As you may know, quite some of the IE languages know preverbs, who may modify the meaning of a verbal root. I would like to know more about the interrelation of the various preverbs found in these languages, especially the connection between the ones existing in Sanskrit (called upasarga there) and the ones that still exist in modern German (rather called Präfix, Halbpräfix or Präfixoid there). Is anyone aware of and could supply sources that either directly compare these descendants of PIE preverbs or single publications that give information on the ancestors of the Sanskrit upasargas and the German prefixes?

2 Answers 2


In Mayrhofer’s little Sanskrit-Grammatik §140 there is a list of Sanskrit preverbs with their Greek equivalent, e.g. apa : apo; api : epi; pari : peri; pra : pro; prati : proti; upa : hypo.

  • Are you also aware of any study that links the Greek preverbs with the German ones?
    – zwiebel
    Mar 5, 2016 at 14:59

The prefixes are indeed related (e.g., Sanskrit pra- Latin pro- German vor-) and they are intensively studied. I once read a comprehensive comparative list of verbal prefixes, but I forgot where (the reference I thought it was doesn't have this list).

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