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TL;DR: Only English and French can I manage and so ask for. Instead of repeating 'long, difficult' hereafter, denote it mazy. Mazy sentences still stifle my reading comprehension; so I was gladdened to witness the array of techniques here to parse these mazy sentences.

1. What are these techniques called exactly?

2. Are there books or resources on such strategies?

3. What are some other techniques, NOT already discussed below?

[All below this parenthesis is optional reading. Each grey line denotes a separate ELU question.]

1.1. https://english.stackexchange.com/a/235034/50720 injects new words to help clarify and complete the mazy sentence.

1.2. https://english.stackexchange.com/a/235055/50720 both injects new words and punctuations.

1.3. https://english.stackexchange.com/a/235174/50720 fragments the sentence and then indents each relative clause. Is this based on multiple center embedding as mooted here?


2.1. https://english.stackexchange.com/a/152936/50720 simply parenthesises the existing sentence.

2.2. https://english.stackexchange.com/a/153107/50720 parenthesises more intensively than .


3. https://english.stackexchange.com/a/217866/50720 labels each word with its category.

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    These are not methods of parsing sentences but of depicting the parses. – StoneyB on hiatus Mar 25 '15 at 2:19
  • @StoneyB I think this is just a different meaning of parse. These are methods for enabling readers to mentally parse sentences that they would be able to otherwise, no? – Araucaria - he him Mar 25 '15 at 15:47
  • @Araucaria W e l l ... I suppose you could argue that each kind of depiction is accompanied by more or less explicit rules for which piece goes where on the diagram; Reed-Kellogg or the four-piece minimalist trees for instance. But it seems to me that it is the rules which constitute the parsing 'method', not the pictorial form which results. – StoneyB on hiatus Mar 25 '15 at 18:19

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