In Malay, there are quite a few words and particles that can affix or modify both heads and phrases. The interrogative suffix -kah is one of them.
-Kah affixing heads
Tidak-kah sakit kecederaan itu? NEG NEG -Q painful wound DIST Isn't that wound painful? Dia makan-kah ayam? V 3.SG eat -Q chicken? Does he eat chicken?
-Kah affixing phrases
[Orang yang mabuk]-kah yang kamu benci? DP [Person COMP drunk]-Q COMP 2.SG hate Is it drunk people whom you hate? Dia berjalan-jalan [di Kuala Lumpur]-kah? PP 3.SG wander [in Kuala Lumpur]-Q? Is he wandering in Kuala Lumpur?
My question is this:
Is there an attested syntactic projection specified for constiutents like this - something like a particle phrase or something? I reckon that the answer has to do with a projection, not in a syntactic tree, but in a morphological tree, since affixes are morphological rather than syntactic and head affixation is involved.
One thing though - certain words can also be as ubiquitous as this interrogative particle, modifying both heads and phrases. The word juga, which means too can also modify heads.
Juga modifying heads
Dia tidak juga terasa sakit NEG 3.SG NEG JUGA feel pain He didn't really feel any pain Dia makan juga ayam V 3.SG eat JUGA chicken He does eat chicken
Juga modifying a phrase
[Orang yang mabuk] juga ada perasaan DP [Person COMP drunk] JUGA have feeling Drunk people too have feelings [Di sana] juga kawasan berhantu PP [At there] JUGA area haunted There too is a haunted area
Juga is an adverbial and is a free morpheme. It can't be the case that it occupies a projection at the morphological level, could it? Syntactically, it should occupy an adjunct projection, but what I can't figure out is what kind of projection it should be since adverbs modify VPs, APs, and whole clauses, and juga can even modify DPs and PPs and heads like NEG and V. This is somewhat similar tot he question I raised about the adverb also in English: The Syntax of 'Only'