Let me take the consonant ب for example 1. بَ بِ بُ, these three combinations in Persian pronounciaiton are ba(a in apple), be (e in bed), bo ( o in spott).But in arabic pronounciation they are pronounced like ba ( a in apple）,bi ( like i in ‘it'), bu ( u in put). 2 .Their long vowel combinations are almost same. با بی بو ,they are pronounced baa, bii,buu both in arabic and persian 3. iinna, if written in arabic system is َیینَ ,but in persian system is َاین, am i right?
Edit: I'm sorry but apparently I misunderstood your question. I will leave my answer, however, in case someone finds it useful.
In Classical Arabic, The short vowels are /a/, /u/, and /i/, and the long vowels are their long counterparts (basically just a vowel length distinction).
So in Classical Arabic (marked with diacritics that are usually omitted):
- بَ : /ba/
- بُ : /bu/
- بِ : /bi/
While the long vowels are (marked with letters that also represent semi-vowels, Mater lectionis):
- بَا : /ba:/
- بُو : /bu:/
- بِي : /bi:/
However, I believe in most modern Arabic varieties nowadays, short vowels became their lax counterparts in some varieties of Arabic (essentially like the words you provided; the u in put (/ʊ/), the i in it /ɪ/, except the a, which I believe depends on the dialect. I believe some varieties have the a in apple (/æ/) as /a/ from CA, while others have /ɐ/ or perhaps something similar like the schwa or /ʌ/)
Modern Farsi Persian short vowels are:
- بَ : /bæ/
- بُ : /bo/
- بِ : /be/
Note that your example words don't reflect the IPA pronunciation. The a in apple is /æ/, the o in IPA is heard in words like "coal" and "code" without the following /ʊ/. I never saw the word "spott" in English but I would assume the vowel there is actually /ɑ/ or /ɒ/ just like in the word "spot". The vowel in the word "bed" is actually "ɛ", while in Persian it's a really short /e/ (as in words like the e in words like "ballet", "buffet", and "café", but without the following /ɪ/
And the long vowels are similar to Arabic, except for the ـا, which is more back and round /ɒ/.
So to conclude, Arabic short vowels are in some modern Arabic varieties /æ/-/ɐ/, /ʊ/, /ɪ/. While the long vowels are /a:/, /u:/, and /i:/
Farsi Persian short vowels are /æ/, /o/, and /e/, while the long vowels are /ɒ:/, /u:/, and /i:/.