Looking for a systematic online step-by-step process to codify English words into vowel/consontant patterns (CVC, CVCe, CVVC, etc.) and the correct sound (long-vowel, short-vowel, blend, diagraph, etc.).
The task you are asking for is a problem encountered in text-to-speech systems and is called grapheme-phoneme-conversion. A system performing this task takes an english word and translates it to a phonetic transcription. If you search for this on Google you will find information how it is done and there are even some freely available systems for this task, I didn't find one that works online though. If you want CVC instead of a phonetic transcription, it should be a simple replacement task from there.
About your data problem: To get a list of frequent english words have a look at the 1-Grams at Google Ngrams or get an english wordlist and sort it by word frequency. If you are interested in dictionary entries, you can look up the words in Wikipedia afterwards.
All in all this is a task which can be done, but you probably won't solve it if you don't have a little experience in programming, as I doubt that there are online tools which do exactely what you want to do.