In Q’eqchi’ you can derive verbs with different lexical aspects from a base verb, e.g:

Verbal stem b’ak’

(0) xinb’ak’ = I tied it

(1) xinb’ak’b’ak’i = I tied it quickly

(2) xinb’ak’le = I tied it various times

(3) xinb’ak’b’e = I tied it quickly various times (combination of 1 and 2)

(4) xinb’ak’axiheb’ = I tied them separatly. For instance: Xinb’ak’eb’ li tz’i’. = Ich tied the dogs (together). Xinb’ak’axiheb’ li tz’i’. I tied each dog separately (to a pole).

(5) b’ak’aamilin = I was tied suddenly or unexpectedly.

Are there established words for these lexical aspects? How do you call it when something happens (1) quickly, (2) repeatedly, (5) suddenly and (4) separately to various objects?

Is (4) even a lexical aspect?

I think (2) might be called "frequentative" (verbum frequentativum), however I am not sure about this and I don't have a clue how one could call the other examples.

  • What makes you think these are aspectual suffixes and not simply postclitic adverbs?
    – fdb
    Apr 23, 2015 at 18:42
  • @fdb For instance (1) is formed by reduplication so I don't think this can be a clitic adverb. Also those morphemes never show up anywhere else as adverbials. But no matter whether they be adverbs or not, they add aspectual information to the verbal stem. How could one concisely call those derived forms. Apr 23, 2015 at 19:08
  • 4) seems more like an expression of distributive plurality than an aspect. Apr 23, 2015 at 21:42
  • The terms are punctive and iterative.
    – Alex B.
    Apr 25, 2015 at 22:43


Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.