Where can I find each PIE phoneme (which I don't know how to pronounce) transliterated and represented as IPA?

Afterword: (Delightedly but fortuitously) Searching 'Grimm's Law' on Youtube directed me to this helpful video (explained in simple English), at whose 2 mins 27 secs juncture, the videographer (though a linguistics student) displays and pronounces (his understanding of) the PIE consonants.

The video above motivated me to watch this user's other videos. In this one, he explains and pronounces ALL the PIE phonemes, to his understanding.


You can find one list of phonemes here. These are for the most part IPA symbols, except for ḱ etc. for "palatals" and numerically-subscripted h for "laryngeals". This represents the standard reconstruction / phonetic interpretation, but there are alternative theories (such as that supposed d,g were really t,k and p,t,k were pʰ,tʰ,kʰ). There are non-substantive alternative transcription practices such as use of hooked-ɦ as the diacritic for the voiced aspirates -- IPA doesn't mandate use of one vs. the other, and it isn't clear whether there's a difference between and in languages -- also, the voiced aspirates can be written as . That article gives a decent overview of controversies regarding the reconstructed phonemic system and transliteration practices.


It is important to keep in mind that there are a number of hypotheses about the exact phonetic value of many of the reconstructed phonemes of Proto-Indo-European. Any modern introduction to Indo-European linguistics--even the Wikipedia article on the Proto-Indo-European language--should explain what symbols they use and how, specifically, they use them.

Off the top of my head, Mallory and Adams 2006 have a brief discussion, mainly focusing on stop consonants, which are the most debated. Forston 2004 has a more significant discussion. There are many other introductions and many important works specifically on reconstructing Proto-Indo-European phonology.


  • Mallroy, J. P. and D. Q. Adams. 2006. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Forston, Benjamin W. 2004. Indo-European Language and Culture. Malden, Oxford and Carlton, Victoria: Blackwell Publishing.

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