TL;DR: Only English and French can I manage and so ask for. Instead of repeating 'long, difficult' hereafter, denote it mazy. Mazy sentences still stifle my reading comprehension; so I was gladdened to witness the array of techniques here to parse these mazy sentences.
1. What are these techniques called exactly?
2. Are there books or resources on such strategies?
3. What are some other techniques, NOT already discussed below?
[All below this parenthesis is optional reading. Each grey line denotes a separate ELU question.]
1.1. https://english.stackexchange.com/a/235034/50720 injects new words to help clarify and complete the mazy sentence.
1.2. https://english.stackexchange.com/a/235055/50720 both injects new words and punctuations.
2.1. https://english.stackexchange.com/a/152936/50720 simply parenthesises the existing sentence.
2.2. https://english.stackexchange.com/a/153107/50720 parenthesises more intensively than .
3. https://english.stackexchange.com/a/217866/50720 labels each word with its category.