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In French, Italian there is a particle ba(h) which is used for exclamation of contempt, excitement, surprise etc. There's pretty similar particle բա in Armenian which is used for expressing amusent as well as for strengthening of affirmation - like in phrase "Ba vontc" ("that's for sure").

On the other hand in Proto-Slavic languages there was a particle "bo" - because - which is used as a compound in many words in Russian, Ukrainian, Polish and other Eastern and Western Slavic languages - abo, libo, lub, ibo. Also in Polish, for example, word "bo" is still used by itself.

Moreover, in Lithuanian there's a word "arba" - "or", which is actually exact equivalent of Slavic "або".

Are "exclamation" ba and "conjuction" ba related? If yes, what is the etymology of this particle. In book "Indo-European and its closest relatives" it is claimed that the roots of this word can be found as mush as on pre-PIE level. How valid is this claim fron the point of view of modern linguistics?

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    That's just reminded me that in the comic magazines of my youth [Beano, Dandy, etc. - published in Dundee, Scotland but much loved across the UK], authority figures such as fathers and teachers often said "Bah!" when they'd been thwarted by the smart kid. [On the other hand, when the kid was caught in act and nabbed, they often exclaimed "Erk!"] – David Garner Aug 4 '15 at 22:37
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    This is such a short word or syllable that its appearance at many places is bound to be a coincidence in most of them. "Bo" is indeed Slavic because, like "lebo" or "alebo" in Slovak. But in old Czech, "ba" is some kind of "yes" or "indeed". In songs, it's used pretty much with no meaning, like "La la la", YouTube search for "Koukejte vycouvat", for example and wait for a minute. – Luboš Motl Aug 12 '15 at 16:38

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