All Questions

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Why did Proto-Indo-European (probably) have such little vocab?

When I looked at words in Proto-Indo-European and how the words evolved, I found that there aren't a lot of words in that proto-language and that the words appear to be somewhat shorter than those in ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

The Semantics of English Nominalization

So, I’m working on a term paper for “The semantics of English Nominalization” and actually I’m getting confused which are the specific parts related to semantics. Please if anyone can assist and ...
0
votes
0answers
68 views

Hypothetical month names

We have the months September through December that comes from the Latin numbers 7 (septem), 8 (octo), 9 (novem), and 10 (decem). What would the month's names be if we extended the system to 1 through ...
5
votes
1answer
436 views

What is the meaning of the Latin names of grammatical cases (in general, not in Latin)?

I cannot find any source explaining the Latin names of grammatical cases. I am especially curious in the names of the less common cases, like in Finnish: nominative genitive accusative partitive ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Where are some of the biggest freely available English 1 on 1 conversation corpuses that are in plain text preferably?

I'm looking for a free, preferably plain text, 1 on 1 English casual conversation (such as texting back and forth) corpus that requires little to no preprocessing (finding and replacing characters). ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Why does anger has something to do with spleen in both Chinese and English?

The English word spleen has two meanings in Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, an organ near the stomach which produces and cleans the body's blood. a feeling of anger and disagreement. ...
-4
votes
2answers
61 views

Why is almost every word misspelled? [on hold]

Why is almost every word misspelled? Considering, the fact that a sound should be represented by a single symbol or letter. So, I do not get confused spelling and its easy for a person to become ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

what are the various properties that inflection indicates in words in various languages?

Whereas some types of inflection are common, such as gender, plurality, tense, etc., many languages are known to possess a very rich set of inflection semantics and/or agreement inflection features. ...
4
votes
2answers
174 views

*h₁éḱwos > ἵππος, (Aeolian) ἴκκος

(in short) What's the epigraphical support to the Aeolian word ἴκκος ? I can't find it in the (very limited) data I can consult. (full story) The history of the Greek word ἵππος ("horse") can be ...
-4
votes
0answers
53 views

The English word “god” [on hold]

Some where in esoteric literature I read that the word "god" is an English language word derived from Ancient Hebrew where each letter represents a Hebrew word commencing as follows : g =..., o = ... ...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

Had the ancient languages fewer words than modern languages?

By ancient languages I mean in the Antiquity (or before). They were less rich in vocabulary than modern languages (for instance Indo-European languages if we need a reference), or we could think that ...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

What was the diffusion and the use of dictionaries in ancient times? Every civilization with a dictionary?

Did they have dictionaries in the ancient times? I mean who used the dictionaries? Did authors use them to know how to write? I don't think it worked this way. But when in the history dictionaries ...
0
votes
0answers
57 views

When was the name of Wales first mentioned in Romanian, and in which form?

I am amazed that in Romanian the name of Wales was translated as Ţara Galilor, literally "Country of the Gauls", unlike in other European countries where was adopted the English form "Wales" (Slavic ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Familiarity with any/innie merger in American English?

It was recently pointed out to me that I pronounce “any” ( and the related anything, anymore, etc.) as /ˈɪn.i/ instead of /ɛn.i/. Does anyone know a regional variation of American English that has ...
-2
votes
0answers
73 views

Can English “dream” be a cognate to Latin “dormatio” and Russian “dröma” “sleep”?

I could not find any relevant information on the internet except the PIE had the root dre- for sleep (Vasmer)
5
votes
0answers
55 views

How common are languages with different word orders in matrix and non-matrix clauses

How common is it cross-linguistically for a language to have a different word order in various types of embedded clauses such as relative clauses? WALS appears to collect information on word order in ...
2
votes
3answers
480 views

Relationship between complexity of a sentence and the average distance between the tokens in which we relate

I am a PhD student in Statistics and I need more understandings in Linguistics for my PhD research. Say we are given two sentences of SAME LENGTH -- sentence A and B. Sentence A is simple (simple ...
-3
votes
2answers
116 views

What is the Proto-Indo-European root word for electricity?

When I looked at Wiktionary for the word electricity, I saw that it came from the Ancient Greek word "elektron", and saw that it was possibly from Sanskrit ulka, which came from what appears to be *...
-2
votes
0answers
25 views

Representation of internal structure [on hold]

How can we represent the internal structure of No man no cry? I first don't see it as a sentence, noun or noun phrase.
0
votes
3answers
70 views

Some “LINGUISTIQUE formulas” to translate French texts into English?

I am not sure is it correct to ask my question here or not! I've asked this question here (in MathStackExchange) before! Maybe it is better to see the question there, because it was written ...
-4
votes
0answers
28 views

Does the word “Lagom” in Sweden mean “appropriate” or “optimal” in English? [closed]

It is said that the word Lagom in Sweden has no direct translation in English. But it means "not too much and not too little", so isn't it exactly "appropriate", "appropriate amount", or "optimal" in ...
1
vote
2answers
58 views

Does this English exercise test syntactic or semantic knowledge of a student?

I am confused in how to distinguish a syntactically oriented language exercise from semantically oriented language exercise. For example, suppose a teacher gave the English exercise below to his ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

Did the word circle come from the PIE word *kr-kr, which was said to be the Proto-Indo-European word for circular?

When I was reading on Wiktionary, I found something interesting. The word for circle was traced back to a Greek word which was said to be "of Pre-Greek origin". However, I read about the word carcer, ...
-1
votes
2answers
45 views

what languages lack gender pronouns? or more [duplicate]

I have been reading meta, and there is quite an uproar about the gender neutrality of the new CoC. Without going into merits of this discussion, got me wondering. Gendered pronouns arent really ...
2
votes
1answer
121 views

Excepting Romanian, was “Wales” ever translated/transliterated in modern times outside English with the same term as that meaning “Gaul” or “Gauls”?

I have noticed that in Romanian the name of Wales is Ţara Galilor, which literally means Country of the Gauls or "Gauls-land". I consider this not just unusual, something that is not present in other ...
2
votes
1answer
103 views

Distribution and origin of reflexive pronouns like “myself” across languages

I'm neither a professional linguist nor a native English speaker, please excuse me if I use any term incorrectly. Feel free to make and suggest edits to make my question more clear. Question Hello, ...
3
votes
3answers
73 views

How are words sorted in brain? [on hold]

What is the basic algorithm the brain uses when it's trying to express something? If there's some kind of map of meanings and corresponding sounds, are the closer signals closer in sound (phonetically)...
1
vote
1answer
109 views

Why is it “untenable” and not “untainable” in English?

I am aware that words like "obtain," "retain," and "contain" are related to the root "tenere" meaning "to have." What (if anything) determines if the "ten" goes to "tain" in English? We have words ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Problems with the adoption of the Latin script in English?

How did the Middle English adapted itself to the Latin script? As I read it, Latin script didn't really suit the sounds in this language. Was the adaptation authoritative, ruled by a central ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Relationship between semantical understanding of a text and the level of language used in the text

I am a Machine Learning researcher who is doing research in the Natural Language Processing (NLP). I need better understanding about human language for my new research, so I decided to write this ...
-2
votes
0answers
22 views

Tibetan Orthography of Whitespace and Section/Topic markers

So here is some basic info about how w3c implements their Tibetan line-breaking algorithm, which is about the only information I can find on how to properly format Tibetan text after googling. This ...
3
votes
2answers
74 views

What happened to “accented velars” in Anatolian?

One of the oldest splits within Indo-European was between the Centum and Satem languages; they differ in what they did to the "accented velar" phonemes (like *ḱ and *ǵ). However, if I understand ...
10
votes
2answers
97 views

Is -s for plurals in Spanish a false cognate with English -s?

When I was looking at the plural noun ending for English, it said that it came from the Proto-Indo-European suffix *-es. I looked at the Spanish etymology. It didn't give much information except that ...
0
votes
2answers
139 views

Are there any Latin and (ancient) Hebrew words with common origins?

More generally, is there any compelling evidence for any common roots between early Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic languages? There are almost necessarily some words that are not too dissimilar ...
5
votes
2answers
470 views

Why are Proto-Germanic *ga- and Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm cognate?

Why are Proto-Germanic *ga- and Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm cognate? I know that Proto-Germanic *h and Proto-Indo-European *k are cognate by the Grimm's law. I know that Proto-Germanic *g and Proto-Indo-...
1
vote
2answers
86 views

Are there differences in writing among Arabic dialects?

I am currently looking for text data in Arabic. However, for this I need to know whether there exist some significant differences among dialects in its written form. Surely, dialects very likely ...
-1
votes
1answer
77 views

Some scholars says that you cannot make the plural and feminine form of word Allah from arabic linguistic perspective [on hold]

Is it possible from arabic linguistic perspective to make the plural and feminine form of word الله? for example اللهون plural form of word الله and اللت feminine form of word الله because in Arabic, ...
6
votes
1answer
81 views

Does a scientific methodology exist for evaluating bilingual dictionaries?

I recently reread What's the difference between the various context dictionaries available for Spanish (e.g., Tatoeba, Reverso, Linguee, …)?. The accepted answer is excellent. But it got me ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Meaning of the inverted copula

I just discovered the existence of the inverted copula concept. Learning a bit of Latin, you have the structure: Subject - Copula - Predicate. But as the case is the same in Latin for the Subject ...
-2
votes
0answers
31 views

How an Ancient, Early “Line” of Devanagari Text is Written

Reading this was super helpful. Basically, in order to render Devanagari, you have a chain of symbols. Chunks of the chain can combine into higher-order symbols, and chunks of those can combine ...
0
votes
1answer
94 views

Where did the word ending ar er ir in Spanish come fom?

When I was learning Spanish, I came across the fact that Spanish verbs have three classes: AR, ER, and IR. I notice that more of them have the AR verb ending. The verb endings are the same in Latin, ...
-1
votes
2answers
46 views

How to make a dictionary with and without technology (comparison)

I'd like to know the difference between the way lexicographists wrote dictionaries in the past, and the way they could procede now, in our modern times. Note: To compare, I'm talking about ...
-2
votes
0answers
54 views

What was the spacing orthography of the earliest Devanagari?

When Devanagari first began, did people separate words by spaces? Did they use the । and ॥ markers for verses/stanzas/etc.? They obviously didn't use periods because I think those were invented in ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Need online resources to compare the pronunciation in Latin, Old French and Old English

I'm looking for resources giving old French pronunciation, for instance as IPA. I know that the pronunciation of old French is quite regular, but I cannot find a dictionary with pronunciations. I ...
7
votes
1answer
205 views

Affrication-like sound in palatal plosive [c]

When I compare the plosive sounds in an IPA table with recordings (like this or this), the sound of [c] stands out to me as noisier and more turbulent than the rest of the series [p, t, ʈ, k, q, ʔ]. ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

How to transliterate Devanagari into Brahmi (mainly, diacritics)

I have been messing around with converting a large Devanagari Sanskrit text to Brahmi using a simple mapping function. There is also this table showing how most of the characters map. I found one that ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

What should these two groups of adjective collocates of the noun 'consequences' be called?

These are some of the adjectives that collocate with 'consequences'. I think they can be grouped together, but I'm not sure how would they be called. For example, level/ degree of consequences for (1)?...
2
votes
1answer
84 views

Derivation of Greek οὐρά (backside) from PIE *h₁ers (flow)

I'm trying to understand how the Greek word for backside/rear could be derived from the PIE word for 'to flow'. There is a Sanskrit word arsati which means 'to pierce', so the meaning of the PIE root ...
0
votes
2answers
78 views

How regular were Latin verbs compared to Spanish?

Compared to English, Spanish is very consistent within its rules about verbs. The endings for the three kinds of verbs—grouped as -ar, -er, and -ir verbs—are pretty consistently regular, and few words ...
0
votes
0answers
76 views

When did “lawyer” begin to be pronounced as “loy-er” as opposed to “law-yer”, and why? [closed]

The same question goes for "sawyer". It's my understanding that this is usually the case with words that were slang derivatives but ended up making their way into official dictionaries as a result ...

15 30 50 per page