I came across this problem where the difference between men, ben and pen in the Kazakh language was asked. I understand it has something to do with Vowel harmony, but I did not quite understand it. Any help would be appreciated.

If it helps, here is a link to the question: http://www.ioling.org/problems/sample/i1/

  • 2
    Please tell us the whole question here - don't just link to another page.
    – curiousdannii
    Apr 12, 2015 at 11:19

1 Answer 1


-ben: after z, ž

-pen: after unvoiced consonants and b, d, g, v

-men: after vowels, sonorants and possessive forms (the latter is irrelevant here)

Source (in Russian): http://kaz-tili.kz/su_tvorit.htm

Consonant assimilation in suffixes is as typical of Turkic languages as vowel harmony.

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