German -in is from common Germanic and has been reconstructed as *-injō. In older forms of German it was -in, -inna, -īn, -inne and could still be found with the spelling -inn in recent centuries.
It was known in Old English but its function is fulfilled in more modern English by -ess. It is not clear if it was a productive feature in Old English. Very few English words have preserved this (vixen, as a commenter mentioned, but not maiden) so no modern English suffix is listed by Webster's as a descendant.
In modern Swedish there is -inna, hence värdinna (from värd) and gudinna. There are also feminine suffixes like -ska in kokerska that have separate etymology. In Danish and Norwegian it is similarly -inde and -inne (eg gudinde and gudinne) but in Icelandic it is more complicated (eg leikkona for m leikar, but gyðja). I could not find an example in their common root, Old Norse, but it seems logical that it existed.
In Dutch it can also be -in (godin, boerin). In Low German dialects there are separate suffixes -sche or similar that may have etymology in common with Scandinavian -ska, but definitely not with German -in. In Yiddish there is also ־ין (kinigin, kinstlerin), and a few more unrelated feminine suffixes from Slavic.
So there are plenty of relatives and this is not a German innovation.
I cannot tell you if it is still a productive feature in all the other languages, my sense is less so, a bit like -ess in English. And I cannot tell you if how it is related to any similar suffixes from other Indo-European branches, that would be speculative given the poor written record.