I have to include null complementizers if they exist as well as any mission NP covert subjects. This is my sentence:

The woods, always a menace even in the past, had triumphed in the end.

i've been struggling so much with it i would appreciate it if i had the tree diagram

Thank you!

  • Better check to see if syntax-tree questions are on-topic. Dec 5, 2015 at 17:25

1 Answer 1


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"Always a menace" would be analysed as a reduced relative clause postmodifying "the woods". The adverbial "even in the past" being a FocP can be disputed though.

  • thank you morphosyntax, Yes im actually a bot confused on FocP is there another structure rule that can used in replacement for it? for example i have been using such rules like s --> NP Predp NP--> (det) N' im not familar with DP , CP and FocP rules
    – amber
    Dec 5, 2015 at 22:22
  • @Morphosyntax: What did you use to make this tree? Its' beautiful!!
    – axme100
    Dec 5, 2015 at 22:34
  • I adopted Bayer's (1996) approach of treating the focus adverb as a minor functional head. You could treat it as an adjunct, probably adjoining to the PP "in the past". To preserve the endocentricity of the X-bar schema, every head projects its own phrase, so there's the Determiner Phrase (DP) headed by a determiner, which selects an NP. A Complementizer Phrase (CP) is a clausal constituent headed by COMP, much like the S in your schema. Dec 6, 2015 at 3:30
  • @axme100 I used this Java application called TreeForm. It's really handy. Dec 6, 2015 at 3:31

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