I have been reading Sudharma and I have encountered a new type of words such as प्रकटयमास, प्रकटयमासुः and समादिदिशुः. I know what the roots mean. What I don't know is what type of conjugation is followed here? I have tried scouring through sanskrit.iniria.fr but to no avail. Which situations are these words to be used in? Could anybody shed more light?

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    Specific questions are not part of Linguistics SE, You could edit your question to be broader. Mar 23 '16 at 17:04
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    @Adel How about now?
    – user11176
    Mar 24 '16 at 9:20
  • @DhirajEadara I have an answer but am waiting to confirm a few facts. Expect a reply in a day or two. BTW, the words you posted are verbal forms and will not be present in any dictionary.
    – linuxfan
    Mar 25 '16 at 16:46
  • It is all perfects. The first two are periphrastic, the second reduplicated.
    – zwiebel
    Mar 28 '16 at 11:25

As per Apte's dictionary (http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:4913.apte), the word प्रकट means Evident, plain, clear, apparent, manifest.

In Sanskrit, we can form a verb out of a noun by adding special prefixes against it. (Similarly a noun can be created by adding a suffix to a verb). The rules for making such transformations are given by Panini's rules.

Without going into too much detail, there's a गणसूत्रम्

तत्करोति तदाचष्टे

It mandates adding the प्रत्ययः णिच् to any noun to generate a verb that means "he does the action denoted by this noun". Here, we can add the suffix णिच् against the nouns प्रकट and explain the formation of a new verb as प्रकटं करोति (he makes evident) = प्रकटयति The derivation of the verbal root would be as

प्रकट + णिच्

resulting in the word प्रकटि

This word will not get the संज्ञा (name) धातुः by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः Once it is a verb, you can generate verbal forms for it in all the 10 tenses (moods inclusive).

In the लिँट् लकारः (used for past tense, where the event wasn't witnessed), the प्रक्रिया (method of derivation) is as below. It may be overwhelming to someone who hasn't studied Panini, but I'm giving it here for completeness.

प्रकटि + लिँट्

प्रकटि + आम् लिँट् । कास्यनेकाच आम् वक्यव्यः

प्रकटय् आम् लिँट् । 6-4-55 अयामन्ताल्वाय्येत्न्विष्णुषु

प्रकटयाम् । 2-4-81 आमः

प्रकटयाम् अस् लिँट् । 3-1-40 कृञ् चानुप्रयुज्यते लिटि

प्रकटयाम् अस् तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्

प्रकटयाम् अस् णल् । 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः

प्रकटयाम् अस् अ ।

प्रकटयाम् अस् अस् अ । 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य

प्रकटयाम् अ अस् अ । 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः

प्रकटयाम् आ अस् अ । 7-4-70 अत आदेः

प्रकटयाम् आ अास् अ । 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः

प्रकटयाम् आस् अ । 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः


Similarly, समादिदिशुः is also third-person plular of, लिँट्-लकारः, literally meaning "they taught". I can post the derivation if your are interested.

Derivation of आदिदिशुः is done thus:

दिश अतिसर्जने + लिँट्

दिश् लिँट् ।

दिश् झि ।

दिश् उस्

दिश् उस् ।

दिश् दिश् उस् ।

दि दिश् उस् ।

दिदिशुः ।

The उपसर्गाः (prefixes) सम् (well) and आङ् (completely) can potentially give a different meaning to verbal form.

Whenever possible, we should try to derive verbal forms directly from verbal roots by adding suffixes. प्रकटयामास is an exception to this rule since meanings of the verb कटे वर्षावरणयोः are different from what the word (i.e प्रकटयामास) means. We could still use the weight of उपसर्गः (i.e प्र) and धातूनाम् अनेकार्थत्तवम् (verbs have different meanings) to derive प्रकटयामास directly from the verb. This is the vast flexibility available in the language, making it unique!

A dictionary only helps in giving meanings to verbal roots and nouns/adjectives. Since there are 10 tenses in sanskrit, and each tense can have up to 18 forms (3 for each person in singular, dual and plural and sometimes आत्मनेपदम् and परस्मैपदम्) a dictionary can never enumerate such words. You will have better luck referring to other books such as Brihad-dhatu-rupavali or Dhatu-rupa-manjari.

  • Thank you for that wonderful answer. I see you worked really hard. I have a further question. आदिश्´and प्रकट` already verb forms why use the above rules
    – user11176
    Mar 27 '16 at 10:25
  • कटे वर्षावरणयोः is one verbal root used in the meanings of "to rain" and "to cover". One could add णिच् to कट् and derive प्रकटयामास as above, but we may not be able to ascribe the meaning "to make clear" from this verbal root. Hence I chose the circuitous method of adding णिच् to a noun. दिश अतिसर्जने is the verbal root. आदिदिशुः is directly derived from verbal root, unlike प्रकटयामास I've updated the post with derivation for आदिदिशुः as well. If you have specific questions, leave a comment on avg-sanskrit.org and we can communicate over email.
    – linuxfan
    Mar 27 '16 at 20:33