According to the Perseus online dictionary of Ancient Greek:
Before a vowel [the prefix ἀ-] usu. appears as ἀν- (exc. where ϝ or
spiritus asper has been lost, as ἄ-οινος, ἄ-υπνος, when it sts.
coalesces with the following vowel, as ἀργός = ἀ-ϝεργός)
So this points towards one possible reason for the lack of nu in the words I asked about.
Looking up their etymology yielded the following information:
aorgesia: related to the word ὀργή orgē "wrath".
According to the sources listed at the "Biblehub" site, the word orgē may come:
- according to Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, from oregomai, the middle voice of ὀρέγω oregō "to reach out," which Wiktionary says derives from PIE *h₃reǵ-. This is a problem, since with this etymology there is never a digamma /w/ or spiritus asper /h/.
- according to HELPS Word-studies, from the verb "orgáō" or "oragō" [sic] "to teem, to swell" (Wiktionary says it is ὀργάω orgáō and that it is derived from the noun, rather than the other way around).
- according to Wiktionary, from PIE *werǵ-/*worǵ-. This suggests a form with digamma once existed, though I have not been able to find that.
This suggests that the etymology attributed to Strong's is incorrect.
aorist: there was historically a spiritus asper /h/ as shown by the related word ὅρος horos "boundary."
I was confused before researching this because later on, at least in English words of Greek origin, the an- form started to be used before roots with historical spiritus asper, but I don't know when this occurred. (This can be seen in English words like anemia, anhydrous, anhedonia etc. I've been trying to find equivalent words in Greek though.)