I don't know if there's any connection between the PIE root *ked- and the Sematic root "K.D.M" (Hebrew קדם; Arabic قديم).
I know Hebrew, and there this root (KDM) creates a lot of words that actually mean "opposite" ideas. And to understand them, I think you need to think what's the origin of the words?
So, in ancient times, before the age of compass, people didn't align themselves to the north, but rather to the east - where the sun came out of. This direction was called Kadma (קדמה). And so (one can speculate that) the notion of advancement became connected with the movement of the sun. That's why the word "forward" is Kadima in Hebrew (קדימה). As forward is what follows what is here (position wise) or now (time wise). What came after in time is also called "progress" or Kidma (קידמה). You can get forward in social status, i.e. you can get a promotion, or Kidum (קידום).
But the idea can also be in reverse - the sun moves, and you can focus on where its going to (go forward) or where it came from (backward).
And so what comes before is in Hebrew Kodem (קודם). What is ancient is Kadum (קדום) or Kadmon (קדמון).
And so, and not for the first time, the same word, or root, can mean opposite ideas, depending on your point of view.
So with that, maybe it's a bit easier to understand how the movement of the sun can on one hand imply activeness, "going" somewhere, advancing; and on the other hand it can also imply passiveness, "yielding", leaving something behind.
Hope it might help!