For an essay I am writing I have to discuss Control relations, such as clause constructions and control verbs of embedded clauses in sentences and I need to discuss in more detail lexically determined relations. Although my lecturers notes on equi and raising predicates are a bit vague on definitions and examples. If anyone would be able to give me definitions of these two relations, maybe a few examples and/or explain the basics of their theory it would be a great help.

Thanks in advance

  • Welcome to Linguistics SE! Did you try googling that first? Jan 3, 2016 at 0:28
  • I did, and google has very little to offer, although I found this site [www-personal.umich.edu/~jlawler/cliffs-equi-raising.pdf], but I'm having a bit of trouble digesting all of the info, this knowledge is almost completely new to me as i missed the lecture where this info was studied, so I thought I'd come here to get a quick summary and some examples so i can wrap my head around it and then go over those notes with that info in mind and fully extract all it has to offer
    – roughosing
    Jan 3, 2016 at 0:33
  • I suggest looking at his cliff's notes thing and focus on B-Raising and B-Equi.
    – user6726
    Jan 3, 2016 at 0:45
  • ah thank you, i was trying to wrap my head around the A-Raising and A-Equi and compare them to my lecturers notes but they werent really touching on common ground and because of that didnt think that looking at B-Raising and B-Equi would help any better, thanks!
    – roughosing
    Jan 3, 2016 at 0:49
  • 1
    McCawley's article in Language "English as a VSO language" is prompted by a concern to identify the rules for the A- and B- versions. (This "A-/B-" terminology is, so far as I know, idiosyncratic to Lawler -- personally, I don't care for it.)
    – Greg Lee
    Jan 3, 2016 at 1:34

1 Answer 1


The difference is that Raising predicates occur in Raising constructions, and Equi predicates occur in Equi constructions. Being precise about the relationship between the predicates and the constructions was the subject of George Lakoff's dissertation Irregularity in Syntax. (And it is discussed in McCawley's SPHE.)

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