which are which. I've tried ...
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0 votes
0 answers
57 views

Why did the Latin word marmor became French marbre (which is in present day English marble)?

I would like to know what process suffered the Latin word marmor when it was borrowed in French and became marbre. I know that the process from French marbre to English marble is dissimilation, i.e. ...
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1 vote
1 answer
72 views

Why is feeling and hearing are the same in Italian?

Sentire means hearing, and at the same time feeling, in Italian and it's used passively in both senses. Mi sento male - I feel bad Ho sentito il tuo nome - I heard your name Why among all senses ...
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0 votes
1 answer
27 views

PHOIBLE as a graph database?

Is there a phonological inventory database along the lines of PHOIBLE, but represented as a graph database in the vein of e.g. Prolog or Datalog? From the kinds of questions that get referred to ...
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0 votes
1 answer
113 views

How did the usage of the word "type" to refer to a person come about?

In Spanish, you often use the word "tipo" not only to say literally the type of something, but to refer to a person (usually with some mildly negative connotations, e.g. "¡este tipo no ...
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2 votes
0 answers
47 views

Plosives with trilled release or allophones of /u/?

I've been looking at contexts where [ʙ] arises and I stumbled on the Namuyi wikipedium. This presents a really interesting phonology, with phonemic /pʙ/, /tʙ/, /bʙ/, and /dʙ/. Now I don't generally ...
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16 votes
2 answers
3k views

Ncuti Gatwa is, according to Wikipedia, pronounced /ˈʃuːti ˈɡætwɑː/ - where is the NC orthography derived from?

On trying to find the pronunciation of the name of Mizero Ncuti Gatwa, a Rwandan-Scottish actor who will be playing the Fourteenth Doctor, I noticed the NC pairing and its pronunciation is listed on ...
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4 votes
1 answer
214 views

Difference between voiced and lenis consonants in English

What is difference between voiced and lenis consonants in English language.
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1 vote
1 answer
63 views

Is there a word for a pair of verbs that mean the same thing but with subject and object swapped?

In logic, you can say: (A and B) --> A / 'A and B' implies 'A' (as the 'B' is just discarded) Computer programmers working from a specification to an implementation, sometimes talk about ...
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0 votes
0 answers
41 views

is this sound [ɾ] or [ɹ]?

Here my native language is claimed to have alveolar tap or trill as its rhotic sound but recently I've wondering if it's actually a plain alveolar approximant [ɹ] instead since I noticed that my [ɾ] ...
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2 votes
0 answers
39 views

Is it more correct to use the minor and major foot groups in the IPA than commas and periods?

I transcribed some phrases from TV. This is casual American connected speech: As you can notice I'm using the | and || symbols instead of the commas and periods. Also, I do not show the question mark,...
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0 votes
0 answers
24 views

Is there a database that lists all ways of spelling IPA phonemes?

I'm looking for a list, database, table, etc. of different ways that IPA phonemes (like /f/) can be represented (e.g normally just f, but also the gh in cough).
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1 vote
1 answer
33 views

Plotting multiple pitch contours on a single graph

I am doing an experiment on Mandarin tone discrimantion and I would like to plot the tone contours of the speakers. I know how to do it in Praat for every tone separately, (View & Edit -> Pitch ...
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1 vote
0 answers
47 views

Variations of [aɪ] in English

I'm learning IPA and am surprised that some standard American English sounds which seem subtly different to me are all recorded as [aɪ]. Consider the phrase "I like the night", which I ...
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  • 111
0 votes
0 answers
39 views

With the use of diacritics, is the Arabic abjad a shallow orthography?

The Arabic script is an abjad. Without diacritics, short vowels are inferred and so pronunciation may be different to what is expected. But if diacritics are used, they signify exactly how each word ...
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1 vote
0 answers
73 views

Do we have evidence of the transition from -mentum to -ment?

Several English words end in -ment: augment, document, movement, moment, segment, etc. According to several dictionaries, the English -ment suffix is in many cases traced to the French -ment, which in ...
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  • 111
3 votes
1 answer
63 views

Violations of sonority sequencing principle in English

What accounts for these violations of the sonority sequencing principle in English: /strɛŋkθ/, /fʌdʒ/ (both have fricatives after stops in the coda) Wikipedia says In native English words, no phoneme ...
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0 votes
0 answers
56 views

What do α, β, γ mean in a dictionary entry?

For example, the OED has the following for the word "ask" Forms: α. Old English ascian ... β. Old English achsian ... γ. Middle English aische ... Do (α, β, γ) mean anything special, or ...
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