I wanted to have an experience on how language evolved, from a rigorous point of view. I searched for books; there are many books, most of them in popular domain, which I don't aim at, as the density of novelty and research information is too low, and would not prove to be efficient in use of time for me. I came to know that Chomsky is the leading linguist, so, I searched for his books, which are immense too; even in this sub-filtering, I am confused.
It would be of great help, if a rigorous book, mainly on the philosophy of language, which uses history to see the patterns to explain the evolution, is mentioned.
Edit: As jlawer mentions, we can't have hard historical evidence to describe evolution, then if there is any "guess" which is widely known to fit better of all other guesses, I will be given a quick boost in my progression of articulating a mathematical no-analogy/semi-analogy language. Though the word rigorous book, can be taken to mean a book which is not intended for layman.