There are no general terms that I know of, other than "fractions" I suspect this is the sort of language trading peoples would invent. Who knows what metaphorical pathways there are for their creation. I doubt Pirahã has such language. With time these things become lexicalized and people forget the etymologies and histories.
In "European" languages I guess you expect them to be regular (and probably "feminine") as they are probably participles, or as Douglas Harper (etymonline.com) says quoting "Watkins:"
marking the accomplishment of the notion of the base
...That it is a result adjective or verb-thingy is not surprizing. In Turkish, for example, to split is "ikiye bölmek" to cut (in)to two. But also, you expect things below ten to be a bit irregular, due to (over)use. Also, arbitrary historical things related to cultural and religious metaphor.
English has another from of fractional speak: "one in four" "ten in one-hundred" And Spanish "uno de cada cuantro," "diez de cada cien" But this is not limited to the badly inbred European languages; Turkish has: "Dörtte bir",(one in four) "Yüzde on" (ten in 100) all marked with the locative.
Turkish also has two lexicalized words like "half" of English or "mitad" of Spanish: Yarım (half) & Çeyrek (quarter). "Yarım" is a verbal element from another 'to cut' verb (think something like: cutted)- a result noun. "Çeyrek" comes from Farsi and is composed of familiar Indo-European elements چار يك VERY literally: four in one.
The other form in Turkish is verbal 1/4 bir bölü dört approx.: '1 divided 4'. The noun "bölü" is one of the modern Turkish derivatives of "bölmek" which I mentioned before. In Ottoman Turkish they used the Arabic تقسيم Taksim
Turkish also has regular (in form) ordinal suffix (In Modern Turkish almost everything can be an ending), but I do not know its history and it is NOT used in fractions (I learned this the natural way by making a fool of myself early in my learning experience).
In short, the ways and language used to describe a fraction of a whole changes from langauge to language as can be seen from this completelt unrepresentative of the 7000-9000 human languages around today. ....Three seven-thousands at best.