In Latin the suffix -que can be used to mean "and". For example:

Fames sitisque (Hunger and thirst)

Are there any modern Romance languages that use the suffix -que or something similar to it?


This claims that Romanian şi (and) derives from "-que", but Wiktionary derives it from "sic" (thus). (Being Wiktionary, of course without any sources.) To me, going from thus to and seems like a big leap, but I don't know anything for sure about that. Edit: Apparently not that giant a leap, see comments.

As far as actual enclitics go, I'm not aware of any Romance language that uses one, but I only know about the 'big' ones (Italian, French, Castilian, Portuguese, Romanian).

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    From thus to and via also is not a big leap at all. For what it's worth, most Slavic languages derive also from thus (common Slavic tak: "thus", "so", "in this way") in various ways (Russian: также, Czech: také, Serbian/Croat: takođe), and Slavic languages have been a significant influence on Romanian. – Nikolay Ershov Mar 10 '15 at 16:25
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    @NikolayErshov Not to mention English also, which of course is all + so. You are quite right. – user9315 Mar 10 '15 at 22:24
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    -qu- and -gu- yield p and b, respectively, in Romanian. As far as a official sources for sic > si are concerned, all Romanian dictionaries confirm it. – Lucian Mar 16 '15 at 12:09

Two French/Italian examples :

o French "quiconque" (anyone) < Latin quicumque (anyone)

quicumque = qui + cum + -que

Italian : chiunque

o French "chacun" (each one) < Vulgar Latin "cascunu" < Latin "quisque unus" (every one), maybe mixed with Ancient Greek "unum kata unum" (one by one).

quisque = quis + -que


If 'something similar' to Latin -que is good enough for you, present-day Spanish conmigo contains an old preposition or prepositional clitic suffix -cum hidden under the current from -go. [Our conmigo actually derives from cum mecum, where the -cum part of mecum was originally an adposition/a syntactic affix meaning 'with' arguably similar to the -que clitic meaning 'and'. That construction was, of course, redundant, a remnant of the stage at which late spoken Latin was becoming a head-complement language, what Romance languages soon were to develop into, but still contained important residues, mainly in VPs and PPs, of the earlier complement-head phase]. Less obviously, present-day Spanish quisqui, as in todo quisqui (= every body), cada quisqui (= each person), is a reflex of Latin quis-que (originally perhaps = somebody else).

  • "Spanish" quisqui is not a "real" Spanish word; it is a Latin word used in Spanish. – fdb Mar 17 '15 at 8:18
  • So are "quid", "quidam", "curriculum", "status quo" and a host of expressions that are both common in educated speech and listed in the official dictionary of the Real Academia Española. I assure you that "todo quisqui" and "cada quisqui" are absolutely normal in educated speech, and are as much part of the Spanish dictionary as thousands of words originally borrowed from Latin, Greek, English, French, Italian, and many other languages. – Sibutlasi Mar 17 '15 at 8:28
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    My point is simply that a Latin loan word is not evidence for a productive suffix -qui in Spanish. Also, in linguistics we distinguish between a "reflex" (your last sentence) and a "borrowing". – fdb Mar 17 '15 at 8:32

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