I am looking for rule-based methods or any other methods to identify all mentions in a text. I have found several libraries that give coreferences but no exact options for only mentions. What I want is something like below:

Input text:

[This painter]'s indulgence of visual fantasy, and appreciation of different historic architectural styles can be seen in his 1840 Architect's Dream. After a series of paintings on The Last of the Mohicans, [he] made a three year trip to Europe in 1829, but [he] is better known for a trip four years earlier in which [he] journeyed up the Hudson River to the Catskill Mountains. FTP, name [this painter of The Oxbow] and The Voyage of Life series.

*The square brackets highlight mentions.

Please suggest a way to deal with this. Also, how is it different from coreferences? It would be really helpful if someone could post links to the concerned papers.

  • 3
    This is coreference. It is exactly what coreference resolution is intended to do. "This painter" coreferences "he", etc.
    – Adam_G
    Commented May 15, 2015 at 21:16
  • Thank you Adam_G for your reply. But my problem is little different as I want all the mentions. Does coreference gives all the mentions? Actually when I tried Stanford core nlp coreference module, it was giving me only co-referent mentions and not all. Commented May 16, 2015 at 21:06
  • 3
    It is extremely difficult to understand what you're looking for. Coreference resolution is a hard task, and is not 100% robust. I'd encourage you to do some reading about the topic, and then submit a new question.
    – Adam_G
    Commented May 16, 2015 at 21:11

1 Answer 1


Does "any other method" include manual work? Then I recommend to train some students to annotate the coreference chains. Take care that every text is annotated twice by different annotators, and compute the inter-annotator agreement (e.g., by determining Cohen's kappa).

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