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Positive and negative nature of type 1 open condition in conditionals [closed]

"Conditionals of type 1 (that is open condition) tell us that something will happen if a certain condition is fulfilled. The condition may or may not be fulfilled." There are two parts in ...
user nanu's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
740 views

What is the name of the grammatical function of "there" in "there is"?

Is there a name for the grammatical function of the word "there" in constructions where it is used to denote presence/existence, e.g., "There is an apple on the counter."
Na_razvalinakh's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
20 views

Do "he" and "she" signify sex or gender? Hunt for existing work [closed]

I'm hunting for existing work on the question of whether "he" and "she" signify sex or gender. This seems to be a big deal in the public sphere, but I can't find any academic work ...
Remster's user avatar
  • 129
0 votes
0 answers
35 views

Why does Ancient Greek "metá" mean both between and after? [migrated]

μετά means two very different things. Are there any other examples in world languages of a word for "between, with" being colexified with one for "after, next to"? I find it very ...
trerri's user avatar
  • 121
0 votes
0 answers
32 views

What term is used for emotions or feelings such as 'thirst, hunger, fear, jealousy, etc.'

I am writing about the expression of feelings in a Luganda. There is a construction which literally translates to 'X bites me', meaning 'I feel X'. X can be hunger, thirst, fever, sickness, jealousy, ...
Eli's user avatar
  • 1
-2 votes
0 answers
99 views

Is the word for tongue a wanderwort or more recent international borrowing?

I have noticed that the word for tongue or language is similar throughout very distant language families. I wonder, what is the cause for this? Was this word recently borrowed into different non-...
Anixx's user avatar
  • 6,665
5 votes
1 answer
163 views

Differences between modern Welsh "fy" and and Old Welsh "fyng/fym/fyn"

In the Complete Welsh-English/English-Welsh Dictionary the word fy is equivalent to the English my or of me. It also includes the Old Welsh spellings of fyng/fym/fyn. Is the Old Welsh versions a ...
Alan Clements's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
20 views

Instant - What does the Unit of time from mid-1800s United States vernacular mean? [closed]

What does an "instant" mean in terms of time? Seeing this terminology used in an archived broadside / newsprint obituary (here). Curious as to what it means. Also, would the 3rd day be ...
Gavinjon's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
78 views

How is "a" pronounced in the end of words in Provençal Occitan?

Is there any rule? For exemple "santa" is pronounced ['sãtə]. I think that in Nissard it is pronounced [a] but I'm not sure. I would also like to know for Auvergnat and Gascon.
Raggi_2009's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
53 views

A book for a beginner on cartographic syntax

Can you suggest a book for a beginner on cartographic syntax? The question has been asked before, but has gone unanswered (for almost a year). I am looking for a book for a beginner, i.e. someone ...
ishtar's user avatar
  • 41
-3 votes
1 answer
51 views

What words used throughout the world have a similar sound to "capture" and does the word have a similar meaning?

I was reading with reference to alcázar and I was wondering and searching for a word in English that sounds like al cázar or al capture or al caesar. Note that al-caesar means something like "to ...
Samuel Muldoon's user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
39 views

Greek has the word for tin (kassiteros), Arabic has the word (القصدير or alqasdir). What other languages have similar or related words for tin?

Just looking for similar words for tin in other languages. Did the Arabs get their word from the Greeks or do they both get it from a pre-greek source?
Matt Lawlor's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
823 views

Why do some Proto-Germanic nouns end with *-az?

This ending is common among PG words, but is not present in any descendent or ancestor. Take, for example, this: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/%C3%BEunraz There is no *-...
Tiiba's user avatar
  • 51
0 votes
0 answers
53 views

How to recognize the Schwa sound [closed]

When listening to new words, how do you know which vowel to write when you hear the Schwa sound? I’ve tried focusing in which are non-tonic syllables but I don’t know how can I recognize which vowel ...
Adriana Mendoza's user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
39 views

Meaning of the English name of "foxglove" plant [closed]

I found on a website this news about the origin of a plant's name called "Foxglove" in English, whose Latin name is "Digitalis":The beautiful and poisonous Digitalis Purpurea doesn'...
Lucy's user avatar
  • 1
1 vote
0 answers
32 views

Georgian "suffixal nominal marker"

Let me conjugate აშენება asheneba "to build" as an example. In the present indicative: ვაშენებ v-a-shen-eb-Ø "I build" აშენებ Ø-a-shen-eb-Ø "you build" აშენებს Ø-a-shen-...
Arcaeca's user avatar
  • 354
1 vote
0 answers
66 views

What grammatical number is assigned to noun phrases formed by the conjunction "and"?

In a language with number agreement on determiners, would the phrase "the good boy and girl" have an adjective and article that is marked as plural since "the" and "good" ...
Quinali Solaji's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
137 views

A basic question regarding "do-support"

In particular, the question is regarding the steps of the process. The following sentence is to be used as an example: (a) John ate. (b) Did John eat? As per Radford and Chomsky, it is assumed that ...
ishtar's user avatar
  • 41
-1 votes
0 answers
50 views

Is there any theoretical counter-argument against the proposal of "phememes" by Mary LeCron Foster beyond lack of evidence?

Arbitrariness of the Sign, Double Articulation, Lexical Loans... judging by modern studies on iconicity (such as https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2020.0190 and https://journals....
Venwon's user avatar
  • 1
5 votes
2 answers
263 views

What is Mitian: coincidence, an ancient superfamily or borrowing?

I read that in several language families the pronouns and/or the verb endings of the first and second person singular are "mi" and "ti" or something similar. There is a theory that ...
Neandertal's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
13 views

What is a term to describe "attempting to refute?" [migrated]

Is there any simplistic way of describing the attempt of refute rather than just saying refuting? In conjunction, I would usually just further elaborate upon the verb with more descriptors and/or ...
My Info's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
91 views

Assigning thematic roles

I am new to thematic roles (agent, thema, experiencer, patient, etc.) and need to assign thematic roles to the subject in some sentences. However, in a number of sentences I am unsure of the thematic ...
user45203's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
72 views

What is the origin of the concepts of cardinal and ordinal numbers?

When were cardinal and ordinal numbers first distinguished, and when were the terms 'cardinal' and 'ordinal' first used in Western languages? I can imagine this might well predate all surviving ...
JBorger's user avatar
  • 101
0 votes
1 answer
149 views

What make Latin and ancient Greek into different subgroups in the Indo-European family of languages?

Latin and ancient (Attic) Greek look similar in vocabulary and in grammar. What make them into different subgroups in the Indo-European family of languages?
Tim's user avatar
  • 883
0 votes
0 answers
9 views

Can 'to go ahead' imply 'to pave the way'? [migrated]

One meaning of English phrasal verb 'to go ahead' is 'to travel in front of other people in your group and arrive before them'. Starting from that meaning, it can potentially also be used in a ...
philo's user avatar
  • 1
3 votes
2 answers
649 views

Why do Koreans have trouble telling apart /p/ and /f/, when their Discrete Fourier Transforms look nothing alike?

I understand why Japanese have trouble telling apart /r/ and /l/: their Discrete Fourier Transform looks almost the same (the only difference being that /r/ has some element at around 2500 Hz that /l/ ...
FlatAssembler's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
65 views

Latin cognate for Sanskrit "shoka" (sorrow)?

Is there a Latin cognate for the Sanskrit word "shoka"? In general, is there some resource that lists Indo-European cognates for any given language pair?
oaklight37's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
48 views

Exploiting commonalities to learn multiple languages (eg Indo-Aryan languages)

In India, in several states, three languages are taught compulsorily in schools, from classes 1 (6 year olds) to 8 (14 year olds): English, Hindi and another Indian language. Optional personal ...
Ishan Kashyap Hazarika's user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
63 views

Are corresponding adjectives in positive, comparative, and superlative degree different forms of the same word or different words?

I try to understand the differences between words and differences between forms of the same word. Given an adjective in the positive degree, are its versions in comparative and superlative degrees ...
Tim's user avatar
  • 883
1 vote
1 answer
81 views

Why is it to distinguish inflection in the two cases by conjugation and declension?

Inflection for verbs is called conjugation, and for nouns, pronouns and adjectives are called declension. Why are "conjugation" and "declension" in use when "inflection" ...
Tim's user avatar
  • 883
0 votes
0 answers
8 views

How does the writing system 12480 work? [migrated]

I've been trying to come up with a language for a science fiction book, and I came across 12480, which I think would make a good base for the language. The only problem is, I'd like a general idea of ...
Anonymous's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
145 views

How much can highly inflected language speakers understand their root systems?

For examle in Latin, the noun amicus has the root amic, the adjective magnus has the root magn. But did the average romans really understand these roots? Could they understand their meaning by hearing ...
nye's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
44 views

Modal Verbs for build *Perfekt* in German

I am not sure if this question is better suited for linguistics.SE or German.SE, so please move the question if you feel it fits better there. In German Verben build their Perfekt (and their ...
bakunin's user avatar
  • 101
1 vote
0 answers
113 views

What are linguistic concepts that are not widely applicable outside European languages?

Most linguists are familiar with European languages, and then may have also studied some Eurasian languages that are familiar to Europeans such as Japanese and varieties of Chinese. So it may be that ...
Someone211's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
18 views

Does the Subjacency Condition hold cross-linguistically?

In my introductory syntax class, we learned of the Subjacency Condition as a unifying framework for all the rules of phrasal movement in English we had observed so far. The Subjacency Condition states ...
apropos's user avatar
  • 151
-1 votes
1 answer
36 views

Thematic structure of verb and preposition

I am just wondering what would be the theta roles for the verbs and preposition phrases for this sentence "The coach genuinely believes the striker to be a big star." so far this is what i ...
the coach's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
70 views

Does conservative orthography promote "phonetic denial"?

Are there speech-communities that assert that the gemination (still) present in their orthography (still) exists in their pronunciation, but audio analysis does not support this assertion? I guess ...
bfd's user avatar
  • 107
2 votes
3 answers
217 views

Does the pre-Laryngeal Brugmannian synthesis of PIE fully explain attested non-Anatolian data?

Was there a speech community that had lost most of the Laryngeals and spoke a language represented by Brugmann's reconstruction of PIE?
S K's user avatar
  • 123
0 votes
0 answers
26 views

Linguistic term for difficulty in expressing something in a particular language

Example: I need 480 words in an indigenous language to express quantum theory because they haven't integrated it into their thinking. In English, however, I only need one. Or vice versa, in English I ...
SWHFromGermany's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
96 views

Which PIE reconstruction is currently considered to best account for the attested data?

In particular is Pyysalo's reconstruction considered to be an improvement over older reconstructions like Brugmann's? https://helda.helsinki.fi/items/1a4d765d-2158-4ad8-8d5e-b2b32356a188
S K's user avatar
  • 123
-1 votes
0 answers
44 views

"Non-Agentive Constructions" About Mind-Wa

I'm a mind-wandering researcher with interests in how people talk about mind-wandering, daydreaming, and so on. Specifically, I've found that English, Spanish, French, and Dutch speakers all use an (...
Zachary C. Irving's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
73 views

Cot-Caught Merger in NYC and New Jersey?

I'm a bit confused with the cot-caught and father-bother merger, especially as they appear in the NYC / New Jersey area? I'm a native of the area and have lived there my whole life, yet I have the ...
Max Scialabba's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
110 views

Is the Alveolar Tap the Same as a Very Brief Alveolar Plosive?

Is the alveolar tap executed with the same tongue movement as in the alveolar plosive except that in the case of the alveolar tap, the tongue tip strikes and moves away from the alveolar ridge so ...
André's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes
1 answer
58 views

how to input long vowel letter ॠ (ṝ) in devanagari keyboard layout?

I am learning Sanskrit and installed both Devanagari-INSCRIPT and -QWERTY keyboard under windows. However, I could NOT find a way to input the long vowel letter ॠ (ṝ). Thank you for your help in ...
Jim Zou's user avatar
  • 23
4 votes
1 answer
529 views

What is the difference between [ɚ], [ɝ], [ɹ̩], and [ɻ̍]?

So, [ɚ] is a rhotacized schwa/mid central vowel/schwar, [ɝ] is a rhotacized open-mid central unrounded vowel, [ɹ̩] is a syllabic alveolar approximant, and [ɻ̍] is a syllabic retroflex approximant. ...
thesmartwaterbear's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
45 views

Does the Alveolar Tap Cause Complete Closure of the Vocal Tract and Total Obstruction of the Airstream for a Short Time?

When doing the alveolar tap, does the tongue tip cause complete occlusion in the vocal tract and total obstruction of the airflow for a split second? If so, then how long does the blockage of air last,...
Jane Melby's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
25 views

Error Tagging in Corpus from English Language Learners

Is there anyone here with experience using the Louvain Error Tagging system (ideally, on English text in an L2 corpus?) I'm trying to learn it and would love to have someone to bounce questions and ...
Act3Linguist's user avatar
-2 votes
0 answers
50 views

Reverse Alveolar

Is there a name for Reverse Alveolar? Putting the tip of the tongue on the bottom tidge behind the teeth, if there's a name, I would think it would be along the lines of Alveolar or so something ...
Fox P's user avatar
  • 1
3 votes
3 answers
169 views

Can ergative languages have a passive construction?

I've recently started reading more about ergative languages, such as Basque. I understand that cases in ergative languages differ from nominal-accusative languages. For example, a sentence like "...
LarenEmpty's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
51 views

Do second language learners, at times, perceive the language to be acquired as more quiet or more difficult to hear when uttered, volume independent?

Has any person experienced the perceived lowering of volume or difficulty in hearing (perception of increased noise, for example) when attempting to listen to a second language? Is the effect ...
Matthew Michel's user avatar

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