I don't think it is a requirement that you have grad-student level knowledge of the relevant domain to ask an answerable linguistic question. However, your question presupposes a lot of stuff, and knowing and controlling for those presuppositions is what makes a great question.
First, your question is about a series of morphological forms in Japanese. English does not have potential, volitional, imperative forms. It does arguably have negative, past, and a bunch of others that I won't name. English can express the same concepts as are expressed in Japanese with that verb form, it's just that we have to use a syntactic construction. The same is true of the causative. The passive is not, itself, a verb form in English, but passive constructions do take one of those verb forms (which is also used after "have").
In English, a passive involve an auxiliary, either "be" or "get", and the "perfect participle" for (or whatever they call it), for instance "The bacon was/got cooked by Marie". A number of languages have no passive (typically, to achieve the result one uses passives for, you say "They cooked the bacon"; a number of languages have an overt morphological passive affix. There are no "common" morphological forms, but there are probably common auxiliaries. I suggest that that is a totally separate question. In English, causative constructions involve some verb which takes a string "NP V X", such as "I made Bill leave", "I had Bill leave", and there are constructions with infinitives like "I got Bill to leave". Languages can express causatives syntactically, as in English, or morphologically, as in Japanese. Again, there is no pattern to the shape of causative affixes, and there may be a statistical pattern in syntactic causatives (another separate question).
The number of semantic and syntactic properties that you might encounter being expressed via differences in verb form is enormous, including such things as "do something for a person", "do something on a round object", "act quickly", "I deny your claim", and on and on.