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I want to know whethere there are any standards that would allow a non-tonal (or tonal) spoken language like English to be augmented with diacritics to denote how the tone varies, as the entire sentence is pronounced, or in particular places.

Any ideas?

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The standard used for English by phoneticians these days is TOBI. It is language-specific enough that if you want to apply it to French, you'd have to use TODI, TOBI etc. as models for developing FTOBI, since it requires language-specific categorization decisions. It doesn't actually use tone mark diacritics like acute, circumflex etc. as are conventional in phonological tone systems, instead it used letters H, L, %, +, -, *, !.

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