I am trying to study Sanskrit. I am right now reading the following article on Shivaji in Sanskrit. There is a sentence सर्वस्याऽपि दोषिणः योग्यं दण्डं विदधाति। I get what it means, roughly that every violator is given the right kind of punishment. However, I want to analyse each word. The term सर्वस्याऽपि has stymied me. I don't know how to split it. Can anybody help me split it?

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    You should consider the possibility that this is an error. Avagraha for /a/ of /api/ arises after /e,o/. /sarvasya + api/ would give सर्वस्यापि.
    – user6726
    Feb 27, 2016 at 21:07
  • @user6726 Yes of course
    – user11176
    Feb 28, 2016 at 11:07
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    Some publications do (graphically) indicate the merging of two a-vowels by an avagraha, for which there are no hard-and-fast rules (known to me), when to do it and I am pretty sure, that there aren't. In my edition of the Patanjali-Yogasutras (which at the moment I couldn't find online any more but have printed with me), it says in verse 5: ...क्लिष्टाऽक्लिष्टाः, which is essentially the same type of sandhi as yours.
    – zwiebel
    Feb 29, 2016 at 9:55

1 Answer 1


The avagraha ऽ is used to denote सन्धिः between two vowels. As @zwiebel noted, this convention is not strictly followed in print. For e.g रामस्य अलङ्कारः can be written in two different ways:

रामस्यालङ्कारः - sandhi without ऽ

रामस्याऽलङ्कारः - the single ऽ denotes that a short अ has been replaced with आ due to सन्धिः

रामस्य आलयः

रामालयः = सन्धिः sandhi without ऽ

रामाऽऽलयः - सन्धिः the two ऽऽ denote that आ in the latter word has been replaced due to सन्धिः

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