1) Is it a tone? 2) How do you pronounce it? How it would look like in the intonogram? 3) Is it the same thing as Divided (Extended) Fall-Rise? Are there any differences? 4) Is this tone used for a word or for a sense-group?

Thanks in advance!

  • 3
    Are you talking about the 3rd tone in Mandarin Chinese? Please provide with some reference and/or context where you encountered this term, "Fall-plus-Rise".
    – bytebuster
    Feb 25 '16 at 16:19

It refers to either a tone or an intoneme, where F0 starts high, decreases, then increases (sometimes known as a convex tone). We would have to wait for the invention of the intonogram to see what it looks like there, but you can see one on the pitch trace of any waveform display device or program that displays F0. It can in principle be used for all sorts of tings, ranging from intonation (as in English) to lexical tone specification as in languages of Africa and Asia. It is used in English an an intonational feature to signal disappointed disapproval, e.g. "LA-a-a-r-r-y-Y-Y!"; it is the normal word-pitch profile of words in North Saami; it arises in Lomongo from the syllabic merger of falling and high tones; that is one interpretation of the Mandarin 3rd tone (hence it is a lexical property); it exists in Yoloxóchitl Mixtec as a surface-contrastive unit not derived from vowel merger (one would have to undertake a study of the deep tonology of the language to know if it always arises from combining floating grammatical tones).

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