The differences in meanings of doublet verbs such as 3-6 below:
Are there any resources that investigate the big picture behind them?
I abhor to memorise, and prefer to understand, such differences.
Are the differences caused only by the prefixes and reflexive pronouns?
(s')approcher vs (se) rapprocher : The distinguishing prefix is re-.
The Spanish translation is not a cognate.
(se) paraître vs (s')apparaître : The distinguishing prefix is ad-.
Similarly, Spanish has two cognates: parecer(se) vs aparecer(se).
(se) percevoir vs (s')apercevoir : The distinguishing prefix is À.
Interestingly, Spanish has only one cognate: « percibir ». English has 'perceive', while apperceive is esoteric compared with the commoner French cognate « apercevoir ».
croître vs (s')accroître : The latter's Latin etymon is 'accresco', whose prefix is ad-. Interestingly, Spanish has only one cognate: « crecer ».