In my book said that syntax is grammar outside the word but i don't understand why can you explain me


I take that to mean that morphology, grammar inside the word, and syntax, grammar outside the word, share the same concerns, methods, and assumptions, with the only difference being that the first deals with how morphemes go together to make words, and the second deals with how words go together to make phrases.

I don't think there is any truth to this at all. Language morphology has a primitive system and concerns mostly memorized facts, while syntax has a sophisticated system and concerns mostly innovation. The person who you quote probably knows very little about syntax.

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    Why do you think there is no truth to this? The reason people often just say "morphosyntax" instead of distinguishing morphology and syntax is that the information encoded in morphology in one language is encoded in syntax in another. For example, English encodes progressive aspect with the suffix "-ing" ("morphology"), but Chinese encodes it with an independent particle "gan" ("syntax"). Jan 17 '16 at 19:25
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    @RussellRichie, Yes, sometimes the same information can encoded in either system. That does not mean the systems are the same. Syntactic phrases are built out of phrases, but morphemes are not built out of morphemes.
    – Greg Lee
    Jan 17 '16 at 21:08
  • Hmmm. But morphology, as traditionally defined, isn't concerned with how morphemes are built, but with how words are built. And words are built out of other words. The word 'national' is formed by taking the word 'nation' and applying the '-al' suffix. So just like syntactic phrases are built out of phrases, we can say words are built out of words. Right? Right? Jan 18 '16 at 0:59
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    @RussellRichie, Your example is good for showing the parallelism, but inflectional morphology in other languages typically does not start with words, but rather with bound forms -- roots or stems -- and each affix type is fixed in linear order with respect to root and other affixes. It is quite unlike syntax in this regard.
    – Greg Lee
    Jan 18 '16 at 1:26
  • down vote accept Syntax can called "grammar outside the word"can anyone tell the reason why
    – Ela
    Jan 18 '16 at 13:10

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